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This article is about the concept in astronomy, physics and chemistry. For other uses, see Matter (disambiguation). In common usage, matter is anything that has both mass and volume. In contrast to this view based upon mechanical properties of matter, a long-standing approach is the particulate theory of matter that, in summary, suggests that matter is made up of "building blocks". The history of the various definitions of matter is an evolution in the notion of just what those building blocks are. For example, in the 19th century, matter was what is made up of atoms, thought of at that time as irreducible constituents of matter. Subsequently, matter was seen as made up of electrons, protons and neutrons. Today we know even protons and neutrons are not indivisible, but the particulate theory still applies. Just the "building blocks" have changed; matter is constructed of more microscopic building blocks, namely quarks and leptons. The change in building blocks means that although matter still may be made up of atoms and molecules (because they are made from leptons and quarks), matter is more general than this, and can be made up of assemblies of leptons and quarks that are not atoms or molecules, such as a quark-gluon plasma, or nuclear matter. Energy and mass are connected by the equation E = mc2, which means energy can always be related to mass (see Mass–energy equivalence). However, energy cannot always be related to matter: for example, photons possess energy (see Planck relation); however, photons commonly are distinguished from matter. Also, mass cannot always be related to matter: certain particles are massive, such as the W boson, but are not matter. Matter is commonly said to exist in four states (or phases): solid, liquid, gas and plasma. However, advances in experimental technique have realized other phases, previously only theoretical constructs, such as Bose–Einstein condensates and Fermionic condensates. A focus on an elementary-particle view of matter also leads to new phases of matter, such as the quark-gluon plasma. In physics and chemistry, matter and energy exhibit both wave-like and particle-like properties, the so-called wave-particle duality or matter wave. In this connection, physicists speak of matter fields, and speak of particles as "quantum excitations of a mode of the matter field". In the realm of cosmology, extensions of the term matter are invoked to include dark matter and dark energy, concepts introduced to explain some odd phenomena of the observable universe, such as the galactic rotation curve. These exotic forms of "matter" are not formed of the same building blocks that make up ordinary matter.
The DNA molecule is an example of matter under the "atoms and molecules" definition. Hydrogen bonds are shown as dotted lines. The common definition of matter is anything that has both mass and volume (occupies space). For example, a car would be said to be made of matter, as it occupies space, and has mass. The observation that matter occupies space goes back to antiquity. However, an explanation for why matter occupies space is recent, and is argued to be a result of the Pauli exclusion principle. Two particular examples where the exclusion principle clearly relates matter to the occupation of space are white dwarf stars and neutron stars, discussed further below.
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Amount of substance
The international standards organization Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM) uses the terminology "amount of substance", rather than "matter". To quote the SI brochure: "Amount of substance is defined to be proportional to the number of specified elementary entities in a sample, the proportionality constant being a universal constant which is the same for all samples. The unit of amount of substance is called the mole, symbol mol, and the mole is defined by specifying the mass of carbon 12 that constitutes one mole of carbon 12 atoms. By international agreement this was fixed at 0.012 kg, i.e. 12 g. • 1. The mole is the amount of substance of a system which contains as many elementary entities as there are atoms in 0.012 kilogram of carbon 12; its symbol is "mol". • 2. When the mole is used, the elementary entities must be specified and may be atoms, molecules, ions, electrons, other particles, or specified groups of such particles."
Under the "quarks and leptons" definition, the elementary and composite particles made of the quarks (in purple) and leptons (in green) would be "matter"; while the gauge bosons (in blue), if isolated, would not be "matter". However, interaction energy inherent to composite particles (for example, gluons involved in neutrons and protons) are included in ordinary matter. everything that is composed of elementary fermions, namely quarks and leptons. The connection between these formulations follows. Leptons (the most famous being the electron), and quarks (of which baryons, such as protons and neutrons, are made) combine to form atoms, which in turn form molecules. Because atoms and molecules are said to be matter, it is natural to phrase the definition as: ordinary matter is anything that is made of the same things that atoms and molecules are made of. (However, notice that one also can make from these building blocks matter that is not atoms or molecules.) Then, because electrons are leptons, and protons and neutrons are made of quarks, this definition in turn leads to the definition of matter as being "quarks and leptons", which are the two types of elementary fermions. Carithers and Grannis state: Ordinary matter is composed entirely of first-generation particles, namely the u [up] and d [down] quarks, plus the electron and its neutrino. This definition of ordinary matter is more subtle than it first appears. There are two groups of particles. All the particles that make up matter, such as electrons, protons and neutrinos, are fermions. All the force carriers are bosons. See the tabulation in the figure. The W and Z bosons that mediate the weak force are not made of quarks and leptons, and so in isolation are not ordinary matter, but do have mass. In other words, mass is not something that is exclusive to ordinary matter.
