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École Polytechnique massacre

École Polytechnique massacre
Quebec women whom Lépine considered to be feminists and apparently wished to kill.[3] Since the attack, Canadians have debated various interpretations of the events, their significance, and Lépine’s motives. Many feminist groups and public officials have characterized the massacre as an anti-feminist attack that is representative of wider societal violence against women.[4][5][6] Consequently, the anniversary of the massacre has since been commemorated as the National Day of Remembrance and Action on Violence Against Women. Other interpretations emphasize Lépine’s abuse as a child or suggest that the massacre was simply the isolated act of a madman, unrelated to larger social issues.[5] Still other commentators have blamed violence in the media[7] and increasing poverty, isolation, and alienation in society,[8] particularly in immigrant communities.[9] The incident led to more stringent gun control laws in Canada,[10] and changes in the tactical response of police to shootings, which were later credited with minimizing casualties at the Dawson College shootings.[11]

Plaque on the exterior wall of École Polytechnique commemorating the victims of the massacre. The École Polytechnique Massacre, also known as the Montreal Massacre, occurred on December 6, 1989 at the École Polytechnique in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. Twentyfive year-old Marc Lépine, armed with a legally obtained semi-automatic rifle and a hunting knife, shot twenty-eight people, killing fourteen and injuring the other fourteen before killing himself. He began his attack by entering a classroom at the university, where he separated the male and female students. After claiming that he was "fighting feminism", he shot all nine women in the room, killing six. He then moved through corridors, the cafeteria, and another classroom, specifically targeting women to shoot. He killed fourteen women and injured four men and ten women in just under twenty minutes before turning the gun on himself.[1][2] Lépine was the child of a French-Canadian mother and an Algerian father, and had been physically abused by his father during his childhood. His suicide note claimed political motives and blamed feminists for ruining his life. The note included a list of nineteen

Massacre
Sometime after 4 p.m. on December 6, 1989, Marc Lépine arrived at the building housing the École Polytechnique, an engineering school affiliated with the Université de Montréal, armed with a semi-automatic rifle and a hunting knife.[1] He had purchased the Sturm, Ruger brand rifle, Mini-14 model, on November 21, 1989 in a Montreal hunting store, telling the clerk that he was going to use it to hunt small game.[12] Lépine was familiar with the layout of the building since he had been in and around the École Polytechnique at least seven times in the weeks leading up to the event.[1] Lépine sat for a time in the office of the registrar on the second floor. He was seen rummaging through a plastic bag and did not speak to anyone, even when a staff member asked if she could help him. He left the office and was subsequently seen in other parts of

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École Polytechnique massacre
where he shot and killed a woman through the window of the door she had just locked.[1]

Exterior of École Polytechnique de Montréal the building before entering a second floor mechanical engineering class of about sixty students at about 5:10 p.m.[1] After approaching the student giving a presentation, he asked everyone to stop everything and ordered the women and men to opposite sides of the classroom. No one moved at first, believing it to be a joke until he fired a shot into the ceiling.[13] Lépine then separated the nine women from the approximately fifty men and ordered the men to leave.[7] Speaking in French, he asked the remaining women whether they knew why they were there, and when one student replied "no," he answered: "I am fighting feminism". One of the students, Nathalie Provost, said, "Look, we are just women studying engineering, not necessarily feminists ready to march on the streets to shout we are against men, just students intent on leading a normal life." Lépine responded that "You’re women, you’re going to be engineers. You’re all a bunch of feminists. I hate feminists." He then opened fire on the students from left to right, killing six, and wounding three others, including Provost.[1][3] Before leaving the room, he wrote the word shit twice on a student project.[7] Lépine continued into the second floor corridor and wounded three students before entering another room where he twice attempted to shoot a female student. His weapon failed to fire so he entered the emergency staircase where he was seen reloading his gun. He returned to the room he had just left, but the students had locked the door; Lépine failed to unlock it with three shots fired into the door. Moving along the corridor he shot at others, wounding one, before moving towards the financial services office The third floor classroom in the École Polytechnique in which the attack ended He next went down to the first floor cafeteria, in which about a hundred people were gathered. The crowd scattered after he shot a woman standing near the kitchens and wounded another student. Entering an unlocked storage area at the end of the cafeteria, Lépine shot and killed two more women hiding there. He told a male and female student to come out from under a table; they complied and were not shot.[1] Lépine then walked up an escalator to the third floor where he shot and wounded one female and two male students in the corridor. He entered another classroom and told the three students giving a presentation to "get out," shooting and wounding Maryse Leclair, who was standing on the low platform at the front of the classroom. He fired on students in the front row and then killed two women who were trying to escape the room, while other students dove under their desks. Lépine moved towards some of the female students, wounding three of them and killing another. He changed the magazine in his weapon and moved to the front of the class, shooting in all directions. At this point, the wounded Leclair asked for help and, after unsheathing his hunting knife, Lépine stabbed her three times, killing her. He took off his cap, wrapped his coat around his rifle, exclaimed, "Oh shit," and then committed suicide by shooting himself in the head, twenty minutes after having begun his attack. About sixty bullets remained in the boxes he carried with him. He had killed fourteen women in total (twelve engineering students, one nursing student and one employee of the

