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					Thailand’s National Biotechnology
   Policy Framework 2004-2009




                                                      Published by
           National Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology
              National Science and Technology Development Agency
                        113 Thailand Science Park, Paholyothin Road
                    Klong 1, Klong Luang, Patumthani 12120 Thailand
   Tel. 66 2 564 6700 Fax. 66 2 564 6701-5 website: www.biotec.or.th
                            Message from
                 His Excellency Thaksin Shinawatra
                     Prime Minister of Thailand
          Thailand’s National Biotechnology Policy
Framework (2004-2011), endorsed by the National
Biotechnology Policy Committee, will bring about not
only an investment value of over 5,000 million baht
in biotechnology research and development, but also
the emergence of more than one hundred new
companies in the biotechnology business. This
means the generating of around 30,000 million baht in revenue for the country
annually. At the same time, the country’s growth in agricultural and food
exports will be expanded, which signifies that Thailand’s strength in
biotechnology will be fostered together with the enhancement of our economic
competitiveness and quality of personnel in biotechnology. In other words,
we shall be able to create significant intellectual capital, which is a key
driving factor for propelling Thailand into a knowledge-based economy in the
coming era. At this juncture, the government is committed to doing its very
best to promote biotechnology, especially through the allocation of a budget
that will back up biotechnology development as well as accelerate
biotechnology work to bear fruitful and concrete results.
          I am confident that this book, “An Executive Summary on Thailand’s
National Biotechnology Policy Framework (2004-2011)” will indeed be of great
benefit for all concerned entities as well as enable biotechnology development
in Thailand to achieve all of the anticipated goals with success.



                                                  (Thaksin Shinawatra)
                                                     Prime Minister
                                        Preface (2                  nd
                                                                         Edition)

         In December 2003, the National Biotechnology Policy Committee,
chaired by the Prime Minister, has resolved to endorse the Thailand’s National
Biotechnology Policy Framework (2004-2011). Recognizing that biotechnology
development in Thailand possesses high potential along with a series of
on-going projects that have been carried out with much efficiency, it was
recommended that the timeframe be shortened to 6 years (2004-2009) so
that Thailand could benefit from biotechnology development at a faster pace.
         In this respect, the six sub-committees in charge of each respective
goal of the Framework have re-considered and adjusted milestones to be
consistent with the revised six-year timeframe.The revised Framework has
now been approved by the National Biotechnology Policy Committee.
Accordingly, the Secretariat to the National Biotechnology Policy Committee,
has published the new-editioned Thailand’s National Biotechnology Policy
Framework (2004-2009) with an objective to disseminate the Framework to
the public and to all concerned entities to be used as guideline.
         The Secretariat would like to extend its appreciation to the National
Biotechnology Policy Committee, all six sub-committees, the Monitoring and
Evaluation Committee of the National Biotechnology Policy Framework and
all working groups for their inputs and contribution towards the National
Biotechnology Policy Framework. The Policy Framework will enhance
Thailand’s biotechnology position and will contribute to promoting self
sufficiency and global competitiveness.

                                                            Dr. Sakarindr Bhumiratana
             President of the National Science and Technology Development Agency
                           Secretariat to the National Biotechnology Policy Committee
                                                                    1 September 2005
                                                           Preface
         Pursuant to Dr. Thaksin Shinawatra, Prime Minister, foreseeing the
essence of biotechnology, a key factor for developing the country, he passed
on an initiative to formulate Thailand’s National Biotechnology Policy
Framework in line with the Government’s policy to promote sufficiency of
living and enhancement of competitiveness for the country, toward a proper
balance and direction.
         Accordingly, the National Economic and Social Development Board
(NESDB), in collaboration with the National Center for Genetic Engineering
and Biotechnology (BIOTEC), and the National Science and Technology
Development Agency (NSTDA) prepared the National Biotechnology Policy
Framework, an eight-year road map (2004 to 2011), and submitted it to the
National Biotechnology Policy Committee, chaired by the Prime Minister.
On December 23, 2003, the National Biotechnology Policy Committee
resolved to endorse such National Biotechnology Policy Framework, in viewing
that biotechnology development in Thailand possesses high potential along
with a series of on-going projects that have been carried out with much
efficiency. In this respect, the National Biotechnology Policy Committee
concluded to draw the framework for the period of six years (2004-2009), as
well as appointed six sub-committees discharging of each separate goal.
Meanwhile, a special sub-committee was also set up entrusted with main
task of genetic engineering and biosafety policy development. After all, this
should prompt immediate consideration, and speed up implementation on
the national policy, for the issues that carry high impact and currently problems
to the country.
          In the effort to disseminate the National Biotechnolgy Policy
Framework extensively, as well as enable relevant agencies to use it as a
guidance for their respective implementation in harmony with the national
policy, the secretariat of the National Biotechnology Policy Committee has
the National Biotechnology Policy Framework published. This version of the
National Biotechnology Policy Framework is a six-year timeframe revised
from an eight-year timeframe as advised by the National Biotechnology Policy
Committee.
          The Secretariat of the Naitonal Biotechnology Policy Committee
would like to extend appreciation to the Steering Committee of the National
Biotechnology Status Review and Roadmapping Project, including several
working groups for their valuable inputs and contribution to the composition
of the National Biotechology Policy Framework, which of course will be highly
useful for the country in employing biotechnology to maintain the balance
and advancement for development, encompassing both aspects of sufficiency
of living and enhancing competitiveness.