Atomic and sub-atomic definitions
A definition of "matter" that is based upon its physical and chemical structure is: matter is made up of what atoms and molecules are made of, meaning anything made of protons, neutrons, and electrons. This definition is consistent with the BIPM definition of "amount of substance" above, but is more specific about the constituents of matter (and unconcerned about the unit mole). Further discussion appears below in the discussion section and in the description of the quarks and leptons definition. As an example of matter under this definition, genetic information is carried by a long molecule called DNA, which is copied and inherited across generations. It is matter under this definition because it is made of atoms, not by virtue of having mass or occupying space. At a more microscopic level, the constituent "particles" of matter such as protons, neutrons and electrons obey the laws of quantum mechanics and exhibit wave-particle duality. At an even deeper level, protons and neutrons are made up of quarks and the force fields (gluons) that bind them together (see Quarks and leptons definition below).
Quarks and leptons definition
As may be seen from the above discussion, many early definitions of what can be called ordinary matter were based upon its structure or "building blocks". On the scale of elementary particles, a definition that follows this tradition can be stated as: ordinary matter is
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The quark-lepton definition of ordinary matter, however, identifies not only the elementary building blocks of matter, but also includes composites made from the constituents (atoms and molecules, for example) and by implication, therefore, the interaction energy that holds the constituents together. The inclusion of interaction energy implied by the definition of ordinary matter is significant. For example, to a great extent, the mass of an atom is simply the sum of the masses of its constituent protons, neutrons and electrons. However, digging deeper, the protons and neutrons are made up of quarks bound together by gluon fields (see QCD). Basically, much of the mass of hadrons is the interaction energy of bound quarks. Thus, most of what composes the "mass" of ordinary matter is interquark interaction energy. For example, "the gluonic forces binding three quarks (total mass 12.5 MeV) to make a nucleon contribute most of its mass of 938 MeV". In a similar vein, the quark gluon plasma is considered to be a state of matter, and obviously includes the gluons.
of matter has been one of the most important advances in contemporary physics. In this connection, physicists speak of matter fields, and speak of particles as "quantum excitations of a mode of the matter field". And here is a quote from De Sabbata and Gasperini: "With the word "matter" we denote, in this context, the sources of the interactions, that is spinor fields (like quarks and leptons), which are believed to be the fundamental components of matter, or scalar fields, like the Higgs particles, which are used to introduced mass in a gauge theory (and which, however, could be composed of more fundamental fermion fields)." The term "matter" is used throughout physics in a bewildering variety of contexts: for example, one refers to "condensed matter physics", "elementary matter", "partonic" matter, "dark" matter, "anti"-matter, "strange" matter, and "nuclear" matter. In discussions of matter and antimatter, normal matter has been referred to by Alfvén as koinomatter. It is fair to say that in physics, there is no broad consensus as to an exact definition of matter, and the term "matter" usually is used in conjunction with some modifier.
Discussion and background
The common definition in terms of occupying space and having mass is in contrast with most physical and chemical definitions of matter, which rely instead upon its structure and upon attributes not necessarily related to volume and mass. James Clerk Maxwell discussed matter in his work Matter and Motion. He carefully separates "matter" from space and time, and defines it in terms of the object referred to in Newton’s first law of motion. In the 19th century, the term "matter" was actively discussed by a host of scientists and philosophers, and a brief outline can be found in Levere. A textbook discussion from 1870 suggests matter is what is made up of atoms: Three divisions of matter are recognized in science: masses, molecules and atoms. A Mass of matter is any portion of matter appreciable by the senses. A Molecule is the smallest particle of matter into which a body can be divided without losing its identity. An Atom is a still smaller particle produced by division of a molecule. Rather than simply having the attributes of mass and occupying space, matter was held to have chemical and electrical properties. The famous physicist J. J. Thomson wrote about the "constitution of matter" and was concerned with the possible connection between matter and electrical charge. There is an entire literature concerning the "structure of matter", ranging from the "electrical structure" in the early 20th century, to the more recent "quark structure of matter", introduced today with the remark: Understanding the quark structure
Phases of ordinary matter
A solid metal cup containing liquid nitrogen slowly evaporating into gaseous nitrogen. Evaporation is the phase transition from a liquid state to a gas state. See also: Phase diagram and State of matter In bulk, matter can exist in several different forms, or states of aggregation, known as phases, depending on ambient pressure, temperature and volume. A phase is a form of matter that has a relatively uniform chemical composition and physical properties (such as density, specific heat, refractive index, and so forth). These phases include the three familiar ones (solids, liquids, and gases), as well as more exotic states of matter ( such as plasmas, superfluids, supersolids, Bose-Einstein condensates, ...). A fluid may be a liquid, gas or plasma. There are also paramagnetic and ferromagnetic phases of magnetic materials. As conditions change, matter may
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In a liquid, the constituents frequently are touching, but able to move around each other. So unlike a gas, it has cohesion and viscosity. Compared to a solid, the forces holding constituents together are weaker, and it is not rigid, but adapts a shape decided by its container. Liquids are hard to compress. A common example is water.
