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San Diego

San Diego
City of San Diego Tony Young Carl DeMaio Donna Frye Marti Emerald Ben Hueso Area - City - Land - Water Elevation 372.1 sq mi (963.6 km2) 324.3 sq mi (840.0 km2) 47.7 sq mi (123.5 km2) 72-400 ft (22 m)

Population (January 1, 2009)[1] - City 1,353,993 - Density 4,174.8/sq mi (1,611.9/km2) - Metro 3,001,072 Including Tijuana: 5,009,170 (as of 2,008)
From top San Diego Skyline, middle left - Coronado Bridge, middle right museum in Balboa Park, bottom - Hotel del Coronado

Time zone - Summer (DST) ZIP code

PST (UTC-8) PDT (UTC-7) 92101-92117, 92119-92124, 92126-92140, 92142, 92145, 92147, 92149-92155, 92158-92172, 92174-92177, 92179, 92182, 92184, 92186, 92187, 92190-92199 619, 858 66000 1661377 http://www.sandiego.gov/

Flag Seal

Area code(s) FIPS code GNIS feature ID Website

Nickname(s): America’s Finest City Motto: Semper Vigilans (Latin for "Ever Vigilant")

Location of San Diego within San Diego County

Country State County Founded Incorporated Government - Type - Mayor - City Attorney - City Council

United States California San Diego July 16, 1769 March 27, 1850 Mayor-council Jerry Sanders (R) Jan Goldsmith Sherri Lightner Kevin Faulconer Todd Gloria

San Diego (pronounced /ˌsændiˈeɪgoʊ/) is the secondlargest city in California and the eighth largest city in the United States, located along the Pacific Ocean on the west coast of the United States. The California Department of Finance estimates the city’s population at 1,353,993 as of January 1st 2009.[2] This coastal city is also the county seat of San Diego County[3] as well as the economic center of the San Diego–Carlsbad–San Marcos metropolitan area. As of 2008, this metropolitan area is the 17th-largest in the United States with a population of 3,001,072 and the 38th-largest metropolitan area in the Americas when including Tijuana, Mexico. According to Forbes the city of San Diego ranks as the fifth wealthiest in the United States.[4] San Diego’s economy is largely composed of agriculture, biotechnology/biosciences, computer sciences, electronics manufacturing, defense-related manufacturing, financial and business services, ship-repair and construction, software development, telecommunications, and tourism. The presence of the University of California, San Diego (UCSD) with the affiliated UCSD Medical Center promotes research in biotechnology.[5]

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San Diego
Diego was designated the seat of the newly-established San Diego County and was incorporated as a city in 1850. The city charter was drafted in 1889. In the years before World War I, the Industrial Workers of the World labor union conducted a free speech fight in San Diego, arousing a brutal response. Significant U.S. Naval presence began in 1907 with the establishment of the Navy Coaling Station, which gave further impetus to the development of the town. San Diego hosted two World’s Fairs, the Panama-California Exposition in 1915, and the California Pacific International Exposition in 1935. Many of the Spanish/ Baroque-style buildings in the city’s Balboa Park were built for these expositions, particularly the one in 1915. Intended to be temporary structures, most remained in continuous use until they progressively fell into disrepair. All were eventually rebuilt using castings of the original facades to faithfully retain the architectural style. After World War II, the military played an increasing role in the local economy, but post-Cold War cutbacks took a heavy toll on the local defense and aerospace industries. The resulting downturn led San Diego leaders to seek to diversify the city’s economy, and San Diego has since become a major center of the emerging biotechnology industry. It is also home to telecommunications giant Qualcomm. In 2003, San Diego was the site of the Cedar Fire, which has been called the largest wildfire in California over the past century.[6] In addition to damage caused by the fire, smoke from the fire resulted in a significant increase in emergency room visits due to asthma, respiratory problems, eye irritation, and smoke inhalation. This caused San Diego County schools to close for a week due to the smoke of the wildfire.[7]

History

Mission San Diego de Alcalá The area of San Diego has long been inhabited by the Kumeyaay Indians. The first European to visit the region was Portuguese-born explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo sailing under the Spanish Flag, who sailed his flagship San Salvador from Navidad, New Spain. In 1542, Cabrillo claimed the bay for the Spanish Empire and named the site San Miguel. In November of 1602, Sebastián Vizcaíno was sent to map the California coast. Arriving on his flagship San Diego, Vizcaíno surveyed the harbor and what are now Mission Bay and Point Loma and named the area for the Catholic Saint Didacus, a Spaniard more commonly known as San Diego. On November 12, 1602, the first Christian religious service of record in Alta California was conducted by Fray Antonio de la Ascensión, a member of Vizcaíno’s expedition, to celebrate the feast day of San Diego. In 1769, Gaspar de Portolà established the Fort Presidio of San Diego overlooking Old Town. Around the same time, Mission San Diego de Alcalá was founded by Franciscan friars under Father Junípero Serra. By 1797, the mission boasted the largest native population in Alta California, with over 1,400 neophytes living in and around the mission proper. After New Spain won its independence from the Spanish Empire in 1823, Mission San Diego de Alcalá’s fortunes declined in the 1830s after the decree of secularization was enacted, as was the case with all of the missions under the control of Mexico. In 1847 San Diego was a destination of the 2,000-mile (3,200 km) march of the Mormon Battalion which built the city’s first courthouse with brick. After the Battle of San Pasqual, the end of the Mexican-American War, and the gold rush of 1848, San

Geography
See also: Beaches in San Diego and Parks in San Diego

The San Diego-Tijuana metropolitan area. The city of San Diego itself has deep canyons and hills separating its mesas, creating small pockets of natural parkland scattered throughout the city and thus giving

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it a hilly geography. The same canyons give parts of the city a highly segmented feel, creating literal gaps between otherwise proximal neighborhoods and contributing to a low-density, car-centered built environment. Downtown San Diego is located on San Diego Bay. Balboa Park lies on a mesa to the northeast. It is surrounded by several dense urban communities and abruptly ends in Hillcrest to the north. The Coronado and Point Loma peninsulas separate San Diego Bay from the ocean. Ocean Beach is on the west side of Point Loma. Mission Beach and Pacific Beach lie between the ocean and Mission Bay, a man-made aquatic park. La Jolla, an affluent community, lies north of Pacific Beach and west of Mira Mesa. Mountains rise to the east of the city, and beyond the mountains are desert areas. Cleveland National Forest is a half-hour drive from downtown San Diego. Numerous farms are found in the valleys northeast and southeast of the city. San Diego County has one of the highest counts of animal and plant species that appear on the endangered species list among counties in the United States.[8]

San Diego
Rainfall along the coast averages about 10 inches (254 mm) of precipitation annually, which occurs mainly during the cooler months of December through April. Though there are few wet days per month during the rainy period, rainfall can be heavy when it does fall. However the rainfall is greater in the higher elevations of San Diego. Some of the higher areas of San Diego can get up to 11–13 inches (280–330 mm) of rain a year.