                                           (Pairash Thajchayapong)
                                                   President
                                      National Science and Technology
                                             Development Agency
                                                Secretariat of the
                                  National Biotechnology Policy Committee
                                         Thailand’s National Biotechnology Policy Framework 2004 - 2009




    Thailand’s National Biotechnology
     Policy Framework 2004 - 2009
                  Executive Summary




T
Background
        he Prime Minister of Thailand, Dr. Thaksin Shinawatra, foreseeing
        the potential of biotechnology towards the development of the country,
        based on the fact that Thailand has an abundance of biological
resources and the capacity to fast-track certain aspects of the technology,
requested the National Economic and Social Development Board (NESDB),
the National Science and Technology Development Agency (NSTDA) and
other relevant agencies to prepare policy recommendations for the national
development of biotechnology. An overview paper on biotechnology policy
was prepared and submitted for deliberation by the 3rd Cabinet Screening
Committee, and subsequently to the Cabinet, on 18 March 2003. Following
consideration, the Cabinet passed a resolution agreeing to establish a National
Biotechnology Policy Committee, to be chaired by the Prime Minister, and
assigning NSTDA to serve as the secretariat of the Committee and to develop
the nation’s master plan for developing biotechnology.
         Towards this end, NSTDA and the National Center for Genetic
Engineering and Biotechnology (BIOTEC), its specialized center in
biotechnology, has conducted brainstorming sessions and analysis of data
from commissioned studies of current status and trends in biotechnology-
related fields, including public hearings with technical experts, the private
sector and other stakeholders. Within six months, a draft report identifying a
framework of policy initiatives for developing Thailand’s biotechnology was
drawn up.
         Comments on the draft report were subsequently sought from
BIOTEC’s Executive Board and the National Science and Technology
Development Board, who provided some recommendations to improve the
report. The final policy framework was tabled for consideration at the first
meeting of the National Biotechnology Policy Committee on 23 December
2003, where it was discussed and approved. Following are summaries of
the main features of the report.


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B
National Biotechnology Policy Committee Secretariat




Goals of Biotechnology Development in Thailand
(2004-2009)
         y the year 2011, biotechnology will be playing a vital role in the
         country’s development in line with government policy and the national
         agenda, which encompasses sustainable competitiveness, healthcare
for all, equitable income distribution and a self-sufficient economy. The
emphasis will be placed on applying core technologies, e.g. genomics,
bioinformatics, plant and animal breeding by means of molecular markers to
accelerate development in the following areas: agriculture/food, medical
care and environment protection, new knowledge creation for the
development of higher value-added products, as well as for knowledge-based
policy and strategic planning. The core technologies will also help to promote
biotechnology business, including high-end products with high value and new
types of services where modern technology is required.
         In addition to being consistent with the national agenda and
government policy directions, the national goals for biotechnology
development are also derived from consideration to other dimensions. These
include, among others, capability in and accessibility to technology, readiness
and potential of the country and implications for the economy, society and
the environment.
         The six goals for biotechnology development in Thailand are:
Goal No. 1:
Goal No. 1:
      “Emergence and Development of New Bio-Business”
Goal No. 2:
      “Biotechnology Promotes Thailand as Kitchen of the World”
Goal No. 3:
      “Thailand Represents Healthy Community and Healthcare
      Center of Asia”
Goal No. 4:
      “Utilization of Biotechnology to Conserve the Environment and to
      Produce Clean Energy”
Goal No. 5:
       “Biotechnology as the Key Factor for Self-Sufficient Economy”
Goal No. 6:
      “Development of Qualified Human Resource System”