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university) and injured fourteen other people, including four men.[1][2] After briefing reporters outside, Montreal Police director of public relations Pierre Leclair entered the building and found his daughter Maryse’s stabbed body.[14][15] The Quebec and Montreal governments declared three days of mourning.[14] A joint funeral for nine of the women was held at Notre-Dame Basilica on December 11, 1989, which was attended by Governor General Jeanne Sauvé, Prime Minister Brian Mulroney, Quebec premier Robert Bourassa, and Montreal mayor Jean Doré, along with thousands of other mourners.[15]

École Polytechnique massacre

Marc Lépine
Marc Lépine was born Gamil Gharbi to a French-Canadian mother and an Algerian father. His father did not consider women to be the equal of men and was physically and verbally abusive to his wife and son, discouraging tenderness between mother and child.[23] When Gamil was seven his parents separated and he lived with his mother for the rest of his childhood. He attempted to join the Canadian Army during the winter of 1980–1981, but according to his suicide letter was rejected because he was "anti-social." He changed his name legally to Marc Lépine in 1982.[24] The brief biography of Marc Lépine that police released the day after the killings described him as intelligent but troubled.[3] He began a pre-university CEGEP (college) program in pure sciences in 1982 but switched to a three-year vocational program in electronics technology after his first year. He abandoned this program in his final semester without explanation.[25][26][27] Lépine applied to the École Polytechnique in 1986 and was accepted providing he complete two additional CEGEP courses. He completed one of them in the winter of 1989.[1][10]

Suicide letter
Marc Lépine’s inside jacket pocket contained a suicide letter and two letters to friends, all dated the day of the massacre.[1] Some details from the suicide letter were revealed by the police two days after the event,[16][17] but the full text was not disclosed. The media brought an unsuccessful access to information case to compel the police to release the suicide letter.[18] A year after the attacks, Lépine’s three-page statement was leaked to journalist and feminist Francine Pelletier. It contained a list of nineteen Quebec women whom Lépine apparently wished to kill because he considered them feminists.[19] The list included Pelletier herself, as well as a union leader, a politician, a TV personality, and six police officers who had come to Lépine’s attention as they were on a volleyball team together.[20] The letter (without the list of women) was subsequently published in the newspaper La Presse, where Pelletier was a columnist at the time.[21] Lépine wrote that he considered himself rational and that he blamed feminists for ruining his life. He outlined his reasons for the attack including his anger towards feminists for seeking social changes that "retain the advantages of being women [...] while trying to grab those of the men."[22] He also mentioned Denis Lortie, a Canadian Forces corporal who killed three government employees and wounded thirteen others in an armed attack on the National Assembly of Quebec on May 7, 1984.[5] The text of the original letter in French is available, as well as an English translation.