Ecology
Like most of southern California, the majority of San Diego’s current area was originally occupied by chaparral, a plant community made up mostly of drought-resistant shrubs. The endangered Torrey Pine has the bulk of its population in San Diego in a stretch of protected chaparral along the coast. The steep and varied topography, and proximity to the ocean creates a number of different habitats within the city limits, including tidal marsh and canyons. The influence of humans has altered existing habitats and has also created habitats that did not exist prior to human development, by construction of buildings, the introduction of new species, and the use of water for lawns and gardens. A number of species of parrots, including the Red-masked Parakeet and Redcrowned Amazon have established feral populations in urban neighborhoods such as Ocean Beach. The chaparral and coastal sage scrub habitats in low elevations along the coast are prone to wildfire, and the rates of fire have increased in the 20th century, due primarily to fires starting near the borders of urban and wild areas.[13] San Diego’s broad city limits encompass a number of large nature preserves, including Torrey Pines State Reserve, Border Field State Park, Mission Trails Regional Park. Torrey Pines State Preserve and a coastal strip continuing to the north is the only location where the rare species of Torrey Pine, P. torreyana torreyana, is found.[14] Due to a combination of the steep topography that prevents or discourages building, and some efforts for preservation, there are also a large number of canyons within the city limits that are nature preserves, including Tecolote Canyon Natural Park,[15] and Marian Bear Memorial Park in the San Clemente Canyon,[16] as well as a number of small parks and preserves.

Climate
San Diego has a Mediterranean to Semi-arid (Csa) climate when classified using the Koppen climate classification system, which is characterized by warm, dry summers and mild winters with some rain.[9] San Diego enjoys mild, mostly dry weather with an average of 201 days above 70°F (21°C).[10] Temperatures vary little throughout the year. Summer, also known as the dry period, lasts from May to October. Temperatures are mild to warm with average highs of 70–78°F (21–26°C) and lows of 55–66°F (13–19°C). Temperatures exceed 90°F (32°C) four days a year. Winter, also known as the rainy period, lasts from November to April. Temperatures are mild and somewhat rainy with average high temperatures of 66–70°F (19–21°C) and lows of 50–56°F (10–13°C). The climate in the San Diego area and the rest of California often varies dramatically over short geographical distances, due to the city’s topography (the Bay, and the numerous hills, mountains, and canyons): frequently, particularly during the "May gray/June gloom" period, a thick "marine layer" cloud cover will keep the air cold and damp within a few miles of the coast, but will yield to bright cloudless sunshine approximately 5 miles (8 km) inland. This happens every year in May and June. This phenomenon is known as microclimate. Even in the absence of June gloom, inland areas tend to experience much more significant temperature variations than coastal areas. Thus, for example, downtown San Diego averages January lows of 50°F and August highs of 78°F. The city of El Cajon, just 10 miles northeast of downtown San Diego, averages 42°F and 88°F respectively.[11][12]

Communities and neighborhoods
There are around one hundred named areas within the city of San Diego. Northern: Bay Ho, Bay Park, Encinitas, Carmel Valley, Clairemont Mesa East, Clairemont Mesa West, Del Mar Mesa, La Jolla, La Jolla Village, Mission Beach, Mission Bay Park, North Park, North Clairemont, Pacific Beach, Pacific Highlands Ranch, Torrey Hills, Torrey Pines, University City

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San Diego
Southeastern: Alta Vista, Bay Terrace, Broadway Heights, Chollas View, Emerald Hills, Encanto, JamachaLomita, Lincoln Park, Mountain View, Mt. Hope, Paradise Hills, Shelltown, Skyline, Southcrest, Valencia Park Southern: Egger Highlands, Imperial Beach, Nestor, Ocean Crest, Otay Mesa, Otay Mesa West, Palm City, San Ysidro, Tijuana River Valley

San Diego’s Gaslamp Quarter

Downtown urban renewal
Downtown San Diego has experienced some urban renewal since the early 1980s. This has resulted in the opening of Horton Plaza, the revival of the Gaslamp Quarter, and the construction of the San Diego Convention Center. The Centre City Development Corporation (CCDC), San Diego’s downtown redevelopment agency, has been instrumental in change. PETCO Park opened in 2004. The 2005 boom in the construction of condos and skyscrapers brought gentrification as well.

Old Town, San Diego. Northeastern: Black Mountain Ranch, Carmel Mountain Ranch, Miramar, Miramar Ranch North, Mira Mesa, Rancho Bernardo, Rancho Encantada, Rancho Peñasquitos, Sabre Springs, San Pasqual Valley, Scripps Ranch, Sorrento Valley, Torrey Highlands Eastern: Allied Gardens, Birdland, Del Cerro, Grantville, Kearny Mesa, Lake Murray, Mission Valley East, San Carlos,Serra Mesa, Tierrasanta Western: Burlingame, Hillcrest, La Playa, Linda Vista, Loma Portal, Midtown, Midway District, Mission Hills, Mission Valley West, Morena, North Park, Ocean Beach, Old Town, Pacific Beach, Point Loma Heights, RosevilleFleetridge, Sunset Cliffs, University Heights, Wooded Area Central: Balboa Park, Bankers Hill, Barrio Logan, City Heights, Downtown (Columbia, Core, Cortez Hill, East Village, Gaslamp Quarter, Horton, Little Italy, Marina), Golden Hill, Grant Hill, Logan Heights, Memorial, Middletown, Sherman Heights, South Park, Stockton Mid-City: City Heights (comprising Azalea Park, Bayridge, Hollywood Park, Castle, Cherokee Point, Chollas Creek, Colina Del Sol, Corridor, Fairmount, Fox Canyon, Islenair, Ridgeview/Webster Rolando, Swan Canyon, Teralta East, Teralta West), College East, College West, Darnall, El Cerrito, Gateway, Kensington, Normal Heights, North Park,Oak Park, Talmadge, Alvarado Estates

Future plans
The North Embarcadero is slated to have parks in addition to a waterfront promenade. Balboa Park is scheduled to be linked to downtown.