A gas is a state of aggregation without cohesion; a vapor. Thus a gas has no resistance to changing shape (beyond the inertia of its constituents, which have to be knocked aside). The distance between constituent particles is flexible, determined, for example, by the size of a container and the number of particles, not by internal forces. A common example is the vapor form of water, steam.
Phase diagram for a typical substance at a fixed volume. Vertical axis is Pressure, horizontal axis is Temperature. The green line marks the freezing point (above the green line is solid, below it is liquid) and the blue line the boiling point (above it is liquid and below it is gas). So, for example, at higher T, a higher P is necessary to maintain the substance in liquid phase. At the triple point the three phases; liquid, gas and solid; can coexist. Above the critical point there is no detectable difference between the phases. The dotted line shows the anomalous behavior of water: ice melts at constant temperature with increasing pressure. change from one phase into another. These phenomena are called phase transitions, and are studied in the field of thermodynamics. In nanomaterials, the vastly increased ratio of surface area to volume results in matter that can exhibit properties entirely different from those of bulk material, and not well described by any bulk phase (see nanomaterials for more details). Phases are sometimes called states of matter, but this term can lead to confusion with thermodynamic states. For example, two gases maintained at different pressures are in different thermodynamic states (different pressures), but in the same phase (both are solids).
Plasma is a fourth state of matter consisting of an overall charge-neutral mix of electrons, ions and neutral atoms. The plasma exhibits behavior peculiar to long range Coulomb forces in which the particles move in electromagnetic fields generated by and self-consistent with their own motions. The sun and stars are plasmas, as is the Earth’s ionosphere, and plasmas occur in neon signs. Plasmas of deuterium and tritium ions are used in fusion reactions. The term plasma was applied for the first time by Tonks and Langmuir in 1929, to the inner regions of a glowing ionized gas produced by electric discharge in a tube.
This state of matter was first discovered by Satyendra Nath Bose, who sent his work on statistics of photons to Albert Einstein for comment. Following publication of Bose’s paper, Einstein extended his treatment to massive particles fixed in number, and predicted this fifth state of matter in 1925. Bose–Einstein condensates were first realized experimentally by several different scientific groups in 1995 for rubidium, sodium, and lithium, using a combination of laser and evaporative cooling. Bose–Einstein condensation for atomic hydrogen was achieved in 1998. The Bose–Einstein condensate is a liquid-like superfluid that occurs in at low temperatures in which all atoms occupy the same quantum state. In low-density systems, it occurs at or below 10−5 K.
Solids are characterized by a tendency to retain their structural integrity; if left on their own, they will not spread in the same way gas or liquids would. Many solids, like rocks and concrete, have very high hardness and rigidity and will tend to break or shatter when subject to various forms of stress, but others like steel and paper are more flexible and will bend. Solids are often composed of crystals, glasses, or long chain molecules (e.g. rubber and paper). Some solids are amorphous such as glass. A common example of a solid is the solid form of water, ice.
See also: Superconductor and BCS theory A fermonic condensate is a superfluid phase formed by fermionic particles at low temperatures. It is closely
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related to the Bose-Einstein condensate under similar conditions. Unlike the Bose-Einstein condensates, fermionic condensates are formed using fermions instead of bosons. The earliest recognized fermionic condensate described the state of electrons in a superconductor; the physics of other examples including recent work with fermionic atoms is analogous. The first atomic fermionic condensate was created by Deborah S. Jin in 2003. These atomic fermionic condensates are studied at temperatures in the vicinity of 50-350 nK. A hypothetical fermionic condensate that appears in theories of massless fermions with chiral symmetry breaking is the chiral condensate or the quark condensate.
Phases of nuclear matter; Compare with Siemens & Jensen. Gluons are elementary particles that cause quarks to interact, and are indirectly responsible for the binding of protons and neutrons together in atomic nuclei. The quark-gluon plasma is a hypothetical phase of matter, a phase of matter as yet not observed, supposed to exist in the early universe and to have evolved into a hadronicgas phase. At extremely high energy the strong force is anticipated to become so weak that the atomic nuclei break down into a bunch of loose quarks, which distinguishes the quark-gluon phase from normal plasma. In collisions of relativistic heavy ions, a phase transition occurs from the nuclear, hadronic phase to a matter phase consisting of quarks and gluons. So far, experimental results have shown that instead of a weakly interacting plasma, an almost ideal liquid is produced. An animation is found at Gold ion collision @ RHIC.