Search for a rationale
The massacre profoundly shocked Canadians. Government and criminal justice officials feared that extensive public discussion about the massacre would cause pain to the families and lead to antifeminist violence.[3] As a result, a public inquiry was not held[28] and Marc Lépine’s suicide letter was not officially released. In addition, though an extensive police investigation into Marc Lépine and the killings took place,[29] the resulting report was not made public, though a copy was used by the coroner as a source in her investigation.[1][30] The media, academics, women’s organizations, and family members of the victims protested the lack of a public inquiry and paucity of information released.[3][7][31] The gender of Marc Lépine’s victims as well as his oral statements during the massacre and suicide note quickly led to the event being seen as an antifeminist attack and as an example of the wider issue of violence against women.[5][32] His mother later wondered if the attack was not directed at her, as some would have considered her a

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École Polytechnique massacre
Marc Lépine, and two others Quebec scholar killers, may have felt alienated from Quebec society as they are immigrants or child of an immigrant.[9]

Impact

Memorial in Minto Park, Ottawa. feminist since she was a single, working mother.[23] Others, including television journalist Barbara Frum, questioned why people insisted on "diminishing" the tragedy by "suggesting that it was an act against just one group?"[33] As predicted by Marc Lépine in his suicide letter,[22] some saw the event as the isolated act of a madman.[3][5] A psychiatrist interviewed Lépine’s family and friends and examined his writings as part of the police investigation. He noted that Marc Lépine defined suicide as his primary motivation, and that he chose a specific suicide method: killing one’s self after killing others (multiple homicide/suicide strategy) is considered a sign of a serious personality disorder.[1] Other psychiatrists emphasized the traumatic events of his childhood, suggesting that the blows he had received may have caused brain damage, or that Lépine was psychotic, having lost touch with reality as he tried to erase the memories of a brutal (yet largely absent) father while unconsciously identifying with a violent masculinity that dominated women.[34][35] A different theory was that Lépine’s childhood experiences of abuse led him to feel victimized as he faced losses and rejections in his later life.[35] Others expressed a broader analysis, framing Lépine’s actions as the result of societal changes that had led to increased poverty, powerlessness, and individual isolation.[8] Noting Lépine’s interest in violent action films, some suggested that violence in the media and in society may have influenced his actions.[7] Following another scholar shootings in Quebec, at Dawson College on September 13, 2006, Globe and Mail columnist Jan Wong controversially suggested that

Place du 6-Décembre-1989 (December 6, 1989 Place), Montreal, featuring the artwork Nef pour quatorze reines (Nave for Fourteen Queens) by Rose-Marie Goulet The injured and witnesses among university staff and students suffered a variety of physical, social, existential, financial, and psychological consequences, including post-traumatic stress disorder. A number of students committed suicide.[36] In the suicide letters of at least two of them, the anguish they suffered following the massacre was cited as the reason for killing themselves.[36] Nine years after the event, survivors reported still being affected by their experiences, though with time some of the effects had lessened.[36][37]

Police response
Police response to the shootings was heavily criticized for the amount of time it gave Lépine to carry out the massacre. The first police officers to arrive at the scene established a perimeter around the building and waited before entering the building. During this period, several women were killed.[1][38] Subsequent changes to emergency response protocols led to praise of emergency responders’ handling of the Dawson College shooting in 2006 in which one woman was killed by a shooter. In that incident, coordination amongst emergency response agencies and prompt intervention was credited with minimizing the loss of life.[11]

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École Polytechnique massacre
Tolerance Policy" designed to increase women’s equality and reduce violence against women through government policy. Critics of the panel said that the plan failed to provide a workable timeline and strategy for implementation and that with over four hundred recommendations, the final report failed to make an impact.[45]