Demographics
Historical populations Census Pop. %± 1850 500 — 1860 731 46.2% 1870 2,300 214.6% 1880 2,637 14.7% 1890 16,159 512.8% 1900 17,700 9.5% 1910 39,578 123.6% 1920 74,361 87.9% 1930 147,995 99.0% 1940 203,341 37.4% 1950 333,865 64.2%

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1960 573,224 71.7% 1970 696,769 21.6% 1980 875,538 25.7% 1990 1,110,549 26.8% 2000 1,223,400 10.2% Est. 2007 1,266,731 3.5% source:[17][18] As of the census[19] of 2000, there were 1,223,400 people, 450,691 households, and 271,315 families residing in the city. The population density was 3,771.9 people per square mile (1,456.4/km²). There were 451,126 households out of which 30.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 44.6% were married couples living together, 11.4% had a female householder with no husband present, and 39.8% were non-families. 28.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.4% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.61 and the average family size was 3.30. In the city the population was spread out with 24.0% under the age of 18, 12.4% from 18 to 24, 34.0% from 25 to 44, 19.1% from 45 to 64, and 10.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 32 years. For every 100 females there were 101.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 100.4 males.

San Diego
2004, San Diego had the sixth lowest crime rate of any U.S. city with over half a million residents.[25] From 2002 to 2006, violent crime decreased 12.4% while overall crime decreased only 0.8% partly due to a 1.1% increase in property crime. Total property crimes were lower than the national average in 2004.

Economy

The San Diego skyline at night See also: List of companies headquartered in San Diego The three largest sectors of San Diego’s economy are defense, manufacturing, and tourism, respectively.[26] Several areas of San Diego (in particular La Jolla and surrounding Sorrento Valley areas) are home to offices and research facilities for numerous biotechnology companies. Major biotechnology companies like Neurocrine Biosciences and Nventa Biopharmaceuticals are headquartered in San Diego, while many biotech and pharmaceutical companies, such as BD Biosciences, Biogen Idec, Integrated DNA Technologies, Merck, Pfizer, Élan, Genzyme, Cytovance, Celgene and Vertex, have offices or research facilities in San Diego. There are also several non-profit biotech institutes, such as the Salk Institute for Biological Studies, the Scripps Research Institute and the Burnham Institute. The presence of University of California, San Diego and other research institutions helped fuel biotechnology growth. In June 2004, San Diego was ranked the top biotech cluster in the U.S. by the Milken Institute.[27] San Diego is home to companies that develop wireless cellular technology. Qualcomm Incorporated was founded and is headquartered in San Diego; Qualcomm is the largest private-sector technology employer (excluding hospitals) in San Diego County.[28] According to the San Diego Business Journal, the largest software company in San Diego is security software company Websense Inc.[29] The economy of San Diego is influenced by its port, which includes the only major submarine and shipbuilding yards on the West Coast, as well as the largest naval fleet in the world. The cruise ship industry, which is the

Ancestry/heritage
Population by race/ethnicity (Census 2000 def.):[20][21] • White Non-Hispanic (49.3%) - excludes (11% White Hispanic) • Hispanic/Latino of any race (25.4%) • Asian (13.6%) • Black/African American (7.6%) • Two or more races (3.1%) • Hawaiian and Pacific Islander alone (0.4%) • American Indian/Alaska Native alone (0.4%) • Other (0.2%)

Current estimates
According to estimates by the San Diego Association of Governments, as of January 1, 2008, the population of San Diego rose to 1,336,865, up 9.3% from 2000.[22] The population was 45.3% non-Hispanic White, 27.7% Hispanic, 15.6% Asian/Pacific Islander, 7.1% Black, 0.4% American Indian, 3.9% of other races. Median age of Hispanics was 27.5 years, compared to 35.1 years overall and 41.6 years among non-Hispanic Whites; Hispanics were the largest group in all ages under 18, and non-Hispanic Whites constituted 63.1% of population 55 and older.

Crime
San Diego had a declining crime rate from 1990 to 2000, which slightly increased in the early 2000s.[23][24][25] In

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second largest in California, generates an estimated $2 million annually from the purchase of food, fuel, supplies, and maintenance services.[30] Due to San Diego’s military influence, major national defense contractors, such as General Atomics and Science Applications International Corporation are headquartered in San Diego. Tourism is also a major industry owing to the city’s climate. Major tourist destinations include Balboa Park, the San Diego Zoo, Seaworld, nearby Wild Animal Park and Legoland, the city’s beaches and golf tournaments like the Buick Invitational.

San Diego
San Diego is the site of one of the largest naval fleets in the world, and San Diego has become the largest concentration of Naval facilities in the world due to base reductions at Norfolk, Virginia and retrenchment of the Russian naval base in Vladivostok. Two of the U.S. Navy’s Nimitz class supercarriers, (the USS Nimitz and the USS Ronald Reagan), five amphibious assault ships, several Los Angeles-class "fast attack" submarines, the Hospital Ship USNS Mercy, carrier and submarine tenders, destroyers, cruisers, frigates, and many smaller ships are home-ported there. Four Navy vessels have been named USS San Diego in honor of the city.[31]

Personal income
In 2000, the median income for a household in the city was $45,733, and the median income for a family was $53,060.[19] Males had a median income of $36,984 versus $31,076 for females. The per capita income for the city was $23,609.[19] About 10.6% of families and 14.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 20.0% of those under age 18 and 7.6% of those age 65 or over. SANDAG estimates that, by 2008, the household median income rose to $66,715.