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National Biotechnology Policy Committee Secretariat




Goal No. 1:
“Emergence and Development of New Bio-Business”


         The potential of biotechnology will be utilized to encourage investment
in research and development and the establishment of new biotechnology
companies with the following major objectives:
     - to see the emergence of over one hundred new biotechnology
         companies
     - to achieve investment by the private sector in research and
         development of biotechnology amounting to at least 5 billion baht
         per year.
         The new bio-business will focus on many new opportunities. One
such opportunities is the production of high value-added products, such as
medical diagnostic kits, supplementary food and seed. Another is the service
business, especially molecular-level detection/analysis for medical care and
public health, agriculture and food export, biosafety and bioterrorism/biological
weapons. Venture capital is to help expanding investment in the biotechnology
business. Knowledge-based business, including investment in
bioinformatics research for new drug development, the search for genes
(the genetic material that makes up characteristics of living things) for the
improvement of crop plants and livestock, will be the future-oriented focus.

Key strategies are:
       To construct/develop infrastructure such as a biotechnology park
       to attract both domestic and overseas investment, as well as using
       services in research and development.
       To set forth clear policy or management to settle some highly
       controversial issues, such as issuance of law on protection of
       bioresources and policy on the development of safe GMOs products.
       To create an environment and incentives for venture capital to be
       invested in biotechnology, which needs a longer period than other
       industrial technologies for the return of the investment. These include
       taxation privileges, in particular import duties, corporate tax and
       co-ownership of the rights to utilize bioresources where Thailand
       has a particular advantage.
       To promote investment in research, development and innovation, as
       well as cultivate capability for biotechnology research following the
       concept of cluster research, skill-based technology and innovation
       approaches.


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                                     Thailand’s National Biotechnology Policy Framework 2004 - 2009




        To support the listing of biotechnology companies on the Stock
        Exchange of Thailand

Measures that should be carried out immediately include:
      Make use of ASEAN Economic Community (AEC) and Asia
      Cooperation Dialogue (ACD) to attract investment and expand
      Thailand’s market.
      Formulate key business clusters based on skills, technology and
      innovation approaches to promote small and medium-sized enterprises
      to link with larger companies.
      Conduct public relations campaign amongst the international
      community with emphasis on business potential and return of
      investment in biotechnology in Thailand.
      Issue taxation measures and other privileges for venture capital.




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National Biotechnology Policy Committee Secretariat




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                                         Thailand’s National Biotechnology Policy Framework 2004 - 2009




                                                                    Goal No. 2:
“Biotechnology Promotes Thailand as Kitchen of the World”


        Biotechnology is to support Thailand to become the “kitchen of the
world” by maintaining and enhancing its competitiveness in agriculture and
food industries which will increase in export value up to 1.2 trillion Baht (3
times the 2002 export value), and improve the export value of processed
agricultural products from 12th in the world ranking, up to the top 5 by the
year 2009.

Key strategies are:
       To promote agricultural research to include a higher biotechnology
       component.
       To form clusters of high value-added manufacture in the supply chain,
       such as shrimp industry, seed industry and important goods, e.g.
       rice and cassava. Biotechnology is to be applied as the core in
       increasing productivity, breeding plants and livestock to suit the
       cultivating environment, reducing chemicals, and raising quality to
       meet the ever-changing market needs.
       To develop and use the potential of biotechnology for quick, precise,
       and specific detection and diagnosis in managing food and seed
       safety by setting up a biotechnology laboratory to certify quality
       and standards for export products, as well as inspection of imported
       products.
       To shift the emphasis on the current role as a contract seed producer
       to a main player in both developing and producing new variety for
       export.
       To expedite development of new lines of marine products to provide
       supplements and alternatives to existing products (shrimp).
       To develop technology and related business services in post-harvest
       and packaging technology to prolong shelf-life of agricultural products.
       To conduct research to collect scientific data needed in risk
       assessment of food and agricultural products for export, which will
       eventually enable Thailand to set standards for products where the
       country is the leading exporter.
       To prepare and utilize (scientific) data in decision-making, laying
       down key measures, and negotiating or solving trade barrier
       problems.