Gun control
Further information: Gun politics in Canada The massacre was a major spur for the Canadian gun control movement. One of the survivors, Heidi Rathjen, who was in one of the classrooms Lépine did not enter during the shooting, organized the Coalition for Gun Control with Wendy Cukier.[10] Susan and Jim Edwards, the parents of one of the victims, were also deeply involved.[39] Their activities, along with others, led to the passage of Bill C-68, or the Firearms Act, in 1995, ushering in stricter gun control regulations.[10] These new regulations included new requirements on the training of gun owners, screening of firearm applicants, new rules concerning gun and ammunition storage and the registration of all firearms. The gun registry in particular has been a controversial and partisan issue, with critics charging that it was a political move by the Liberal government of Jean Chrétien that has been expensive and impractical to enforce.[40] Stephen Harper’s Conservative government has extended the deadline for gun registration and has enacted legislation waiving penalties for non-compliance on the grounds that mandatory enforcement would target shooters and hunters rather than criminals. Criticism of this position and support for the registry have intensified in the wake of other school shootings at Dawson College and Virginia Tech.[41][42]

Controversy

Violence against women
The massacre galvanized the Canadian women’s movement, who see it as a symbol of violence against women. "The death of those young women would not be in vain, we promised", Canadian feminist Judy Rebick recalled. "We would turn our mourning into organizing to put an end to male violence against women."[43] In response to the killings a House of Commons Sub-Committee on the Status of Women was created. It released a report "The War against Women" in June 1991.[44] Following its recommendations, the federal government established the Canadian Panel on Violence Against Women in August 1991. The panel issued a final report, "Changing the Landscape: Ending Violence – Achieving Equality", in June 1993. The panel proposed a two-pronged "National Action Plan" consisting of an "Equality Action Plan" and a "Zero

Memorial at John Hodgins Engineering Building, McMaster University The feminist movement is periodically criticized for appropriating the massacre as a symbol of male violence against women. For example, Charles Rackoff, a University of Toronto computer science professor, compared those organizing vigils marking the event to the Ku Klux Klan. "The point is to use the death of these people as an excuse to promote the feminist/extreme left-wing agenda", he wrote, adding that it is "no more justified" than the KKK using the "murder of a white person by a black person as an excuse to promote their agenda."[46] Less provocative critiques argue that Lépine was a "lone gunman" who does not represent men, and that violence against women is neither condoned nor encouraged officially or unofficially in western culture. In this perspective, feminist memorializing is

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considered socially divisive on the basis of gender and therefore harmful by bestowing guilt on all men, irrespective of individual propensity to violence against women.[4] Men have also been subjected to criticism since the incident. Male survivors of the massacre have been condemned for not intervening to stop Lépine. In an interview immediately after the event, a reporter asked one of the men why they "abandoned" the women when it was clear that Lépine’s targets were women.[47] René Jalbert, the sergeant-atarms who persuaded Denis Lortie to surrender during his 1984 attack, said that someone should have intervened at least to distract Lépine, but acknowledged that "ordinary citizens cannot be expected to react heroically in the midst of terror."[14] Newspaper columnist Mark Steyn suggested that the alleged male inaction during the massacre illustrated a "culture of passivity" prevalent among men in Canada, which enabled Lépine’s shooting spree: "Yet the defining image of contemporary Canadian maleness is not M Lepine/Gharbi but the professors and the men in that classroom, who, ordered to leave by the lone gunman, meekly did so, and abandoned their female classmates to their fate—an act of abdication that would have been unthinkable in almost any other culture throughout human history."[48] Male students and staff expressed feelings of remorse for not having attempted to prevent the shootings,[7] but Nathalie Provost, one of the survivors, said that she felt that nothing could have been done to prevent the tragedy, and that her fellow students should not feel guilty.[49]

École Polytechnique massacre
• Nathalie Croteau (born 1966), mechanical engineering student. • Barbara Daigneault (born 1967), mechanical engineering student. • Anne-Marie Edward (born 1968), chemical engineering student. • Maud Haviernick (born 1960), materials engineering student. • Maryse Laganière (born 1964), budget clerk in the École Polytechnique’s finance department. • Maryse Leclair (born 1966), materials engineering student. • Anne-Marie Lemay (born 1967), mechanical engineering student. • Sonia Pelletier (born 1961), mechanical engineering student. • Michèle Richard (born 1968), materials engineering student. • Annie St-Arneault (born 1966), mechanical engineering student. • Annie Turcotte (born 1969), materials engineering student. • Barbara Klucznik-Widajewicz (born 1958), nursing student.

