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					Production Planning & Control Systems

PP&C - trends of development
computer integrated manufacturing
(CIM)

individual systems

simulation capabilities

productoriented systems orderoriented systems improved methods decision support systems

flexible technologies integration

reorganisation operations research artificial intelligence human know-how

operational data collection

Production Planning and Control
in time

„ Just in time “
decentralisation

isolated manufacturing places

Leitstand

distributed systems
Source: Kurbel 1993

Overview CAD CIM CAD/CAE
Development construction CIM-CONCEPTS Selling Calculation Stock management/ quantity planning Interfaces NC-programming Data bases Parts manufacture Engineering data bases Production logistics Job Progressing Enterprise modelling Assembly Maintenance Communicationsystems Knowledge-based Factory data capture/ order monitoring Cost accounting systems Quality management Scheduling Capacity planning

product-oriented process chain

CAM PPC CAQ Interfaces Data bases Engineering data bases Enterprise modelling Communication Knowledgebased systems

CAQ

Dispatch

Integrated System

production control

order-oriented process chain

CAP

CAM

CAP

Scheduling

production planning

PP&C - Main functions
production program planning production planning

materials requirements planning (materials management)

deadline and capacity planning

manufacturing order release production control manufacturing order supervision
Source: Helberg 1987

Manufacturing scope
P R O D U C T C O M P L E X I T Y
special projects maketo-order assembleto-order

individual mechanical engineering

assemble according to catalog production by lot-size

maketo-stock

repetitive manufacturing continuous manufacturing

process manufacturing

P R O D UC T S T A B I L I T Y

Source: SAP AG

Types of enterprises as morphologic box
CHARACTERISTICS TYPES OF CHARACTERISTICS
typical products with customer-specific variants multi-piece products with simple structure make-to-order with framework order disposition, predominant customer-oriented quite a lot of purchase individual production job-shop production production with medium vertical range

1 PRODUCT SPECTRUM 2 PRODUCT STRUCTURE 3 KIND OF JOB RELEASE 4 KIND OF DISPOSITION 5 KIND OF PURCHASING 6 KIND OF PRODUCTION 7 PRODUCTION PROCESS 8 PRODUCTION STRUCTURE

products by customer specification one-piece products make-to-order with one-off order disposition, oriented on customer`s order insignificant purchase one-off production job-site production production with small vertical range

standard products with variants multi-piece products with complex structure make-to-stock disposition, predominant program oriented considerably purchase mass production line manufacturing production with large vertical range

standard products without variants

disposition, program oriented

repetitive manufacturing continuous manufacturing

Source: Hackstein 1

Master planning, production planning and production control
degree of exactness number of resources 400,000 production control

40,000

material and capacity management

400 20 100

master planning 500 days

horiz

Source: Kernler

Jobs of Production
Functions
process planning production scheduling disposition store manufacturing and assembly purchasing

Tasks
routing assembly instruction production sequence (assembly sequence) demand management allocation of components/materials availability control reservation list of product hierarchy (-structure) summary of required components/assemblies distribution purchase of finished parts/raw material outside supply pricing calculation of gross selling prices lists of substitutes preliminary costing historic costing statistics
Source: Hackstein 1989

sale and service accounting

Groups of component data
identification data • reference number • drawing number • other documents numbers classification data • technical classification • ABC-classification • standard description • kind of parts • status data engineering data • function • form • dimensions • material • weight • physical properties purchase data •start prices • replacement time • order size limits disposition data • purchasing type • disposition type • disposition level • replacement type • scrap rate factor • lot-size methods demand data • demand type • accumulated demand • accumulated covered demand

stock data • accumulated stock • accumulated reserved stock • minimum stock

sales data • sales price • discount • bonus conditions • minimum sales amount • packing amount

production data • run-up limit • throughput times • operating variants • family-of-parts sign

calculation data • material costs • payment costs • machine costs • order repeat costs • storage costs

Source: Steinmetz 1991

Routing

Generation: customer`s order
order order.# deadline cost.# 1721 1803 2001 17.11 17.11 19.10 ... ... ... order position order.# 1721 1721 1803 1803 1803 2001 pos. quantity part# 01 02 01 02 03 01 2 5 1 3 4 2 4803 4401 4920 4803 4990 4870 part part# 4401 4803 4807 4920 4990 name ... ... ... ... ... price 11.20 14.50 10.00 8.50 11.80 stock. ... ... ... ... ...

customer`s order order#: 1803 pos. 01 02 03 part# 4920 4803 4990 deadline: 17.11 quantity 1 3 4 price 8.50 14.50 11.80 customer total 8.50 43.50 47.20 99.20

Source: Kernler 1993

Generation: manufacturing order
component master com.# 1721 1803 name gear box bearing routing com.# pos. 1721 1721 1721 1721 1803 1803 01 02 03 04 01 02 job tr te workstation# 4401 4803 4920 4807 4401 4920 workstation workstation# 4401 4803 4807 4920 time ... work rate 110.00 420.00 260.00 64.00

cleaning - 2 adjust 20 1 assembly - 8 check - 3 ... ... ... ... ... ...

work order component#:1721 gear box quantity=10 pieces pos. 01 02 03 04 workstation# 4401 4803 4920 4807 job tr te costs 36.67 210.00 85.33 130.00 462.00
Source: Kernler 1993

cleaning - 2 adjust 20 1 assembly - 8 check - 3

Throughput time of a process
transport

begin wait time tr

end te te te te te te te time throughput time operation n wait time tr lay-time transport

tr=setup time te=time per item

Source: Kernler 1993

Parts of throughput time in mechanical engineering
throughput time 10% 2% 3% 75% 5% 3% 2% processing time Tb=tr+m*te transport time check time wait time storage time breakdown time staff-related idle time

Source: Kernler 1993

Resource planning in enterprises
MRP
Material Requirements Planning • Bill of material, inventory data, master production schedule • calculates material requirements and schedules

MRP II

Manufacturing Resource Planning • based on MRP •computerised method for simultaneous planning the use of all resources in a company, including financials, manufacturing, and distribution management Enterprise Resource Planning • extension of the manufacturing resources planning • automate and integrate business and production management processes • closely associated with the use of client/server technology for greater flexibility in operation and modelling of the enterprise

ERP

Source: Hitchcock Publishing Company 1997

MRP II/ERP - software and installations in 1996

BPCS Client/Server BAAN VI ERPx SAP R/3

System Software Associates BAAN Company SAP AG

8,000 1,900 >5,000 n. n.

J.D. Edwards World Solutions Company 4,000

Oracle Manufacturing Oracle Corporation


				
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Description: jobs of production