Real estate

Military

Downtown San Diego Prior to 2006, San Diego experienced a dramatic growth of real estate prices, to the extent that the situation was sometimes described as a "housing affordability crisis". Median house prices more than tripled between 1998 and 2007. According to the California Association of Realtors, in May 2007, a median house in San Diego cost $612,370.[32] Growth of real estate prices has not been accompanied by comparable growth of household incomes: Housing Affordability Index (percentage of households that can afford to buy a median-priced house) fell below 20% in early 2000s. San Diego metropolitan area had the second worst median multiple (ratio of median house price to median household income) of all metropolitan areas in the United States. As a consequence, San Diego had experienced negative net migration since 2004, with significant numbers of people moving to Baja California and Riverside county, with many residents commuting daily from Tijuana, Temecula, and Murrieta, to their jobs in San Diego. Others are leaving the state altogether and moving to more affordable regions.[33] From 2005 to 2007, San Diego experienced more than a 15% decline in real estate prices, which continued to accelerate into 2008. The two-year drop already experienced is worse than the four-year period between June,

A F/A-18 Hornet flying over San Diego Military bases in San Diego include U.S. Navy ports, Marine Corps bases, and Coast Guard stations. Marine Corps institutions in San Diego include Marine Corps Air Station Miramar and Marine Corps Recruit Depot San Diego. The Navy has several institutions in the city, including Naval Base Point Loma, Naval Base San Diego (also known as the 32nd Street Naval Station), Bob Wilson Naval Hospital, and the Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center San Diego. Close by San Diego but within San Diego County is Naval Air Station North Island (which operates Naval Auxiliary Landing Facility San Clemente Island, Silver Strand Training Complex, and the Outlying Field Imperial Beach). San Diego is also known as the "birthplace of naval aviation," although Pensacola, Florida makes a rival claim.

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1992, and November, 1996, when the region experienced an 11.8% decline in housing prices. Much of the decrease is blamed on the speculative attitude of investors in the early 2000s, who bought much of the available real estate, hoping to "flip" it for a large profit shortly thereafter, and the availability of "stated income" and other "exotic" loans available. When the decline hit, and adjustable-rate mortgages (ARMs) adjusted, many investors simply abandoned their properties, and areas that recently experienced double-digit annual increases in property value, such as San Diego, Los Angeles, Miami, and Las Vegas were hit the hardest.[34] In the first quarter of 2008, the number of foreclosures repossessed by banks exceeded the number of home sales.[35]

San Diego

San Diego State University’s Hepner Hall

Film Commission
The San Diego Film Commission was formed in 1976 (named the San Diego Motion Picture and Television Bureau) to coordinate and facilitate the permission process and serve as a liaison with local government, the community, and the production industry.[36] By the early 1980s, the Bureau’s efforts resulted in various San Diego-based films. These included Simon & Simon and Top Gun, created jobs for San Diegans and more than $5 million in economic impact. The Bureau was later known as the San Diego Film Commission. During the 1990’s, there were films such as Silk Stalkings, Traffic, and Antwone Fisher. In November 1997, the Film Commission moved from under the auspice of the Chamber of Commerce to become an independent, non-profit corporation solely dedicated to the development of the production industry in San Diego. The Film Commission continues to be supported and funded as an economic development program by the City, County, and the Port of San Diego.

University of California, San Diego’s iconic Geisel Library According to education rankings released by the U.S. Census Bureau, 40.4 percent of San Diegans ages 25 and older hold bachelor’s degrees. The census ranks the city as the ninth most educated city in the United States based on these figures.[37] Public colleges and universities in the city include San Diego State University (SDSU), University of California, San Diego (UCSD), California State University San Marcos (CSUSM), and the San Diego Community College District, which includes San Diego City College, San Diego Mesa College, and San Diego Miramar College. Private colleges and universities in the city include Alliant International University (AIU), Coleman University, Design Institute of San Diego (DISD), Fashion Institute of Design & Merchandising’s San Diego campus, John Paul the Great Catholic University, National University, NewSchool of Architecture and Design, Pacific Oaks College, The Art Institute of California, San Diego, Point Loma Nazarene University (PLNU), San Diego Christian College, Southern States University (SSU), Woodbury University School of Architecture’s satellite campus, and University of San Diego (USD). There is one medical school in the city, the UCSD School of Medicine. There are three ABA accredited law schools in the city, which

Education
Primary and secondary schools
The San Diego Unified School District, also known as San Diego City Schools, is the school district that serves the majority of the city, it includes 113 elementary schools, 23 middle schools, 4 atypical schools, 10 alternative schools, 27 high schools, and 25 charter schools. In the northern part of the county, Poway Unified School District and San Dieguito Union High School District are districts outside city limits, but serve several schools within city limits. In the southern part of the county, Sweetwater Union High School District serves multiple schools within city limits, although it is headquartered outside city limits.

Colleges and universities

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include California Western School of Law, Thomas Jefferson School of Law, and University of San Diego School of Law. There is also one unaccredited law school, Western Sierra Law School.

San Diego

Culture
See also: List of museums in San Diego

"Californiascope", San Diego Harbor. the United States. Old Globe Theatre at Balboa Park produces about 15 plays and musicals annually. The La Jolla Playhouse at UCSD is directed by Christopher Ashley. The Joan B. Kroc Theatre at Kroc Center’s Performing Arts Centeris is a 600-seat state-of-the-art theatre that hosts music, dance and theatre performances. The San Diego Repertory Theatre at the Lyceum Theatres in Horton Plaza produces a variety of plays and musicals. Serving the northeastern part of San Diego is the California Center for the Arts in Escondido, a 400-seat performing arts theater. Tourism has affected the city’s culture, as San Diego houses many tourist attractions, such as SeaWorld San Diego, Belmont amusement park, San Diego Zoo, San Diego Wild Animal Park, and nearby Legoland California. San Diego’s Spanish influence can be seen in the many historic sites across the city, such as the Spanish missions and Balboa Park. Cuisine in San Diego is diverse, and includes European-American, Mexican-American, and Asian-American cuisine. Annual events in San Diego include Comic-Con, San Diego/Del Mar Fair, and Street Scene Music Festival.