Commemoration
Since 1991, the anniversary of the massacre has been designated the National Day of Remembrance and Action on Violence Against Women, intended as a call to action against discrimination against women.[6] A White Ribbon Campaign was launched in 1991 by a group of men in London, Ontario, in wake of the massacre, for the purpose of raising awareness about the prevalence of male violence against women, with the ribbon symbolizing "the idea of men giving up their arms."[50] Commemorative demonstrations are held each year on December 6 across the country in memory of the slain women and numerous memorials have been as[22] sembled.

Victims

Marker of Change, memorial consisting of 14 coffin-like benches in Vancouver by artist Beth Alber. • Geneviève Bergeron (born 1968), civil engineering student. • Hélène Colgan (born 1966), mechanical engineering student.

Nef pour quatorze reines (Nave for fourteen queens), detail. The Place du 6-Décembre-1989 in the Côte-des-Neiges/Notre-Dame-de-Grâce borough of Montreal was created as a memorial to the victims of the massacre. Located at the corner of Decelles Avenue and Queen Mary

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Road, a short distance from the university, it includes the art installation Nef pour quatorze reines (Nave for Fourteen Queens) by Rose-Marie Goulet.[51] It is the site of annual commemorations on December 6. A memorial erected in Vancouver sparked controversy because it was dedicated to "all women murdered by men", which critics say implies all men are potential murderers.[52] As a result, women involved in the project received death threats and the Vancouver Park Board subsequently banned any future memorials that might "antagonize" other groups.[53][54] The event has also been commemorated through references in television, theatre, and popular music. A play about the shootings by Adam Kelly called The Anorak was named as one of the best plays of 2004 by the Montreal Gazette.[55] A movie entitled Polytechnique, directed by Denis Villeneuve was released in 2009, and sparked controversy over the desirability of reliving the tragedy in a commercial film.[56][57] Additionally, several songs have been written about the events in different musical genres, including "Montreal" by rock band The Tragically Hip, "Montreal Massacre" by the death metal band Macabre, and "This Memory" by the folk duo the Wyrd Sisters. "Gunshow", the season ten premiere episode of Law & Order, was based partly on this event and the Columbine shooting.

École Polytechnique massacre

See also
• School shooting • Mass murder • Gendercide • Murder-suicide • List of school-related attacks Other Montreal school shootings • Concordia University massacre (August 24, 1992) • Dawson College shooting (September 13, 2006)

References
[1] ^ Sourour, Teresa K., (1991) Report of Coroner’s Investigation (PDF). Retrieved on 2006-12-28 [2] ^ Buchignani, Walter (1989-12-08). "Amid the tragedy, miracles of survival". The Gazette, Montreal. pp. A3.

