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Malay language

Malay language
Malay Bahasa Melayu ‫ويالم ساهب‬ Spoken in Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, southern Thailand, southern Philippines, southern Myanmar, Cocos Island, Christmas Island, Sri Lanka. more than 300 million, about 10% are Malay ethnic (mother tongue) 53 Austronesian Malayo-Polynesian (MP) Nuclear MP Malayo-Sumbawan Malayic Malayan Malay Malay Rumi (Latin alphabet) (official in Malaysia, Singapore and Indonesia; co-official in Brunei) and Jawi (Arabic script) (co-official in Brunei and Malaysia[1]). Historically written in Pallava, Kawi and Rencong mfa – Pattani Malay msi – Sabah Malay vkt – Tenggarong Kutai Malay

Total speakers Ranking Language family

Writing system

Official status Official language in Regulated by Brunei, Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, East Timor (working language) Majlis Bahasa Brunei - Indonesia - Malaysia (Brunei - Indonesia - Malaysia Language Council — MABBIM), Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka (Institute of Language and Literature) Pusat Bahasa, Indonesia

Malay refers to a group of languages closely related to each other to the point of mutual intelligibility but that linguists consider to be separate languages. They are grouped into a group called "Local Malay", part of a larger group called "Malayan" within the Malayo-Polynesian branch of the Austronesian language family.[2][3][4] The various forms of Malay are spoken in Brunei, Indonesia (where the national language, Indonesian, is one form of it), Malaysia, Singapore, and southern Thailand.[5] Malay is an official language of Brunei and Malaysia, and one of the official languages in Singapore. The national language of Indonesia is Indonesian, formally referred to as Bahasa Indonesia which literally translates as "Indonesian language". It is also called Bahasa Kebangsaan (National Language) and Bahasa Persatuan/Pemersatu (Unifying Language) in Indonesia. Indonesian is also used in East Timor, a consequence of more than 20 years of Indonesian military occupation. In Malaysia, the language is now officially known as Bahasa Malaysia ("Malaysian language"), though some Malay nationalists still want it to be called Bahasa Melayu. In fact Singapore, Brunei and southern Thailand refer to the language as Bahasa Melayu ("Malay language").

Origin
There are many hypotheses as to where the Malay language originated from. One of it is from Sumatra island. The oldest written documents in Malay, dated from the end of the 7th century AD, were found on Bangka island near Sumatra and in Palembang in southern Sumatra. "Malayu" was the name of an old kingdom located in Jambi province in eastern Sumatra. It was known in ancient Chinese texts as "Mo-lo-yo" and mentioned in the Nagarakertagama, an old Javanese epic written in 1365, as one of the "tributary states" of the Majapahit kingdom in eastern Java. The use of Malay throughout insular and peninsular Southeast Asia is linked to the rise of Muslim kingdoms and the spread of Islam, itself a consequence of growing regional trade. Indonesia pronounced Malay its official language when it gained independence, calling it Bahasa Indonesia. However, the language had already been used as the lingua franca throughout the archipelago since the 15th

Language codes ISO 639-1 ISO 639-2 ISO 639-3 ms may (B) msa (T)

variously: msa – Malay (generic) zlm – Malay (specific) zsm – Standard Malay btj – Bacanese Malay bve – Berau Malay bvu – Bukit Malay coa – Cocos Islands Malay hji – Haji jax – Jambi Malay meo – Kedah Malay mqg – Kota Bangun Kutai Malay xmm – Manado Malay max – North Moluccan Malay

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
century. Since 1928, nationalists and young people throughout the Indonesian archipelago declared it to be Indonesia’s only official language, as proclaimed in the Sumpah Pemuda "Youth Vow." Thus Indonesia was the first country to designate it as an official language. In Malaysia, the term Bahasa Malaysia, which was introduced by the National Language Act of 1967, was in use until the 1990s, when most academics and government officials reverted to "Bahasa Melayu," used in the Malay version of the Federal Constitution. According to Article 152 of the Federal Constitution, Bahasa Melayu is the official language of Malaysia. "Bahasa Kebangsaan" (National Language) was also used at one point during the 1970s. However, at present day, Malaysians prefer to identify their national language as Bahasa Malaysia once again. Similar to Malaysia in the mid 1990’s, "Bahasa Melayu" was defined as Brunei’s official language in the country’s 1959 Constitution. Indonesian and Malay are separated by some centuries of different vocabulary development, partly due to the influence of different colonial languages; Dutch in the case of Indonesia, formerly the Dutch East Indies and English in the case of Malaysia, Singapore and Brunei, which were formerly under British rule. Some Malay dialects, however, show only limited mutual intelligibility with the standard language; for example, Kelantanese pronunciation is difficult even for some fellow Malay speakers to understand, while Indonesian contains a lot of words unique to it that are unfamiliar to speakers of Malay. The language spoken by the Peranakan (Straits Chinese, a hybrid of Chinese settlers from the Ming Dynasty and local Malays) is a unique patois of Malay and the Chinese Hokkien dialect, which is mostly spoken in the former Straits Settlements of Penang and Malacca in Malaysia, and the Indonesian Archipelago.