The Museum of Man is one of several museums in Balboa Park. Many popular museums, such as the San Diego Museum of Art, the San Diego Natural History Museum, the San Diego Museum of Man, and the Museum of Photographic Arts are located in Balboa Park. The Museum of Contemporary Art San Diego (MCASD) is located in an ocean front building in La Jolla and has a branch located at the Santa Fe Depot downtown. The Columbia district downtown is home to historic ship exhibits as well as the San Diego Aircraft Carrier Museum featuring the USS Midway aircraft carrier. San Diego has a growing art scene. "Kettner Nights" at the Art and Design District in Little Italy has art and design exhibitions throughout many retail design stores and galleries on selected Friday nights. "Ray at Night" at North Park host a variety of small scale art galleries on the second Saturday evening of each month. La Jolla and nearby Solana Beach also have a variety of art galleries. The San Diego Symphony at Symphony Towers performs on a regular basis and is directed by Jahja Ling. The San Diego Opera at Civic Center Plaza was ranked by Opera America as one of the top 10 opera companies in

Libraries
The city has multiple public libraries, including the main San Diego Public Library. The municipal library is headquartered downtown, and has 35 branches throughout the city.[38] The libraries have had reduced operating hours since 2003 due to the city’s lack of finances. In 2006 the city increased spending on libraries by $2.1 million.[39] In addition, SDSU features the Malcolm A. Love Library, and at UCSD, the Geisel Library.

San Diego board culture
San Diego is a venue for surf and skateboard culture.[40] Several board companies are headquartered in the city including: Sector 9 Skateboards, TransWorld Media, and Rusty Surfboards. Surf spots include Swamis, Black’s Beach, and Windansea.

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San Diego
place. NCAA Division I San Diego State Aztecs men’s and women’s basketball games are played at Cox Arena at Aztec Bowl on the campus of San Diego State University. College football and soccer, basketball and volleyball are played at the Torero Stadium and the Jenny Craig Pavilion at USD. The San Diego State Aztecs (MWC) and the San Diego Toreros (WCC) are NCAA Division I teams. The UCSD Tritons (CCAA) are members of NCAA Division II while the Point Loma Nazarene Sea Lions and San Diego Christian College (GSAC) are members of the NAIA. The city has had two NBA franchises, the San Diego Rockets and the Buffalo Braves. The Rockets represented the city of San Diego from 1967 until 1971. After the conclusion of the 1970-1971 season, they moved to Texas where they became the Houston Rockets. Seven years later, a relocated NBA franchise (the Buffalo Braves) moved to town and was renamed the San Diego Clippers. The Clippers played in the San Diego Sports Arena from 1978 until 1984. Prior to the start of the 1984-1985 season, the team was moved to Los Angeles, and is now called the Los Angeles Clippers. Other sports franchises that represented San Diego include the San Diego Conquistadors of the American Basketball Association, the San Diego Sockers (which played in various indoor and outdoor soccer leagues during their existence), the San Diego Flash and the San Diego Gauchos, both playing in different divisions of the United Soccer League, the San Diego Spirit of the Women’s United Soccer Association, the San Diego Mariners of the World Hockey Association, and three different San Diego Gulls ice hockey teams. The San Diego Riptide and the San Diego Shockwave were indoor football teams that played at the Sports Arena and Cox Arena, respectively. San Diego has been a candidate for a Major League Soccer franchise, especially due to the city recording FIFA World Cup television audiences which are double the national average. The city has pursued a franchise. Some observers believe that the city may get one of three franchises to be offered before 2010. The city has an active men’s team playing in the fourth level of American soccer, the San Diego Pumitas. San Diego has the largest championship drought in the nation with at least two major-league sports franchises; dating back to 1963 (45 Years as of 2008), as well as being the largest United States city to have not won a Super Bowl, World Series, Stanley Cup, NBA Finals or any other Major League sports championship; this is known as the San Diego Sports Curse.

A surfer at Black’s Beach.

Sports
San Diego has several sports venues. The National Football League’s San Diego Chargers plays in Qualcomm Stadium, as does NCAA Division I San Diego State Aztecs, as well as local high school football championships. International soccer games, Supercross events take place at Qualcomm where Major League Baseball was once played. Three NFL Super Bowl championships and many college football bowl games have been held there. Balboa Stadium is the city’s first stadium, constructed in 1914, where the San Diego Chargers once played. Currently soccer, American football, and track and field are played there.

PETCO Park Major League Baseball’s San Diego Padres play in Petco Park. The semi-final and final games of the inaugural World Baseball Classic were played there in 2006 and 2009. Some soccer and rugby events occasionally take place in the park. The USA Sevens is played in the city. This is an event in the annual IRB Sevens World Series for international teams in rugby sevens, a variant of rugby union with seven players per side instead of 15. The USA Sevens moved from the Los Angeles area to San Diego in 2007. Basketball is played in the San Diego Sports Arena, where ice hockey, indoor soccer and boxing have taken

Media
See also: List of media set in San Diego San Diego is served by The San Diego Daily Transcript, as well as the mainstream daily newspaper, The San Diego Union-Tribune and its online portal, signonsandiego.com,

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Club San Diego Padres San Diego Chargers O.M.B.A.C. RFC San Diego Wildcats Sport Baseball Rugby union Basketball League MLB (National League) Rugby Super League (US) Women’s Premier Soccer League American Basketball Association Stadium Petco Park

San Diego

American Football AFL 1961-1969, NFL 1970-Present Qualcomm Stadium Little Q Rugby Pitch at Qualcomm Cathedral Catholic High School Kroc Center

San Diego WFC SeaLions Soccer

the online newspaper Voiceofsandiego.org, and the alternative newsweeklies, the San Diego CityBeat and San Diego Reader. San Diego Magazine is a city regional magazine publication in the county, covering politics, business, fashion, dining, and community events. Another newspaper is the North County Times, which serves San Diego’s North County area. Business publications include San Diego Metropolitan magazine, and the San Diego Business Journal. San Diego’s first television station was KFMB, which began broadcasting on May 16, 1949.[41] Since the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) licensed seven television stations in Los Angeles, two VHF channels were available for San Diego because of its relative proximity to the larger city. In 1952, however, the FCC began licensing UHF channels, making it possible for cities such as San Diego to acquire more stations. Stations based in Mexico (with ITU prefixes of XE and XH) also serve the San Diego market. Television stations today include XHTJB 3 (ONCE TV), XETV 6 (CW), KFMB 8 (CBS), KGTV 10 (ABC), XEWT 12 (Televisa), KPBS 15 (PBS), KBNT 17 (Univision), XHAS 33 (Telemundo), K35DG 35 (UCSDTV), KNSD 39 (NBC), XHDTV 49 (MNTV), KUSI 51 (Independent), and KSWB-TV 69 (FOX). Most of the city’s stations air on their own cable channel number for each area: • Channel 6: Cable 6 • Channel 8: Cable 8 • Channel 10: Cable 10 • Channel 12: Cable 12 (Cox Cable Only) • Channel 15: Cable 11 • Channel 21: • Channel 27: • Channel 33: Cable 22 (Cox Cable Only) • Channel 39: Cable 7 • Channel 45: • Channel 49: Cable 13 • Channel 51: Cable 9 • Channel 57: • Channel 69: Cable 5 The radio stations in San Diego include nationwide broadcaster, Clear Channel Communications; CBS Radio, Midwest Television, Lincoln Financial Media, Finest City Broadcasting, and many other smaller stations and networks. Stations include: 91X (91.1FM),KOGO AM 600, KFMB AM 760, KCEO AM 1000, KCBQ AM 1170, KLSD AM 1360 Air America, KFSD 1450 AM, KPBS-FM 89.5, Channel