A model of a neutron star’s internal structure. (Other models exist.) At a depth of about 10 km the core becomes a superfluid liquid primarily of neutrons. The section at the left shows density vs. radius. Data from Luminet et al.
Core of a neutron star
See also: Magnetar Because of its extreme density, the core of a neutron star falls under no other state of matter. While a white dwarf is about as massive as the sun (up to 1.4 solar masses, the Chandrasekhar limit), the Pauli exclusion principle prevents its collapse to smaller radius, and it becomes an example of degenerate matter. In contrast, neutron stars are between 1.5 and 3 solar masses, and achieve such density that the protons and electrons are crushed to become neutrons. Neutrons are fermions, so further collapse is prevented by the exclusion principle, forming so-called neutron degenerate matter.
Structure of ordinary matter
In particle physics, fermions are particles which obey Fermi–Dirac statistics. Fermions can be elementary, like the electron, or composite, like the proton and the neutron. In the Standard Model there are two types of elementary fermions: quarks and leptons, which are discussed next.
Quarks are a particles of spin-1⁄2, meaning that they are fermions. They carry an electric charge of −1⁄3 e (downtype quarks) or +2⁄3 e (up-type quarks). For comparison, an electron has a charge of −1 e. They also carry colour charge, which is the equivalent of the electric charge for the strong interaction. Quarks also undergo radioactive decay, meaning that they are subject to the weak interaction. Quarks are massive particles, and therefore are also subject to gravity.
Relativistic gold ions collide to make a hadronic fireball; frame from animation by Brookhaven National Laboratory
See also: Gluon and Hadron
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Quark properties Name Symbol Spin Electric charge (e) u c t
1 1 1
Mass (MeV/c2) 1.5 to 3.3 1160 to 1340 169,100 to 173,300
Mass comparable to
Antiparticle symbol u c t
Up-type quarks Up Charm Top
⁄2 ⁄2 ⁄2
+2⁄ 3 +2⁄ 3 +2⁄ 3
~ 5 electrons ~ 1 proton ~ 180 protons or ~ 1 tungsten atom ~ 10 electrons ~ 200 electrons ~ 5 protons
Antiup Anticharm Antitop
Down-type quarks Down d
1 1 1
⁄2 ⁄2 ⁄2
−1⁄ 3 −1⁄ 3 −1⁄ 3
3.5 to 6.0 70 to 130 4130 to 4370
Antidown Antistrange Antibottom
d s b
Strange s Bottom b
(that is, matter that may be visible because light could reach us from it), is made of baryionic matter. About 23% is dark matter, and about 72% is dark energy.
A comparison between the white dwarf IK Pegasi B (center), its A-class companion IK Pegasi A (left) and the Sun (right). This white dwarf has a surface temperature of 35,500 K. Quark structure of a proton: 2 up quarks and 1 down quark.
In physics, degenerate matter refers to the ground state of a gas of fermions at a temperature near absolute zero. The Pauli exclusion principle requires that only two fermions can occupy a quantum state, one spin-up and the other spin-down. Hence, at zero temperature, the fermions fill up sufficient levels to accommodate all the available fermions, and for the case of many fermions the maximum kinetic energy called the Fermi energy and the pressure of the gas becomes very large and dependent upon the number of fermions rather than the temperature, unlike normal states of matter. Degenerate matter is thought to occur during the evolution of heavy stars. The demonstration by Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar that white dwarf stars have a maximum allowed mass because of the exclusion principle caused a revolution in the theory of star evolution.
Baryons are strongly interacting fermions, and so are subject to Fermi-Dirac statistics. Amongst the baryons are the protons and neutrons, which occur in atomic nuclei, but many other unstable baryons exist as well. The term baryon is usually used to refer to triquarks — particles made of three quarks. "Exotic" baryons made of four quarks and one antiquark are known as the pentaquarks, but their existence is not generally accepted. Baryonic matter is the part of the universe that is made of baryons (including all atoms). This part of the universe does not include dark energy, dark matter, black holes or various forms of degenerate matter, such as compose white dwarf stars and neutron stars. Microwave light seen by Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP), suggests that only about 4.6% of that part of the universe within range of the best telescopes
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Lepton properties Name Symbol Spin Electric charge (e) e− μ− τ−
Mass Mass comparable to (MeV/c2)
Charged leptons Electron Muon Tauon Neutrinos Electron neutrino Muon neutrino Tauon neutrino (or tau neutrino) νe νμ ντ
⁄2 ⁄2 ⁄2 ⁄2 ⁄2 ⁄2
−1 −1 −1
0.5110 105.7 1,777
1 electron ~ 200 electrons ~ 2 protons
Antielectron (positron) Antimuon Antitauon
e+ μ+ τ+
0 0 0
< Less than a thousandth of an 0.000460 electron < 0.19 < 18.2 Less than half of an electron Less than ~ 40 electrons
Electron antineutrino Muon antineutrino Tauon antineutrino (or tau antineutrino)
νe νμ ντ
Degenerate matter includes the part of the universe that is made up of neutron stars and white dwarfs.