Malay language
development changed the nature of the language with massive infusion of Arabic, Persian and Hindi or Sanskrit vocabularies. Under the Sultanate of Malacca the language evolved into a form recognizable to speakers of modern Malay.

Classification and related languages
See also: Austronesian languages#Cross-linguistic Comparison Chart Malay is a member of the Austronesian family of languages which includes languages from Southeast Asia and the Pacific Ocean, with a smaller number in continental Asia. Malagasy, a geographic outlier spoken in Madagascar in the Indian Ocean, is also a member of this linguistic family. Malay belongs to the Malayo-Polynesian branch of the family, which includes the Languages of the Philippines and Malagasy, which is further subdivided into Outer Hesperonesian languages and Nuclear MalayoPolynesian of which Malay is a member. Malay’s closest relatives therefore include Javanese, Acehnese, Chamorro and Palauan. Although each language of the family is mutually unintelligible, their similarities are rather striking. Many roots have come virtually unchanged from their common Austronesian ancestor. There are many cognates found in the languages’ words for kinship, health, body parts and common animals. Numbers, especially, show remarkable similarities.

Writing system
Malay is normally written using Latin alphabet called Rumi, although a modified Arabic script called Jawi also exists. Rumi is official in Malaysia and Singapore, and Indonesian has a different official orthography also using the Latin script. Rumi and Jawi are co-official in Brunei. Efforts are currently being undertaken to preserve Jawi script and to revive its use amongst Malays in Malaysia, and students taking Malay language examination in Malaysia have the option of answering questions using Jawi script. The Latin alphabet, however, is still the most commonly used script in Malaysia, both for official and informal purposes. Historically, Malay has been written using various scripts. Before the introduction of Arabic script in the Malay region, Malay was written using Pallava, Kawi and Rencong script and are still in use today by the Champa Malay in Vietnam and Cambodia. Old Malay was written using Pallava and Kawi script, as evident from several inscription stones in the Malay region. Starting from the era of kingdom of Pasai and throughout the golden age of the Sultanate of Malacca, Jawi gradually replaced

History
The history of the Malay language can be divided into four periods: Old Malay, the Transitional Period, the Malacca Period, and Late Modern Malay. Old Malay is unintelligible to a speaker of modern Malay. It was heavily influenced by Sanskrit, the lingua franca of Hinduism and Buddhism. The earliest known inscription in the Old Malay language was found in Sumatra, written in Pallava script[6] and dates back to 7th century - known as Kedukan Bukit Inscription, it was discovered by the Dutchman M. Batenburg on 29 November, 1920, at Kedukan Bukit, South Sumatra, on the banks of the River Tatang, a tributary of the River Musi. It is a small stone of 45 by 80 cm. The Malay language came into widespread use as the trade language of the Sultanate of Malacca (1402 – 1511). During this period, the Malay language developed rapidly from influence of Islamic literature. The

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these scripts as the most commonly used script in the Malay region. Starting from the 17th century, under Dutch and British influences, Jawi was gradually replaced by the Rumi script. [7] ua /ua/

Malay language

Extent of use and dialects
The extent to which Malay is used in these countries varies depending on historical and cultural circumstances. Bahasa Melayu is the national language in Malaysia by Article 152 of the Constitution of Malaysia, and became the sole official language in West Malaysia in 1968, and in East Malaysia gradually from 1974. English continues, however, to be widely used in professional and commercial fields and in the superior courts. Other minority languages are also commonly used by the country’s large ethnic minorities. The situation in Brunei is similar to that of Malaysia.