933, Star 94.1, FM 94/9, KyXy 96.5, Free Radio San Diego (AKA Pirate Radio San Diego) 96.9FM FRSD, KSON 97.3/ 92.1, KIFM 98.1, Jack-FM 100.7, 101.5 KGB-FM, KPRI 102.1, Rock 105.3, and another Pirate Radio station at 106.9FM, as well as a number of local Spanish language radio stations.

Government
In August 2007, registered Democrats outnumbered Republicans by about 7 to 6.[42] Despite the edge in voter registration for Democrats, the current mayor, Jerry Sanders, is a Republican. San Diego is the largest city in the country with a Republican mayor. San Diego has not elected a Democratic mayor since 1988. Democrats hold a 5-3 majority in the city council, including the current Council President, Scott Peters. However, the mayor, city council members, and city attorney seats are all officially non-partisan. On September 18, 2007, the City Council with support from Mayor Sanders, voted 5-3 to endorse a pending lawsuit before the California Supreme Court to overturn Proposition 22, which banned same-sex marriage in California. Proposition 22 was supported by 62 percent of San Diego voters.[43] Proposition 22 was later ruled unconstitutional by the California supreme court. In 2008 California voters passed Proposition 8 to change the California constitution to match the wording of Proposition 22 defining marriage as only being valid or recognized between a man and a woman. Approval for Prop 8 received 53.8% of the votes in San Diego county A series of scandals has rocked the city in recent years. With mounting pressure aggravated by underfunding of pensions for city employees that began prior to his administration, Mayor Dick Murphy, in April 2005, announced his intention to resign by mid-July. Two city council members, Ralph Inzunza and deputy mayor Michael Zucchet—who was to take Murphy’s place—were ultimately convicted of extortion, wire fraud, and conspiracy to commit wire fraud for taking campaign contributions from a strip club owner and his associates, allegedly in exchange for trying to repeal the city’s "no touch" laws at strip clubs. Both subsequently resigned. The judge later set aside (overturned) the conviction in Zucchet’s case. On November 28, 2005, U.S. Congressman Randy "Duke" Cunningham resigned over a bribery scandal.

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Cunningham represented California’s 50th congressional district, which mostly lies north of the city of San Diego proper. He is currently serving a 100-month prison sentence.

San Diego
county; SR 163, which connects downtown with the northeast part of the city, intersects I-805 and merges with I-15 at Miramar; SR 52, which connects La Jolla with east county through Santee and SR 125; SR 56, which connects I-5 with I-15 through Carmel Valley and Rancho Peñasquitos; and SR 75 (San Diego-Coronado Bridge), which spans San Diego Bay. Several regional transportation projects have been undertaken in recent years to deal with congestion on San Diego freeways. This includes expansion of Interstates 5 and 805 around "The Merge," a rush-hour spot where the two freeways meet. Also, an expansion of Interstate 15 through the North County is underway with the addition of high-occupancy-vehicle (HOV) "managed lanes". There is a tollway (The South Bay Expressway) connecting SR 54 and Otay Mesa, near the Mexican border. According to a 2007 assessment, 37% of streets in San Diego were in acceptable driving condition. The proposed budget fell $84.6 million short of bringing the city’s streets to an acceptable level.[47]

State and federal
In the state legislature San Diego is located in the 36th, 38th, 39th, and 40th Senate District, represented by Republicans Dennis Hollingsworth and Mark Wyland, and Democrats Christine Kehoe and Denise Moreno Ducheny, and in the 74th, 75th, 76th, 77th, 78th, and 79th Assembly District, represented by Republicans Martin Garrick and George A. Plescia, Democrat Lori Saldaña, Republicans Joel Anderson and Shirley Horton and Democrat Mary Salas. Federally, San Diego is located in California’s 49th, 50th, 51st, 52nd, and 53rd congressional districts, which have Cook PVIs of R +10, R +5, D +7, R +9, and D +12 respectively[44] and are represented by Republicans Darrell Issa and Brian Bilbray, Democrat Bob Filner, Republican Duncan D. Hunter, and Democrat Susan Davis. The United States Postal Service operates post offices in San Diego. The San Diego Main Post Office is located at 2535 Midway Drive.[45][46]

Major highways
• Interstate 5 • Interstate 8 • Interstate 15 • Interstate 805 • • State Route 15 State Route 52 • State Route 75 • State Route 76 • State Route 78 • State Route 67 • • • • State Route 56 • State Route 54 • • • • Historic State Route 163 State Route 188 State Route 282 State Route 905 State Route 79 State Route 94 State Route 125

Transportation
Freeways and highways

I-5 looking South towards downtown San Diego. With the automobile being the primary means of transportation for over 80% of its residents, San Diego is served by an extensive network of freeways and highways. This includes Interstate 5, which runs south to Tijuana and runs north to the Canadian border through Orange County, Los Angeles, Sacramento, Portland, and Seattle; I-8, which runs east to Imperial County and Arizona; I-15, which runs north to the Canadian border through Riverside County and Salt Lake City; and I-805, which splits from I-5 at Sorrento Valley and rejoins I-5 near the Mexican border. Notable state highways are SR 94, which connects downtown with I-805, I-15 and east

Public transportation
See also: Public transportation in San Diego County, California San Diego is served by the trolley, bus, Coaster, and Amtrak. The trolley (system map) primarily serves