Leptons are a particles of spin-1⁄2, meaning that they are fermions. They carry an electric charge of −1 e (electronlike leptons) or 0 e (neutrinos). Unlike quarks, leptons do not carry colour charge, meaning that they do not experience the strong interaction. Leptons also undergo radioactive decay, meaning that they are subject to the weak interaction. Leptons are massive particles, therefore are subject to gravity.
Matter, in the scientific definition, constitutes about 4% of the energy of the observable universe. The remaining energy is theorized to be due to exotic forms, of which 23% is dark matter and 73% is dark energy.
In particle physics and quantum chemistry, antimatter is matter that is composed of the antiparticles of those that constitute normal matter. If a particle and its antiparticle come into contact with each other, the two annihilate; that is, they may both be converted into other particles with equal energy in accordance with Einstein’s equation E = mc2. These new particles may be high-energy photons (gamma rays) or other particle–antiparticle pairs. The resulting particles are endowed with an amount of kinetic energy equal to the difference between the rest mass of the products of the annihilation and the rest mass of the original particleantiparticle pair, which is often quite large. Antimatter is not found naturally on Earth, except very briefly and in vanishingly small quantities (as the result of radioactive decay or cosmic rays). This is because antimatter which came to exist on Earth outside the confines of a suitable physics laboratory would almost instantly meet the ordinary matter that Earth is made of, and be annihilated. Antiparticles and some stable antimatter (such as antihydrogen) can be made in tiny amounts, but not in enough quantity to do more than test a few of its theoretical properties. There is considerable speculation both in science and science fiction as to why the observable universe is apparently almost entirely matter, whether other places are almost entirely antimatter instead, and what might
Other types of matter
Pie chart showing the fractions of energy in the universe contributed by different sources. Ordinary matter is divided into luminous matter (the stars and luminous gases and 0.005% radiation) and nonluminous matter (intergalactic gas and about 0.1% neutrinos and 0.04% supermassive black holes). Ordinary matter is uncommon. Modeled after Ostriker and Steinhardt. For more information, see NASA.
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be possible if antimatter could be harnessed, but at this time the apparent asymmetry of matter and antimatter in the visible universe is one of the great unsolved problems in physics. Possible processes by which it came about are explored in more detail under baryogenesis.
have observed experimentally or described in the standard model of particle physics. Of the other 96%, apart from the properties just mentioned, we know absolutely nothing. – Lee Smolin: The Trouble with Physics, p. 16
Exotic matter is a hypothetical concept of particle physics. It covers any material which violates one or more classical conditions or is not made of known baryonic particles. Such materials would possess qualities like negative mass or being repelled rather than attracted by gravity.
Galaxy rotation curve for the Milky Way. Vertical axis is speed of rotation about the galactic center. Horizontal axis is distance from the galactic center. The sun is marked with a yellow ball. The observed curve of speed of rotation is blue. The predicted curve based upon stellar mass and gas in the Milky Way is red. Scatter in observations roughly indicated by gray bars. The difference is due to dark matter or perhaps a modification of the law of gravity. 
See also: Galaxy formation and evolution and Dark matter halo In astrophysics and cosmology, dark matter is matter of unknown composition that does not emit or reflect enough electromagnetic radiation to be observed directly, but whose presence can be inferred from gravitational effects on visible matter. Observational evidence of the early universe and the big bang theory require that this matter have energy and mass, but is not composed of either elementary fermions (as above) OR gauge bosons. As such, it is composed of particles as yet unobserved in the laboratory (perhaps supersymmetric particles). 