There are two vowels represented by the letter "e", i.e. /e, ɛ/ and /ə/. Learners of Malay are expected to distinguish between the two sounds while learning each new word. In some parts of Peninsular Malaysia, especially in the central and southern regions, most words which end with the letter a tend to be pronounced as /ə/.

Grammar
Word Formation
Malay is an agglutinative language, and new words are formed by three methods. New words can be created by attaching affixes onto a root word (affixation), formation of a compound word (composition), or repetition of words or portions of words (reduplication).

Phonology
Note: this article uses the orthography of Malaysian Malay. For Indonesian orthography, see Indonesian language.

Affixes

Root words are either nouns or verbs, which can be affixed to derive new words, e.g. masak (to cook) yields memasak (cooks, is cooking, etc.), memasakkan (cooks, is Table of consonant phonemes of Malay cooking for etc.), dimasak (cooked - passive) as well as Bilabial Labio- Dental Alveolar PostPalatal pemasak (cook -Velar Uvular Glottal person), masakan (cooking, cookery). Dental Alveolar initial consonants undergo mutation when preMany fixes are /ɲ/ ng /ŋ/ sapu (sweep) becomes penyapu Nasal m /m/ n /n/ ny added: e.g. (broom); panggil (to call) becomes memanggil (calls, is Plosive p b t d k g calling, etc.), tapis (sieve) becomes menapis (sieves, is /p/ /b/ /t/ /d/ /k/ /ɡ/ sieving, etc.) Affricate c j Other examples of the use of affixes to change the /tʃ/ meaning of a word can be seen with the word ajar /dʒ/ (teach): Fricative f v s z sy /ʃ, ʂ, h /h/ /f/ /v/ /s/ /z/ sj/ • ajar = teach • ajaran = teachings Approximant y /j/ w /w/ • belajar = to learn Lateral l /l/ • mengajar = to teach • diajar = being taught (intransitive) Trill r /r/ • diajarkan = being taught (transitive) • mempelajari = to study Orthographic Note: • dipelajari = being studied • The combination of /ŋɡ/ is represented as ngg. • pelajar = student Table of vowel phonemes of Malay • pengajar = teacher • pelajaran = subject Height Front Central Back • pengajaran = lesson, moral of story Close i /i/ u /u/ • pembelajaran = learning Mid e /e, ɛ/ e /ə/ o /o, ɔ/ • terajar = taught (accidentally) • terpelajar = well-educated Open a /a/ a /ɑ/ • berpelajaran = is educated There are four types of affixes, namely prefixes (awalan), Table diphthongs of Malay suffixes (akhiran), circumfixes (apitan) and infixes Orthography IPA (sisipan). These affixes are categorised into noun affixes, ai /aɪ̯, ai/ verb affixes, and adjective affixes. au /aʊ̯, au/

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Type of noun affixes Prefix Affix pe(N)kejuruInfix -el-em-erSuffix Circumfix -an ke-...-an pe(N)-...-an Type of verb affixes Prefix Affix be(R)me(N)dimempe(R)dipe(R)te(R)Suffix Circumfix -kan -i be(R)-...-an be(R)-...-kan me(N)-...-kan me(N)-...-i mempe(R)-...-kan mempe(R)-...-i ke-...-an di-...-i di-...-kan dipe(R)-...-kan Example of root word duduk (sit) hendak (want) acara (event) tunjuk (point) kelut (dishevelled) gigi (teeth) bangun (wake up, raise) raja (king) kerja (work) Example of root word ajar (teach) tolong (help) ambil (take) kemas (tidy up, orderly) dalam (deep) makan (eat) letak (place, keep) jauh (far) pasang (pair) tajuk (title) pasti (sure) teman (company) guna (use) ajar (teach) hilang (disappear) sakit (pain) benar (right) kenal (know, recognise) Example of derived word penduduk (population) kehendak (desire) juruacara (event host)

Malay language

telunjuk (index finger, command) kemelut (chaos, crisis) gerigi (toothed blade) bangunan (building) kerajaan (kingdom) pekerjaan (occupation) Example of derived word belajar (to study) - Intransitive menolong (to help) - Active transitive diambil (is being taken) - Passive transitive memperkemas (to arrange further) diperdalam (is being further deepen) termakan (to have accidentally eaten) letakkan (keep) - Imperative transitive jauhi (avoid) - Imperative transitive berpasangan (in pairs) bertajukkan (to be titled, to entitle) memastikan (to make sure) menemani (to accompany) mempergunakan (to utilise, to exploit) mempelajari (to study) kehilangan (to lose) disakiti (to be hurt by) dibenarkan (is allowed to) diperkenalkan (is being introduced)