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National Biotechnology Policy Committee Secretariat




 Measures that should be carried out immediately:
      Identify appropriate host who will be responsible for organizing the
      research clusters for key agricultural industries, such as rice, shrimp,
      seed and cassava and allocate resources appropriately.
      Utilize biotechnology to develop and produce biocontrol agents for
      pest management to significantly reduce usage of chemicals.
      Enhance capability in inspecting and certifying food quality,
      standards and safety, together with organizing a support-system for
      inspection and certification of quality and safety.
      Systematize scientific data on food and agricultural products for
      export by using the cluster as the coordinating point, organizing
      data and knowledge management systems to be used in trade
      negotiation with major markets.
      Develop a clear policy on genetic engineering, genetically modified
      organisms and transgenics for Thailand.
      Set up traceability systems for key export products/goods to support
      inspection and certification of quality and safety.
      Lay down a clear joint policy and implementation strategy amongst
      different organizations ranging from research level to utilization.




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Thailand’s National Biotechnology Policy Framework 2004 - 2009




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National Biotechnology Policy Committee Secretariat




Goal No. 3:
“Thailand Represents Healthy Community and Healthcare Center
of Asia”


        Utilize biotechnology as the core technology to realize the following
two objectives:
    1. Improve the quality of life and health of Thai people.
    2. Thailand to become “the healthcare center of Asia”.

Key strategies are:
       To invest in research and development for tropical diseases such as
       dengue fever, malaria and some genetic diseases such as
       thalassemia, that will lead to protection, reduction of cost for patient
       treatment and care, prevention of epidemics caused by population
       mobility in the border areas.
       To promote premium healthcare products made from local
       ingredients, such as herbal products of international standard,
       bioactive compounds from plants and microorganisms, diagnostic
       agents and healthcare products that are backed up by scientific
       data and clinical testing results as to their efficacy and safety that
       will help substitute imported products and promote a healthy and
       self-reliant society, together with increasing exports to regional
       markets.
       To make use of foreign policy in assisting neighboring countries in
       public health and medical care, which will in turn enable greater
       market access for Thai-developed products and services across the
       Asian region, and other regions.
       To reinforce the government’s role in assisting the global community
       through partnership with foreign organizations that mobilize capital to
       support tropical disease research, thereby enabling Thailand to function
       as the research and development base for the development of tropical
       disease-related products.
       To establish the necessary infrastructure and human resources in
       biomedical science as a mechanism to stimulate investment and transfer
       of modern biotechnology such as genomics and bioinformatics that
       will fortify the objective of becoming a center for healthcare business
       and a center for clinical trial of medical products.
       To support the establishment of new companies related to test kits/
       diagnostic kits and genetic testing service business to substitute
       imported products and services.


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                                        Thailand’s National Biotechnology Policy Framework 2004 - 2009




        To establish appropriate management mechanisms and implementation
        strategies in bioethical, legal and societal issues in a well-balanced
        manner.

Measures that should be carried out immediately include:
      Promote the development of user-friendly health-related testing
      devices that will improve the quality of life for the community.
      Establish infrastructure and human resources for development of
      new biotechnology, such as genomics and bioinformatics, thereby
      encouraging investment in life sciences.
      Produce diagnostic agents and healthcare products that are supported
      by clinical testing guaranteeing their efficacy and safety.
      Set up a national working group on bioethical and legal issues.




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National Biotechnology Policy Committee Secretariat




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                                         Thailand’s National Biotechnology Policy Framework 2004 - 2009




                                                                   Goal No. 4:
                 “Utilization of Biotechnology to Conserve the
                   Environment and to Produce Clean Energy”


        Utilize biotechnology to improve the environment and strengthen
energy security with the following objectives:
        To produce energy from agricultural wastes, waste and wastewater
        from food/agriculture industries, including solid wastes.
        To utilize biotechnology in improving soil quality by developing
        biomass and biofertilizer to strengthen soil composition, fertility and
        organic materials appropriate for soil microorganism growth. These
        will raise the yield of agricultural products and reduce chemical
        usage for pest management at an appropriate level, thereby reducing
        pollution and erosion problems related to soil and water.
        To utilize biosensors in inspection, surveillance, treatment and
        rehabilitation of the environment as well as monitoring substances
        that may cause pollution, for the benefit of management.
        To develop technology for prevention, treatment, rehabilitation and
        recycling of materials for the environment, such as biodegradable
        food packaging in substitution of plastics, to prepare for “Green and
        Clean” measures adopted by importers of Thai products.