See also: Big bang#Dark energy In cosmology, dark energy is the name given to the antigravitating influence that is accelerating the rate of expansion of the universe. It is known not to be composed of known particles like protons, neutrons or electrons, nor of the particles of dark matter, because these all gravitate. Fully 70% of the matter density in the universe appears to be in the form of dark energy. Twenty-six percent is dark matter. Only 4% is ordinary matter. So less than 1 part in 20 is made out of matter we
J. Mongillo (2007). Nanotechnology 101. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 30. ISBN 0313338809. http://books.google.com/ books?id=j69lwrrQ4nsC&pg=PA30. The particulate theory of matter dates back to Leucippus (≈490 BC) and Democritus (≈470-380BC). John Olmsted & GM Williams (1996). Chemistry: the molecular science (2 ed.). Jones & Bartlett Publishers. p. 40. ISBN 0815184506. http://books.google.com/ books?id=1vnk6J8knKkC&pg=PA40. Paul Davies. The new physics: a synthesis. Cambridge University Press. p. 1. ISBN 0521438314 Year=1992. http://books.google.com/ books?id=akb2FpZSGnMC&pg=PA1. G. ’t Hooft (1997). In search of the ultimate building blocks. Cambridge University Press. p. 6. ISBN 0521578833. http://books.google.com/books?id=e-7eApbVbEC&pg=PA6. M. Wenham (2005). Understanding Primary Science: Ideas, Concepts and Explanations (2nd ed.). Paul Chapman Educational Publishing. p. 115. ISBN 1412901634. http://books.google.com/ books?id=9vWrbr42VA0C&pg=PA115. The history of the concept of matter is a history of the fundamental length scales used to define matter. Different definitions apply depending upon whether one defines matter on an atomic or elementary particle level. One may use a definition that matter is atoms, or that matter is hadrons, or that matter is leptons and quarks depending upon the scale at which one wishes to define matter. B. Povh, K. Rith, C. Scholz, F. Zetsche, M. Lavelle (2004). "Fundamental constituents of matter". Particles and Nuclei: An Introduction to the Physical Concepts (4th ed.). Springer. ISBN 3540201688. http://books.google.com/ books?id=rJe4k8tkq7sC&pg=PA9&dq=povh+%22building+blocks+of+matter
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In this equation, the mass referred to is the collective aggregate of all material substances that relativistic mass, which includes kinetic energy of occupy space and have mass or weight." motion. See Wolfgang Rindler (1977). Essential  K.A. Peacock (2008). The Quantum Revolution: A Relativity (2 ed.). Birkhäuser. p. 82. ISBN 354007970X. Historical Perspective. Greenwood Publishing Group. http://books.google.com/ p. 47. ISBN 031333448X. http://books.google.com/ books?id=0J_dwCmQThgC&pg=PA82. . The use of the books?id=ITqnf5jdE5QC&pg=PA47&dq=%22prevents+matter+from+collaps concept "relativistic mass" has been the topic of  M.H. Krieger (1998). Constitutions of Matter: much debate. See Max Jammer (1999). Concepts of Mathematically Modeling the Most Everyday of Physical mass in contemporary physics and philosophy. Princeton Phenomena. University of Chicago Press. p. 22. ISBN University Press. p. 51. ISBN 069101017X. 0226453057. http://books.google.com/ http://books.google.com/ books?id=VduHhkzlbooks?id=jujK1bn4QUQC&pg=PA51. aQC&pg=PA22&dq=%22does+not+collapse+into+itself%22&lr=&as_brr=0#P See for example,Mari Jibu, Kunio Yasue (1995).  "SI brochure, Section 220.127.116.11 – Mole". BIPM. Quantum brain dynamics and consciousness. John http://www.bipm.org/en/si/base_units/mole.html. Benjamins Publishing Company. p. 62. ISBN 1556191839. Retrieved on 2009-04-30. http://books.google.com/  Michael De Podesta (2002). Understanding the Properties books?id=iNUvcniwvg0C&pg=PA62. , Brian Martin (2009). of Matter (2 ed.). CRC Press. p. 8. ISBN 0415257883. Nuclear and Particle Physics (2 ed.). Wiley. p. 125. ISBN http://books.google.com/ 0470742755. http://books.google.com/ books?id=h8BNvnR050cC&pg=PA8. books?id=ws8QZ2M5OR8C&pg=PT143. and Kevin W.  