Noun affixes are affixes that form nouns upon addition to root words. The following are examples of noun affixes: (N) and (R) indicate that if a word begins with certain letters (most often vowels or consonants k, p, s, t), the letter will either be omitted or will undergo nasal mutation or be replaced by the letter l. Similarly, verb affixes are attached to root words to form verbs. In Malay, there are: Adjective affixes are attached to root words to form adjectives: In addition to these affixes, Malay also has a lot of borrowed affixes from other languages such as Sanskrit, Arabic and English. For example maha-, pasca-, eka-, bi-, anti-, pro- etc.

Compound word
In Malay, new words can be formed by joining two or more root words. Compound words, when they exist freely in a sentence, are often written separately. Compound words are only attached to each other when they are bound by circumfix or when they are already considered as stable words. For example, the word kereta which means car and api which means fire, are compounded to form a new word kereta api (train). Similarly, ambil alih (take over) is formed using the root words ambil (take) and alih (move), but will link together when a circumfix is attached to it, i.e. pengambilalihan (takeover). Certain stable words, such as kakitangan (personnel), and

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Type of adjective affixes Prefix Infix Affix te(R)se-el-em-erCircumfix measure word buah orang butir used for measuring thing (in general) person, human rounded object ke-...-an literary translation ’fruit’ ’person’ ’grain’ Example of root word kenal (know) lari (run) serak (disperse) cerlang (radiant bright) sabut (husk) barat (west) example dua buah meja (two tables), lima buah rumah (five houses)

Malay language
Example of derived word terkenal (famous) selari (parallel) selerak (messy) cemerlang (bright, excellent) serabut (dishevelled) kebaratan (westernized)

seorang lelaki (a man), enam orang petani (six farmers), seratus orang murid (a hundred students) sebutir telur (an egg)

Subject Lelaki yang berjalan dengan Birsilah itu (That boy who is walking with Birsilah) Surat itu (The letter) Pelajar-pelajar itu (Those students) Penguasaan Bahasa Melayunya (His command of Malay language)

Negation bukan (is not) bukan (is not) tidak (do not) tidak (is not)

Predicate teman lelakinya (her boyfriend) daripada teman penanya di Perancis (from his penpal in France) mengikuti peraturan sekolah (obey school regulations) sempurna (perfect)

kerjasama (corporation), are spelled as one word even when they exist freely in sentences.

• Adjectives • Function words

Reduplication
There are four types of words reduplication in Malay, namely • Full reduplication • Partial reduplication • Rhythmic reduplication • Reduplication of meaning

Function words
There are 16 types of function words in Malay which perform a grammatical function in a sentence. [8] Amongst these are conjunctions, interjections, prepositions, negations and determiners. Negations There are two negation words in Malay, that is bukan and tidak. Bukan is used to negate noun phrases and prepositions in a predicate, whereas tidak is used to negate verbs and adjectives phrases in a predicate. The negative word bukan however, can be used before verb phrases and adjective phrases if the sentence shows contradictions.

Measure words
Another distinguishing feature of Malay is its use of measure words (penjodoh bilangan). In this way, it is similar to many other languages of Asia, including Chinese, Vietnamese, Burmese, and Bengali. Measure words cannot be translated into English. Examples are :

Grammatical gender
Malay does not make use of grammatical gender, and there are only a few words that use natural gender; the same word is used for he and she or for his and her. Most of the words that refer to people (family terms,

Part of Speech
In Malay, there are 4 parts of speech: • Nouns • Verbs

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Subject Karangannya (His composition) Kilang itu (The factory) Negation bukan (is not) bukan (is not) Predicate baik sangat, (very good,) menghasilkan kereta Kancil, (producing Kancil cars) Malay Phrase Selamat datang Selamat jalan Selamat tinggal Terima kasih Sama-sama Selamat pagi Selamat petang Contradiction