Key strategies are:
       To set up commonly agreed targets among key organizations, namely
       Ministry of Energy, Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment,
       Ministry of Industry and Ministry of Science and Technology,
       amending laws, rules and regulations to accommodate investment
       in waste treatment and implementing measure for business return
       that may reduce waste and promote renewable energy.
       To initiate financial and taxation policy and measures, including low-
       interest-rate loans with no-interest grace period as incentives for
       private sector to invest in transforming waste into energy, especially
       in agriculture/livestock industry, which produces an abundance of
       waste while remaining a high energy consumer. This will eventually
       lead to a reduction of production costs and a solution to trade barriers
       using environmental criteria.
       To initiate policy to determine return of investment and pay back
       period by including consideration of environmental returns, apart
       from just economic returns.



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National Biotechnology Policy Committee Secretariat




             To establish environmental standards for manufacturing and business
             sectors and initiate incentive measures to put the standards into
             practice.
             To develop new technology for environment protection, especially
             for prevention, treatment, rehabilitation and recycling of waste
             materials and by products.
             To support development and usage of biofertilizer and other organic
             products, including biocontrol agents as substitution for chemical
             usage for pest management to rehabilitate soil quality.

Measures that should be carried out immediately:
      Set up common policy amongst Ministry of Energy, Ministry of
      Natural Resources and Environment, Ministry of Industry and
      Ministry of Science and Technology.
      Support loans for food industry factories and livestock farms to
      install appropriate systems for waste treatment and power
      generation, including excess sale to the grid.
      Modify the concept of cost-benefit calculation of energy sources to
      include environment-protection effects as a return on investment,
      thereby creating incentives to invest in waste treatment and
      substitute energy generation.
      Promote manufacturing and usage of biodegradable plastic both
      for use domestically and packaging for export.
      Promote utilization of biofertilizers and biocontrol agents in
      substitution for chemicals used for soil quality improvement and
      pest management.




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Thailand’s National Biotechnology Policy Framework 2004 - 2009




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National Biotechnology Policy Committee Secretariat




Goal No. 5:
 “Biotechnology as the Key Factor for Self-Sufficient
Economy”


         The primary goal is to conserve and make best use of biological
resources that are important to, or specific in, each local community.
Biotechnology can be used to extend local wisdom, expand the diversity of
products and value of local resources, as well as enhance local product
quality.

Key strategies are:
       To provide quality and safety enhancement system for community
       goods, together with innovation in manufacturing of novel products,
       organic agriculture at the local level, use of starter cultures in the
       production of fermented food, biofertilizers, probiotics, and pest-
       control microorganisms.
       To utilize biotechnology as core technology to increase value of
       community goods, such as premium herbal products, food products,
       propagation of ornamental plants and disease-free tubers.
       To create “local bioresource mapping” in the form of location and
       traditional knowledge, along with conducting in-depth studies e.g. on
       chemicals in plants and microorganisms by development of a virtual
       network with data ready to be transformed into property or leading
       to development of new medicine, functional foods, herbal products
       and health supplement products. Studies also to be conducted on
       local plant genetics to help developing new plant varieties of high
       economic value.
       To develop local sites of abundant natural resources into places for
       local communities to learn natural science and for field research by
       scientific community, in order to speed up data collection and the
       transformation of the country into scientific society at all levels, as
       well as to conserve natural resources for sustainable use.

Measures that should be carried out immediately:
      Provide training system on food safety for local communities.
      Provide inspection mechanism for quality standards of local
      community goods by enhancing local academic institutions to provide
      data, technology, and inspection/analysis of quality and safety of
      community goods.


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                              Thailand’s National Biotechnology Policy Framework 2004 - 2009




Expedite establishment and development of community business
network that focuses on conservation along with utilization of
indigenous resource such as herbal plants, orchids, flowering and
ornamental plants.
Promote efficient community access to biotechnology for use in
local plant propagation and breeding, which will be utilized as raw
materials for the manufacturing of community goods.
Support establishment of environmental standards in the
manufacturing of community goods.