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San Diego

Air
San Diego International Airport, also known as Lindbergh International Airport or Lindbergh Field, is the primary commercial airport serving San Diego. It is the busiest single-runway airport in the United States,[49] serving over 17 million passengers every year, and is located on San Diego Bay three miles (4.8 km) from downtown. There are scheduled flights to the rest of the United States, Mexico, Hawaii, and Canada. It serves as a focus city or "hub" for Southwest Airlines. Other airports include Brown Field Municipal Airport (Brown Field) and Montgomery Field. Aeroméxico provides a shuttle service from San Diego[50] to General Abelardo L. Rodríguez International Airport in Tijuana, Baja California, Mexico. There has been debate regarding the placement of a new international airport. While the San Diego Airport Authority has endorsed the current site of the Miramar Marine Corps Air Station, the military said it has no intention of relinquishing that site. A vote on the issue took place on November 7, 2006 against Proposition A, in which voters rejected the proposal to move the airport to Miramar.[51] The military has rejected the proposals for a dual-use airport because the area around Miramar has already been set aside as safety corridors for military aircraft accidents. A shared commercial/military airport would force military aircraft to fly outside of those safety corridors.

San Diego Trolley at San Diego State University (SDSU) downtown and surrounding urban communities, Mission Valley, east county, and coastal south bay. A planned Mid-Coast line will operate from Old Town to University City along the 5 Freeway. There are also plans for a Silver Line to expand trolley service downtown. The Amtrak and Coaster trains currently run along the coastline and connect San Diego with Los Angeles, Orange County, Riverside, San Bernardino, and Ventura via Metrolink. There are two Amtrak stations in San Diego, in Old Town, and Union Station (downtown). The bus is available along almost all major routes; however, a large number of bus stops are concentrated in central San Diego. Typical wait times vary from 15 to 30 minutes, depending on the location and route. Trolleys arrive at each station every 7 to 30 minutes (depending on time of day and which trolley line is used). Ferries are also available every half hour crossing San Diego Bay to Coronado.

Sea

Cycling
San Diego’s roadway system provides an extensive network of routes for travel by bicycle. The dry and mild climate of San Diego makes cycling a convenient and pleasant year-round option. At the same time, the city’s hilly, canyoned terrain and significantly long average trip distances—brought about by strict low-density zoning laws—somewhat restrict cycling for utilitarian purposes. Older and denser neighborhoods around the downtown tend to be friendlier to utility cycling. This is partly because of the grid street patterns now absent in newer developments farther from the urban core, where suburban style arterial roads are much more common. As a result, a vast majority of cycling-related activities are recreational. The city has some segregated cycle facilities, particularly in newer developments although the majority of road facilities specifically for bicycles are painted on regular roadways. In 2006, San Diego was rated as the best city for cycling for U.S. cities with a population over 1 million.[48]

Sailboats in the San Diego Harbor. Visible is the San Diego skyline. The Port of San Diego manages the maritime operations of San Diego harbor. Cruise ships arrive and depart from San Diego’s cruise ship terminal on B Street Pier. Carnival Cruise Lines, Royal Caribbean, Holland America, and Celebrity Cruises have home port cruise ships in San Diego during the winter season. A new cruise terminal on Broadway Pier is set to open in 2010.

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San Diego is home to General Dynamics’ National Steel and Shipbuilding Company (NASSCO), the largest shipyard on the West Coast of the United States. It is capable of building and repairing large ocean-going vessels. The yard constructs commercial cargo ships and auxiliary vessels for the U.S. Navy and Military Sealift Command, which it has served since 1960. [2]

San Diego

Sister cities

View of Coronado and San Diego from the air San Diego has fifteen sister cities, as designated by Sister Cities International:[52] • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Jalalabad, Afghanistan Perth, Australia Campinas, Brazil Yantai, China Tema, Ghana Yokohama, Japan León, Mexico Tijuana, Mexico Cavite City, Philippines Warsaw, Poland Vladivostok, Russia Alcalá de Henares, Spain Jeonju, South Korea Taichung City, Taiwan Edinburgh, Scotland, United Kingdom Ankara, Turkey

References
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"E-1 Population Estimates for Cities, Counties and the State with Annual Percent Change — January 1, 2008 and 2009". California Department of Finance. 2009-05. http://www.dof.ca.gov/research/demographic/reports/ estimates/e-1/2008-09/. Retrieved on 2009-05-02. [3] "Find a County". National Association of Counties. http://www.naco.org/ Template.cfm?Section=Find_a_County&Template=/ cffiles/counties/usamap.cfm. Retrieved on 2008-01-31. [4] Clemence, Sara (October 28, 2005). "Richest Cities In The U.S.". Forbes. http://www.forbes.com/2005/10/27/ richest-cities-US-cx_sc_1028home_ls.html. Retrieved on April 22, 2009. [5] Doyle, Monica (February 5, 2004). "UCSD Extension Awarded A $150,000 Grant For Biotechnology Collaboration With Israel". UCSD News. http://ucsdnews.ucsd.edu/newsrel/awards/ US_Israel.asp. Retrieved on April 22, 2009. [6] Goldstein, Bruce Evan (September 2007). "The Futility of Reason: Incommensurable Differences Between Sustainability Narratives in the Aftermath of the 2003 San Diego Cedar Fire". Journal of Environmental Policy & Planning (Blacksburg, USA: School of Public and International Affairs, Virginia Tech) 9 (3 & 4): 227-244. doi:10.1080/15239080701622766. http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/ content~content=a787467532~db=all. Retrieved on April 22, 2009. [7] Viswanathan, S.; L. Eria, N. Diunugala, J. Johnson, C. McClean (January 2006). "An Analysis of Effects of San Diego Wildfire on Ambient Air Quality". Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association 56 (1). http://md1.csa.com/partners/ viewrecord.php?requester=gs&collection=ENV&recid=6707765&q=wildfire Retrieved on 2008-12-15. [8] Lee, Mike (March 28, 2007). "White House seeks limits to species act". San Diego Union-Tribune. http://www.signonsandiego.com/news/politics/ 20070328-9999-1n28esa.html. Retrieved on April 22, 2009. [9] M. Kottek; J. Grieser, C. Beck, B. Rudolf, and F. Rubel (2006). "World Map of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification updated". Meteorol. Z. 15: 259–263. doi:10.1127/0941-2948/2006/0130. http://koeppengeiger.vu-wien.ac.at/pics/kottek_et_al_2006.gif. Retrieved on April 22, 2009. [10] "San Diego, California". Weatherbase. http://www.weatherbase.com/weather/ weatherall.php3?s=9227&refer=&units=us. Retrieved on April 22, 2009. [11] ^ "Monthly Averages for San Diego, CA". The Weather Channel. http://www.weather.com/outlook/travel/ businesstraveler/wxclimatology/monthly/USca0982. Retrieved on April 22, 2009. [12] "Monthly Averages for El Cajon, CA". The Weather Channel. http://www.weather.com/outlook/travel/