Malay language

tetapi dia mendapat markah yang baik (but he received good marks) sebaliknya menghasilkan Proton Wira (instead is producing Proton Wira) IPA /səlamat dataŋ/ /səlamat dʒalan/ /səlamat tiŋɡal/ /tərima kasih/ /sama sama/ /səlamat paɡi/ /səlamat pətaŋ/ English Translation Welcome (Used as a greeting) Have a safe journey (equivalent to "goodbye", used by the party staying) Goodbye (Lit translation: "Good stay", used by the party going) Thank you You are welcome (as in a response to Thank You) Good morning Good afternoon/evening (note that ’Selamat petang’ must not be used at night as in English. For a general greeting, use ’Selamat sejahtera’)

professions, etc.) have a form that does not distinguish between the sexes. For example, adik can both refer to a younger sibling of either sex. In order to specify the natural gender of a noun, an adjective has to be added: adik laki-laki corresponds to "brother" but really means "male younger sibling". There are some words that are gendered, for instance puteri means "princess", and putera means "prince"; words like these are usually absorbed from other languages (in these cases, from Sanskrit).

Pluralization
There is no grammatical plural in Malay. Plurality is expressed by the context, or the usage of words expressing plurality, and by reduplication when needed. However, reduplication has most of the time many other functions and meanings.

Verbs
Verbs are not inflected for person or number, and they are not marked for tense; tense is instead denoted by time adverbs (such as "yesterday") or by other tense indicators, such as sudah, "already". On the other hand, there is a complex system of verb affixes to render nuances of meaning and denote active and passive voices or intentional and accidental moods. Some of these affixes are ignored in daily conversations.

Selamat sejahtera Selamat malam Jumpa lagi Siapakah nama awak?/ Nama awak apa? Nama saya ...

/səlamat Greetings (formal) sədʒahtəra/ /səlamat malam/ Good night See you again What is your name?

Word order
The basic word order is Subject Verb Object. Adjectives, demonstrative pronouns and possessive pronouns follow the noun they modify.

Borrowed words
The Malay language has many words borrowed from Arabic (mainly religious terms), Sanskrit, Tamil, Persian, Portuguese, Dutch, certain Chinese dialects and more recently, English (in particular many scientific and technological terms).

Simple phrases in Malay
In Malaysia, to greet somebody with "Selamat pagi" or "Selamat sejahtera" would be considered very formal, and the borrowed word "Hi" would be more usual among friends; similarly "Bye-bye" is often used when taking one’s leave. Apa khabar? Khabar baik

My name is ... (The relevant name is placed in front. For example, if your name was Munirah, then you would introduce yourself by saying "Nama saya Munirah", which translates to "My name is Munirah") How are you? / What’s up? (literally, "What news?") Fine, good news

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Saya sakit Ya Tidak ("tak" colloquially) Ibu (Saya) sayang engkau/kamu (awak) /ja/ I’m sick Yes No I love you (In a more of a family or affectionate sort of love, e.g.: mother to daughter, the Mother addresses herself as "Ibu" (mother) or Emak (Mother) instead of "Saya" for "I". And the mother also uses the informal "engkau" instead of "awak" for "you".) I love you (romantic love. In romantic situation, use informal "Aku" instead of "Saya" for "I". And "Kamu" or just "Mu" for "You". In romance, in immediate family communication and in songs, informal pronouns are used). Please note that in Malay language, appropriate personal pronouns must be used depending on (1) whether the situation is formal or informal, (2) the social status of the people around the speaker and (3) the relationship of the speaker with the person spoken to and/or with people around the speaker. For learners of Malay language, it is advised that you stick to formal personal pronouns when speaking Malay to Malays and Indonesians. You risk being considered as rude if you use informal personal pronouns in inappropriate situations. I hate you I do not understand Saya tidak tahu (or "tak tau" colloquially or "sik tau" in Sarawak) (Minta) maaf Tumpang tanya (Minta) tolong Apa Tiada

Malay language
I do not know

I apologise (’minta’ is to request) "May I ask...?" (used when trying to ask something) Please help (me) (’Tolong!’ on its own just means "help") What Nothing

Aku (Saya) cinta pada mu (awak)