[3] ^ Chun, Wendy Hui Kyong (1999). "Unbearable Witness: towards a Politics of Listening". Journal of Feminist Cultural Studies 11 (1): 112–149. [4] ^ Kay, Barbara (December 6, 2006). "Lone gunman: The Ecole Polytechnique massacre was a freak tragedy. So why is every man made to feel guilty for it?". National Post. http://www.nationalpost.com/news/ story.html?id=75e56e58-5238-4d65-82ffe87f841303e3. Retrieved on 2007-03-07. [5] ^ Eglin, Peter; Stephen Hester (2003). The Montreal Massacre: A Story of Membership Categorization Analysis. Waterloo, ON: Wilfrid Laurier University Press. ISBN 0-88920-422-5. [6] ^ Fitzpatrick, Meagan (December 6, 2006). "National day of remembrance pays tribute to victims of Montreal massacre". CanWest News Service. http://www.canada.com/topics/news/ national/ story.html?id=dcb98c06-2c4f-46f1-bc6f-6a147308a25 Retrieved on 2006-12-27. [7] ^ Cernea, Adrian (1999). Poly 1989: Témoin de l’horreur. Éditions Lescop. ISBN 2-9804832-8-1. [8] ^ Valpy, Michael (1989-12-11). "Litany of social ills created Marc Lepine". The Globe and Mail. pp. A8. [9] ^ Wong, Jan (2006-09-16). "Get under the desk". The Globe and Mail. http://www.theglobeandmail.com/servlet/ Page/document/v5/content/ subscribe?user_URL=http://www.theglobeandmail.co main16%2FBNStory%2FNational%2Fhome&ord=96 Retrieved on 2007-01-20. [10] ^ Rathjen, Heidi; Charles Montpetit (1999). December 6: From the Montreal Massacre to Gun Control. Toronto: McClelland & Stewart. ISBN 0-771061-25-0. [11] ^ Rakobowchuk, Peter (September 14, 2006). "Lessons learned from 1989 Montreal massacre help save lives at Dawson college". Canadian Press. http://cnews.canoe.ca/CNEWS/Canada/ 2006/09/14/1839448-ap.html. Retrieved on 2006-12-28. [12] Weston, Greg (2006-09-14). "Why? We may never know". Toronto Sun. [13] "Gunman massacres 14 women" (video stream). Archives. CBC. December 6, 1989. http://archives.cbc.ca/society/

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crime_justice/topics/398-2235/. Retrieved on 2006-12-29. [14] ^ Came, Barry; Burke, D, Ferzoco, G., O’Farreli, B, Wallace, B (1989-12-18). "Montreal Massacre: Railing Against Feminists". Maclean’s Magazine. http://www.rapereliefshelter.bc.ca/dec6/ macleans.html. Retrieved on 2007-01-04. [15] ^ Mennie, James; and Bauch, Hubert (1989-12-12). "A quiet goodbye for slain women". The Gazette, Montreal. pp. A1. [16] Malarek, Victor (December 12, 1989). "More Massacre Details to be Released by Police, but an Inquiry Ruled Out". Globe and Mail. pp. A6. [17] Malarek, Victor (1989-12-08). "Killer’s letter blames feminists". Globe and Mail. pp. A7. [18] McIntosh, Andrew (1990-08-22). "Marc Lepine’s suicide note to stay sealed; Commission says it can’t order police to reveal mass murderer’s letter". The Gazette. pp. A3. [19] "A Difficult Story to Tell". The Story of the Fifth Estate. CBC News. http://www.cbc.ca/fifth/history/ difficultfour.html. Retrieved on 2006-12-28. [20] Fitterman, Lisa (1999-03-10). "Cops on Lepine’s list: Names of six female officers found on Polytechnique killer". The Gazette. pp. A3. [21] Pelchat, Martin (November 24, 1990). "Lépine avait des motifs "politiques"" (in French). La Presse. pp. A1. [22] ^ "CityNews Rewind: The Montreal Massacre". City News. December 6, 2006. http://www.citynews.ca/news/ news_5897.aspx. Retrieved on 2006-12-28. [23] ^ CTV.ca News Staff (2006-09-25). "Mother of Marc Lepine finally breaks her silence". CTV. http://www.ctv.ca/ servlet/ArticleNews/print/CTVNews/ 20060925/lepine_mother_060925/ 20060925/ ?hub=Canada&subhub=PrintStory. Retrieved on 2007-01-01. [24] Malarek, Victor (1989-12-09). "Killer Fraternized with Men in Army Fatigues". quoted in "The Montreal Massacre: A Story of Membership Categorization Analysis", eds., P. Eglin and S. Hester (2003) (Globe and Mail). http://books.google.com/