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"Census 2000 Profile: City of San Diego" (PDF). United [32] California Association of Realtors (June 25, 2007). "C.A.R. States Census Bureau. June 12, 2003. Reports Sales Decrease 25 Percent in May, Median Price http://profilewarehouse.sandag.org/profiles/cen00/ of a Home in California at $591,180, up 4.8 Percent from city14cen00.pdf. Retrieved on April 22, 2009. Year Ago". Business Wire. "Race and Hispanic or Latino: 2000". United States http://www.businesswire.com/portal/site/google/ Census Bureau. 2000. http://factfinder.census.gov/ index.jsp?ndmViewId=news_view&newsId=20070625005991&newsLang=en servlet/QTTable?_bm=y&-geo_id=16000US0666000&Retrieved on April 22, 2009. qr_name=DEC_2000_SF1_U_QTP3&[33] Weisberg, Lori (March 22, 2007). "Greener pastures ds_name=DEC_2000_SF1_U&-redoLog=false. Retrieved on outside of county?". San Diego Union-Tribune. April 22, 2009. http://www.signonsandiego.com/uniontrib/20070322/ "Population and Housing Estimates" (PDF). SANDAG: news_1n22census.html. 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History_95d12bd32daa6a977774ca3c.html. Retrieved on April 22, 2009. Christie, Les (August 31, 2006). "America’s smartest cities". CNNMoney.com. http://money.cnn.com/2006/08/ 29/real_estate/brainiest_cities/index.htm#list. Retrieved on April 22, 2009. "Library Fact Sheet FY 2006". San Diego Public Library. http://www.sandiego.gov/public-library/about-thelibrary/libfactsheetfy06.shtml. Retrieved on April 22, 2009. Hall, Matthew T. (April 12, 2006). "Budget spares libraries, parks". San Diego Union-Tribune. http://www.signonsandiego.com/uniontrib/20060412/ news_1m12preview.html. Retrieved on April 22, 2009. "Culture: San Diego". Atlas International. http://www.atlasinternational.com/en-GB/usa/ lifestyle/. Retrieved on April 22, 2009. Stigall, Gary (May 3, 1999). "KFMB-TV Turns 50". Society of Broadcast Engineers Chapter 36 San Diego. http://www.sbe36.org/1999/0509_kfmbtv50.html. Retrieved on April 22, 2009. "Voter Registration in the City of San Diego" (pdf). San Diego Office of the City Clerk. August 1, 2007. http://www.sandiego.gov/city-clerk/pdf/voterstats.pdf. Retrieved on April 22, 2009. Hoffman, Allison (September 20, 2007). "San Diego Mayor Backs Same-Sex Marriage" (pdf). guardian.co.uk. http://web.archive.org/web/20071201001356/ http://www.guardian.co.uk/worldlatest/story/ 0,,-6935328,00.html. Retrieved on April 22, 2009. Hinckley, Catie; Walker, John (November 1, 2006). "Will Gerrymandered Districts Stem the Wave of Voter Unrest?". Campaign Legal Center. http://www.clcblog.org/blog_item-85.html. Retrieved on April 22, 2009. "Post Office™ Location - MIDWAY DU." United States Postal Service. Retrieved on May 5, 2009. "Postal Service extends acceptance of mail for April 15 tax filing deadline postmark at select locations." United States Postal Service. April 6, 2009. Retrieved on May 5, 2009. Hall, Matthew (May 2, 2007). "City: 37 percent of streets in acceptable driving condition". San Diego UnionTribune. http://www.signonsandiego.com/news/metro/ 20070502-1610-bn02streets.html. Retrieved on April 22, 2009. "San Diego, Madison (WI) and Boulder (CO) Are Best among Cities of Their Size, While Atlanta, Boston and Houston Are Worst". Bicycling. January 26, 2006. http://www.bikechattanooga.org/

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BicyclingMagazineRecognizesChattanoogainTop21Cities.html. Retrieved on April 22, 2009. Downey, Dave (April 24, 2006). "FAA chief says region right to consider bases". North County Times. http://www.nctimes.com/articles/2006/04/25/news/ top_stories/20_02_594_24_06.txt. Retrieved on April 22, 2009. Lindquist, Diane (November 23, 2006). "Creating a connection". San Diego Union-Tribune. http://www.signonsandiego.com/uniontrib/20061123/ news_1b23flight.html. Retrieved on April 22, 2009. Craver, Joe W. (November 19, 2006). "A clear rejection on Miramar, so...". San Diego Union-Tribune. http://www.signonsandiego.com/uniontrib/20061119/ news_mz1e19craver.html. Retrieved on April 22, 2009. "Online Directory: California, USA". Sister Cities International. http://web.archive.org/web/ 20080116164532/http://www.sister-cities.org/icrc/ directory/usa/CA. Retrieved on April 22, 2009.

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See also
• • • • 1858 San Diego hurricane List of notable San Diegans List of tallest buildings in San Diego San Diego Harbor Police

[43]

External links
• City of San Diego Official Website • Demographic fact sheet from Census Bureau • History of San Diego from San Diego Historical Society • San Diego Regional Economic Development • San Diego Public Library • San Diego Association of Nonprofits • San Diego Convention and Visitors Bureau • San Diego travel guide from Wikitravel Coordinates: 32°47′N 117°09′W / 32.78°N 117.15°W / 32.78; -117.15

[44]

[45] [46]

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Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/San_Diego" Categories: San Diego, California, San Diego County, California, County seats in California, Settlements established in 1769, Cities in San Diego County, California

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San Diego

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