Colloquial and contemporary usage
Contemporary usage of Malay includes a set of slang words, formed by innovations of standard Malay words or incorporated from other languages, spoken by the urban speech community, which may not be familiar to the older generation, e.g. awek (girl); balak (guy); usha (survey); skodeng (peep); cun (pretty); poyo/slenge (horrible, low-quality) etc. New plural pronouns have also been formed out of the original pronouns and the word orang ("people"), i.e. kitorang (kita + orang, the exclusive "we", in place of kami); korang (kau + orang, "you"); diorang or derang (dia + orang, "they"). The Malay-speaking community, especially in Kuala Lumpur, also code-switch between English and Malay in their speech, forming Bahasa Rojak. Examples of the borrowings are: Bestlah tempat ni (This place is cool);kau ni terror lah (How daring you are; you’re fabulous). Consequently, this phenomenon has raised the displeasure of language purists in Malaysia, in their effort to uphold the proper use of the national language. The following are some contractions used by Malayspeaking youths:

Dictionary
There are many different Malay dictionaries. In Malaysia, the Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka (DBP) dictionary is the chief arbiter for the language, and is considered the authority in defining Malay usage. Some other dictionaries are: • Kamus Dewan (Institute Dictionary) • Kamus Pelajar (Student Dictionary) • Kamus Oxford (Oxford Dictionary) • Kamus Besar (Big Dictionary)

Saya benci awak Saya tidak faham (or simply "tak faham" colloquially)

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Non-formal Word bleh/leh takleh/tokleh ko nape camne gi kat ne tau je awek balak skodeng cun jom poyo/selenge blah meh apsal tak yah pastu amik Formal Word boleh tidak boleh engkau kenapa macam mana/bagaimana pergi dekat/di mana tahu sahaja gadis pemuda mengintai cantik mari teruk beredar mari apa pasal tidak payah selepas itu ambil English Translation can, able to cannot you why how go at where know only girl/girlfriend boy/boyfriend peep pretty let’s go horrible go away come why not necessary after that take

Malay language

See also
• The list of Malay words and list of words of Malay origin at Wiktionary, the free dictionary and Wikipedia’s sibling project • Rojak language • Indonesian language • Differences between Malay and Indonesian • Jawi, an adapted Arabic alphabet for Malay • Language politics • List of English words of Malay origin • Malay-based creole languages • Manado Malay • Malaysian English, English language used formally in Malaysia. • Minangkabau language • Swadesh list of Malay words • Varieties of Malay

References
[1] [2] [3] "Kedah MB defends use of Jawi on signboards". The Star. August 26, 2008. http://thestar.com.my/news/ story.asp?file=/2008/8/26/nation/22168989&sec=nation. ethnologue.com : "Austronesian, MalayoPolynesian, Malayic, Malayan, Local Malay" "Alpha-3 Codes Arranged Alphabetically by the English Name of Language." _The Library of Congress_. 7-11-2006. Accessed 13-11-2007. "Codes for the Representation of Names of Languages Part 2: Alpha-3 Code." _The Library of Congress_. 14-11-2006. Accessed 13-11-2007. Note: "ISO 639 provides two sets of language codes, one as a two-letter code set (639-1) and another as a three-letter code set (this part of ISO 639) for the representation of names of languages." Ethnologue report for Netherlands http://www.bahasa-malaysia-simple-fun.com/ bahasa-melayu-kuno.html Malay (Bahasa Melayu). Retrieved 30 August 2008. http://faculty.unitarklj1.edu.my/ALD0063/week/ week6/MORFOLOGI/GOLONGAN%20KATA.doc

[4]

[5] [6] [7] [8]

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Malay language
• Malay - English Online Dictionary (from Malay to English only) from Webster’s Dictionary • Malay - Chinese Online Dictionary (ekamus) • Malay - English - Chinese Online Dictionary (cari.com.my) • Online Malay Text-to-Speech Demo • The Malay Spelling Reform, Asmah Haji Omar, (Journal of the Simplified Spelling Society, 1989-2 pp.9–13 later designated J11)

External links
• The Extent of the Influence of Tamil on the Malay Language: A Comparative Study - Dr. T.Wignesan • Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka (Institute of Language and Literature Malaysia, in Malay only) • Ethnologue report for Malay • Malay - English Online Dictionary (Dr Bhanot’s)

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Malay_language" Categories: Malay language, Malayic languages, Languages of Brunei, Languages of Malaysia, Malay languages in Singapore, Languages of East Timor This page was last modified on 15 May 2009, at 02:29 (UTC). All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License. (See Copyrights for details.) Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a U.S. registered 501(c)(3) tax-deductible nonprofit charity. Privacy policy About Wikipedia Disclaimers

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