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books?id=FHZJxbjlHsgC&pg=RA1-PA41&lpg=RA1-P Retrieved on 2007-01-02. [25] McDonnell, Rod; Thompson, Elizabeth, McIntosh, Andrew, and Marsden, William (1989-12-09). "Killer’s father beat him as a child; A brutal man who didn’t seem to have any control of his emotions". The Gazette, Montreal. pp. A1. [26] Weston, Greg; and Aubry, Jack (1990-02-08). "The making of a massacre: The Marc Lepine story Part II". The Ottawa Citizen. pp. A1. [27] Colpron, Suzanne (1989-12-09). "Marc Lépine était un premier de classe". La Presse. http://www.cyberpresse.ca/ article/20060913/CPACTUALITES/ 60913134/6087/CPACTUALITES. Retrieved on 2007-01-06. [28] Malarek, Victor (December 12, 1989). "More Massacre Details to be Released by Police, but an Inquiry Ruled Out". Globe and Mail. pp. A14. [29] Canadian Press (1990-01-12). "Police scour the life of mass killer". Edmonton Journal. pp. B9. [30] Poirier, Patricia (March 1, 1990). "Police can’t find cause for Lepine’s rampage on Montreal campus". Globe and Mail. pp. A17. [31] Canadian Press (1990-05-30). "Parents fear coverup over murdered 14". Toronto Star. pp. A15. [32] Fox, James Alan; Levin, Jack (January 2003), "Mass Murder: An Analysis of Extreme Violence", Journal of Applied Psychoanalytic Studies 5 (1): 47–64, doi:10.1023/A:1021051002020 [33] Ruddy, Jenny; Elizabeth Curry (December 2004). "Barbara Frum, quoted in Reframing violence against women". The Commonwealth. Saskatchewan New Democrat Party. http://www.saskndp.com/cw/64.5/ reframingviolencewomen.html. Retrieved on 2006-12-29. [34] Fox, James Alan; Levin, Jack (2005), Extreme killing: Understanding serial and mass murder, Sage Publications, pp. 227–230, ISBN 0-7619-8857-2 [35] ^ Lortie, Marie-Claude (1990-12-01). "Poly un an après : Psychose? Blessures au cerveau? Les spécialistes n’ont pas encore résolu l’énigme Marc Lépine". La Presse. pp. B7.

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École Polytechnique massacre