B. Povh, K. Rith, C. Scholz, F. Zetsche, M. Lavelle (2004). Plaxco, Michael Gross (2006). Astrobiology: A Brief "Part I: Analysis: The building blocks of matter". Introduction. The Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 23. Particles and Nuclei: An Introduction to the Physical ISBN 0801883679. http://books.google.com/ Concepts (4th ed.). Springer. ISBN 3540201688. books?id=2JuGDL144BEC&pg=PA23. . http://books.google.com/ All interactions are mediated by field quanta, of books?id=rJe4k8tkq7sC&pg=PA9&dq=povh+%22building+blocks+of+matter which the W-boson and the photon are examples.  B. Carithers, P. Grannis (1995). "Discovery of the Top The field quanta themselves are not matter, Quark". Beam Line (SLAC) 25 (3): 4–16. although they can contribute to the invariant mass http://www.slac.stanford.edu/pubs/beamline/pdf/ of a hadron, for example, through a binding 95iii.pdf. energy. See PA Tipler & RA Llewellyn (2002). Modern  See p.7 in B. Carithers, P. Grannis (1995). "Discovery of Physics. Macmillan. pp. 89-91 & 94-95. ISBN 0716743450. the Top Quark". Beam Line (SLAC) 25 (3): 4–16. http://books.google.com/ http://www.slac.stanford.edu/pubs/beamline/pdf/ books?id=tpU18JqcSNkC&pg=PA94. and Peter Schmüser 95iii.pdf. & Hartwig Spitzer (2002). "Particles". in L Bergmann et  L. Smolin (2007). The Trouble with Physics: The Rise of al.. CRC Press. pp. 773 ff. ISBN 0849312027. String Theory, the Fall of a Science, and What Comes http://books.google.com/ Next. Mariner Books. p. 67. ISBN 061891868X. books?id=mGj1y1WYflMC&printsec=frontcover#PPA773,M1. http://books.google.com/ ^ RHIC Scientists Serve Up "Perfect" Liquid books?id=z5rxrnlcp3sC&pg=PA67&dq=%22all+the+particles+that+make+up ^ P.C.W. Davies (1979). The Forces of Nature. Cambridge  The W boson mass is 80.43 GeV; see Figure 1 in C. University Press. p. 116. ISBN 052122523X. Caso, M.W. Grünewald, A. Gurtu (2008). "The mass and http://books.google.com/ width of the W boson". Particle Data Group. books?id=Av08AAAAIAAJ&pg=PA116&dq=%22matter+field%22&lr=&as_brr=0. http://pdg.lbl.gov/2008/reviews/wmass_s043202.pdf. ^ S. Weinberg (1998). The Quantum Theory of Fields. Retrieved on 10 December 2008. Cambridge University Press. p. 2. ISBN 0521550025.  I.J.R. Aitchison, A.J.G. Hey (2004). Gauge Theories in http://books.google.com/ Particle Physics. CRC Press. p. 48. ISBN 0750308648. books?id=2oPZJJerMLsC&pg=PA5&dq=Weinberg+%22matter+field%22&lr=&as_brr=0#PPA5,M1. http://books.google.com/ S.M. Walker, A. King (2005). What is Matter?. Lerner books?id=vLP7XN2pWlEC&pg=PA48&dq=%22source+particles+of+the+gluo Publications. p. 7. ISBN 0822551314.  B. Povh, K. Rith, C. Scholz, F. Zetsche, M. Lavelle (2004). http://books.google.com/ op. cit.. Berlin: Springer. p. 103. ISBN 3540201688. books?id=o7EquxOl4MAC&printsec=frontcover&dq=matter&lr=&as_brr=0#PPA7,M1. http://books.google.com/ J.Kenkel, P.B. Kelter, D.S. Hage (2000). Chemistry: An books?id=rJe4k8tkq7sC&pg=PA103&dq=%22interquark+interaction+energy Industry-based Introduction with CD-ROM. CRC Press.  A.M. Green (2004). Hadronic Physics from Lattice QCD. p. 2. ISBN 1566703034. http://books.google.com/ World Scientific. p. 120. ISBN 981256022X. books?id=ADSjPRl_tgoC&pg=PA1&dq=matter+chemistry+properties&lr=&as_brr=0#PPA2,M1. http://books.google.com/ "All basic science textbooks define matter as simply the books?id=XUGVOJKHgKAC&pg=PA120&dq=%22gluonic+forces+binding%2
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The New Physics for the Twenty-first P. Morton and Company. p. 2. http://books.google.com/ Century. Cambridge University Press. p. 238. ISBN books?id=B6Yz6eW-5joC. 0521816009. http://books.google.com/  J.J. Thomson (1909). "Preface". Electricity and Matter. A. books?id=0idvEIXwfxsC&pg=PA238&dq=%22BoseConstable. http://books.google.com/ Einstein+condensate%22&lr=&as_brr=0#PPA238,M1. books?id=2AaToepvKoEC&printsec=titlepage#PPP13,M1.  ^ C. Pethick, H. Smith (2002). "Introduction".  