[36] ^ Parent, G; Cousineau, M (2003). [45] Harder, Sandra. "Violence against "Conséquences à long terme d’un mass women: the Canadian Panel’s final murder :le cas de Polytechnique, neuf report". Government of Canada. ans plus tard". The International Journal http://dsp-psd.communication.gc.ca/ Collection-R/LoPBdP/MR/mr122-e.htm. of Victimology 1 (3). Retrieved on 2007-02-03. http://www.jidv.com/njidv/ [46] CBC news (December index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=189:consequences- 7, 2000). "Professor criticizes Montreal massacre a-long-terme-dun-mass-murder-le-cas-dememorials". CBC. http://www.cbc.ca/ polytechnique-neuf-ans-pluscanada/story/2000/12/07/ tard&catid=109:jidv03&Itemid=391. massacre_email001207.html. Retrieved Retrieved on 2006-12-29. on 2007-03-07. [37] Ha, Tu Thanh; Ingrid Peritz (December [47] Lakeman, Lee. "Women, Violence and 4, 1999). "When the snowflakes start to the Montreal Massacre". Vancouver fall, we all remember". Globe and Mail. Rape Relief and Women’s Shelter. http://pete.uri.edu/cgi-bin/ http://www.rapereliefshelter.bc.ca/dec6/ wa?A2=ind9912a&L=wsseleearticle.html. Retrieved on cur&D=0&T=0&P=571. Retrieved on 2007-04-20. 2006-12-31. [48] Steyn, Mark (April 18, 2007). "A Culture [38] Sheppard, Robert (September 15, 2006). of Passivity". National Review. "A sea change in police tactics when it http://article.nationalreview.com/ comes to gunmen". CBC News. ?q=YzEzYzQ0Y2MyZjNlNjY1ZTEzMTA0MGRmM2Ey http://www.cbc.ca/news/background/ Retrieved on 2007-04-20. realitycheck/sheppard/20060915.html. [49] Kastor, Elizabeth (December 11, 1989). Retrieved on 2006-12-29. "In Montreal, A Survivor Heals After The [39] Boyd, Denny (April 20, 1992). "Couple Horror; 23-Year-Old Student Tried To salvages purpose from their daughter’s Reason With Killer". The Washington tragic death". The Vancouver Sun. Post. pp. B1. pp. B1. [50] "Men wearing white ribbons". CBC. [40] Dixon, John (January 8, 2003). "A gang November 27, 1991. that couldn’t shoot straight". The Globe http://archives.cbc.ca/society/ and Mail. http://www.lowe.ca/Rick/ crime_justice/topics/398-2240/. FirearmsLegislation/ Retrieved on 2007-03-07. AGangThatCouldn’tShootStraight.html. [51] CBC news (1999-12-05). "Monument to Retrieved on 2007-04-21. slain women unveiled". CBC. [41] Leslie, Keith (April 18, 2007). "Ontario http://web.archive.org/web/ blasts Ottawa on gun registry". The 20071111062104/http://www.cbc.ca/ Globe and Mail. news/story/1999/12/05/ http://www.theglobeandmail.com/servlet/ memorialsun991205.html. Retrieved on story/RTGAM.20070418.wguns0418/ 2007-01-04. BNStory/National/. Retrieved on [52] Campbell, Charles (November 11, 2004). 2007-04-21. "Magnets for Memory". The Tyee. [42] "Polytechnique massacre victims http://thetyee.ca/Life/2004/11/11/ remembered". CBC News. December 7, MagnetsforMemory/. Retrieved on 2006. http://www.cbc.ca/canada/ 2006-12-31. montreal/story/2006/12/06/qc[53] Cooper, Rachelle (April 19, 2006). "Book montrealmassacre061206.html. a Monument to Canadian Women Retrieved on 2007-04-21. Murdered by Men". at Guelph. [43] Rebick, Judy (December 6, 2000). http://www.uoguelph.ca/atguelph/ "Where’s the funding for abused 06-04-19/. Retrieved on 2006-12-31. women?". CBC. http://www.cbc.ca/news/ [54] Ingram, Gordon Brent (February 2, viewpoint/columns/rebick/ 2000). "Contests over social memory in rebick001206.html. Retrieved on waterfront Vancouver: Historical editing 2007-03-07. & obfuscation through public art". on the [44] Vienneau, David (1991-01-19). "Probe on w@terfront. http://www.ub.es/escult/ violence toward women blocked". Toronto Star. pp. A4.

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Water/tress/gordon.htm. Retrieved on 2006-12-31. [55] "Stage Productions: The Anorak". Queen’s University Faculty of Applied Science. http://appsci.queensu.ca/ilc/ events/playwritingcomp/anorak.php. Retrieved on 2007-07-21. [56] Kelley, Brendan (2009-01-30). "Polytechnique: open to debate". Montreal Gazette (Canwest). http://www.montrealgazette.com/news/ Polytechnique+open+debate/1236248/ story.html. Retrieved on 2009-02-01. [57] Hamilton, Graeme (2009-01-28). "Montreal massacre film brings up ’too

École Polytechnique massacre
many memories’". National Post. http://www.montrealgazette.com/news/ Polytechnique+open+debate/1236248/ story.html. Retrieved on 2009-02-14.

External links
• CBC Digital Archives • Crime Library • NFB CITIZENShift — Polytechnique massacre Web page Coordinates: 45°30′17″N 73°36′46″W / 45.50472°N 73.61278°W / 45.50472; -73.61278

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/%C3%89cole_Polytechnique_massacre" Categories: 1989 in Canada, 1989 crimes, Crime in Montreal, Disasters in Quebec, School killings in Canada, Massacres in Canada, Université de Montréal, University shootings, History of Canada (1982-1992), Violence against women, Gender studies, History of Montreal, Deaths by firearm in Quebec, Spree shootings in Canada This page was last modified on 11 May 2009, at 20:16 (UTC). All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License. (See Copyrights for details.) Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a U.S. registered 501(c)(3) taxdeductible nonprofit charity. Privacy policy About Wikipedia Disclaimers

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