O.W. Richardson (1914). "Chapter 1". The Electron Theory Bose–Einstein Condensation in Dilute Gases. Cambridge of Matter. The University Press. University Press. ISBN 0521665809. http://books.google.com/ http://books.google.com/ books?id=RpdDAAAAIAAJ&printsec=frontcover&dq=matter&lr=&as_brr=0#PPA1,M1. books?id=K_KPhpTTmkEC&printsec=frontcover&dq=%22Bose M. Jacob (1992). The Quark Structure of Matter. World Einstein+condensate%22&lr=&as_brr=0#PPA1,M1. Scientific. ISBN 9810236875. http://books.google.com/  M. Greiner, C.A. Regal, D.S. Jin (2003). "A molecular Bosebooks?id=iQ1e2a9bPikC&printsec=frontcover&dq=matter&lr=&as_brr=0#PPA1,M1. Einstein condensate emerges from a Fermi sea". arΧiv:  V. De Sabbata, M. Gasperini (1985). Introduction to cond-mat/0311172v1 [cond-mat.stat-mech]. Gravitation. World Scientific. p. 293. ISBN 9971500493.  M.W. Zwierlein, C.H. Schunck, A. Schirotzek, W. Ketterle http://books.google.com/ (2006). "Direct Observation of the Superfluid Phase books?id=7sJ6m8s0_ccC&pg=PA293&dq=Weinberg+%22matter+field%22&lr=&as_brr=0. Transition in Ultracold Fermi Gases". arΧiv: cond-mat/  P.M. Chaikin, T.C. Lubensky (2000). Principles of 0605258v1 [cond-mat.supr-con]. Condensed Matter Physics. Cambridge University Press.  E.V. Shuryak (2004). The QCD Vacuum, Hadrons and p. xvii. ISBN 0521794501. http://books.google.com/ Superdense Matter. World Scientific. p. 159. ISBN books?id=P9YjNjzr9OIC&printsec=frontcover&dq=matter&lr=&as_brr=0#PPR17,M1. 9812385746. http://books.google.com/  W. Greiner, M.G. Itkis (2003). Structure and Dynamics of books?id=rbcQMK6a6ekC&pg=PA182&dq=%22chiral+condensate%22&lr=& Elementary Matter: Proceedings of the NATO Asi on  P. Haensel, A.Y. Potekhin, A.Û. Potehin, D.G. Yakovlev Structure and Dynamics of Elementary Matter, (2007). Neutron Stars. Springer. p. 11. ISBN 0387335439. Camyuva-Kemer (Antalya), Turkey, from 22 September http://books.google.com/ to 2 October 2003. Springer. ISBN 1402024452. books?id=iIrj9nfHnesC&pg=PA52&dq=neutron+star+crystalline+mantle&lr http://books.google.com/  J.-P. Luminet, A. Bullough, A. King (1992). Black Holes. books?id=ORyJzhAzpUgC&printsec=frontcover&dq=matter&lr=&as_brr=0#PPR12,M1. Cambridge University Press. p. 111, Figure 25. ISBN  P. Sukys (1999). Lifting the Scientific Veil: Science 0521409063. http://books.google.com/ Appreciation for the Nonscientist. Rowman & Littlefield. books?id=WRexJODPq5AC&pg=PA55&dq=isbn=0521409063&lr=&as_brr=0# p. 87. ISBN 0847696006. http://books.google.com/  D.R. Danielson (2001). The Book of the Cosmos. Da Capo books?id=WEM4hqxJPress. p. 455. ISBN 0738204986. http://books.google.com/ xYC&pg=PR23&dq=isbn=0847696006#PPA87,M1. books?id=zwIN_ S.R. Logan (1998). Physical Chemistry for the Biomedical rqrL4C&pg=PA453&dq=exclusion+principle+%22neutron+star%22&lr=&as_ Sciences. CRC Press. pp. 110–111. ISBN 0748407103.  M.A. Strain (2004). Cosmic Entity. iUniverse (selfhttp://books.google.com/ published). p. 50. ISBN 0595301258. books?id=LA_8QzoCNMsC&pg=PA110&dq=water+%22phase++diagram%22&lr=&as_brr=0. http://books.google.com/  P.J. Collings (2002). "Chapter 1: States of Matter". Liquid books?id=Ic7YLrm0xvAC&pg=PA50&dq=matter+%22exclusion+principle% Crystals: Nature’s Delicate Phase of Matter. Princeton  Phillip John Siemens, Aksel S. Jensen (1994). Elements Of University Press. ISBN 0691086729. Nuclei: Many-body Physics With The Strong Interaction. http://books.google.com/ Westview Press. ISBN 0201627310. books?id=NE1RWiGXtdUC&printsec=frontcover#PPA1,M1. http://books.google.com/  D.H. Trevena (1975). "Chapter 1.2 Changes of phase". The books?id=z-8vuyAqT9MC&pg=PA347. Liquid Phase. Taylor & Francis. http://books.google.com/  WA Zajc (2008). "The fluid nature of quark-gluon books?id=oOkOAAAAQAAJ&pg=PA1&dq=phase+of+matter&lr=&as_brr=0&as_pt=ALLTYPES#PPA1,M1. plasma". Nuclear Physics A 805: 283c-294c. doi:10.1016/  T. Makabe, Z. Petrović (2006). Plasma Electronics: j.nuclphysa.2008.02.285. http://arxiv.org/PS_cache/ Applications in Microelectronic Device Fabrication. CRC arxiv/pdf/0802/0802.3552v1.pdf.
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