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National Biotechnology Policy Committee Secretariat




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                                         Thailand’s National Biotechnology Policy Framework 2004 - 2009




                                                                   Goal No. 6:
        “Development of Qualified Human Resource System”


       In order to achieve all the afore-mentioned goals, “quality of
workforce” is essential, with the following goals set:
       No less than 5,000 personnel engaged as professional biotechnology
       researchers in the public and private sectors.
       No less than 500 personnel engaged in biotechnology management.
       No less than 10,000 students at the level of bachelor, master and
       doctoral degree in fields related to biotechnology.

Key strategies are:
       To compile data on personnel with competency in biotechnology by
       preparing a directory of 5,000 top researchers, biotechnology
       companies and research institutes. The data will be used for planning/
       decision-making at policy level, research management level,
       formulating research networks and bio-business.
       To create an attractive atmosphere for research and development
       by formulating research towns/ research communities such as
       Biotechnology Parks, build career path for researchers and their
       place in Thai society that is recognized, respected and well-paid on
       a par with other occupations. Reorganize research management
       systems in the country as a mechanism to both support and monitor
       researchers’ work and output.
       To persuade foreign experts in biotechnology to conduct research
       and development in Thailand, particularly in areas where the country
       currently lacks sufficient expertise.
       To utilize a tripartite strategy i.e. enhancing cooperation among
       research institutes, universities and the private sector to develop
       human resources and research outputs for the development of the
       country. This can be done through the application of on-the-job training
       that will provide a skilled workforce for the private sector, both
       domestic and foreign, that has invested in research and development
       in the country.
       To expedite the development of those technologies with high priority
       both in terms of infrastructure and human resources, such as
       genomics and bioinformatics, entrepreneurship, management, as well
       as experts in bioethics, law, technology and negotiation.



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National Biotechnology Policy Committee Secretariat




Measures that should be carried out immediately:
      Compile and maintain data on 5,000 top biotechnology personnel
      and research networks, including biotechnology companies and
      domestic research institutes. Devise a mechanism to promote the
      emergence of biotechnology research networks that will join forces
      in terms of human resources and budget for new knowledge creation
      and conduct of high quality research that is beneficial to the country.
      Utilize a tripartite strategy i.e. enhancing cooperation amongst the
      public sector, private sector and academic/knowledge institutions
      and utilize on-the-job training, as part of the strategy built into projects
      to create graduates in master degree and doctoral levels. Shift the
      role of the private sector to be the leader in proposing research
      questions as a tool to create qualified human resources. Two levels
      of action are to be carried out in parallel: at the domestic level by
      focusing on the private sector’s research problems and at the
      international level by using research collaboration as a mechanism
      to transfer new technologies from overseas research institutes and
      private sector into the country, together with creating a new breed
      of qualified personnel.
      Create a system and environment conducive to recruitment of foreign
      personnel to conduct biotechnology research and development in
      Thailand as deemed necessary, especially in the areas where the
      country lacks expertise.

Conditions and Overall Strategies for Success
             Utilize biotechnology as a major component in the formulation of
             national policy, e.g. industrial policy, agricultural policy, public health
             policy and energy and environment policy. Names of key person(s)/
             organizations in charge and person(s)/organizations who have joint
             responsibility are to be clearly identified.
             Initiate policy to promote venture capital, thereby encouraging
             investment in research and development and production of novel
             biotechnology products. These are expected to result in emergence
             of a bio-business sector on the Stock Exchange of Thailand.
             Develop qualified human resources, especially researchers in
             modern biotechnology as mentioned in Goal No.6.
             Establish infrastructure to support and strengthen core research
             and development activities, such as those in the fields of genomics,
             bioinformatics, genetic engineering, genetic testing, breeding and
             selection using molecular markers. Database of competent personnel
             in the form of a virtual network will need to be developed, together


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                                     Thailand’s National Biotechnology Policy Framework 2004 - 2009




      with enhancement of existing organizational competency and
      strengthening of linkages amongst organizations to achieve a holistic
      approach.
      Prepare a technology acquisition plan by using strategic cooperation
      with international partners with emphasis on maintaining well-
      balanced benefit sharing.
      Strengthen efficiency of management, such as intellectual property
      management, research management, new business management,
      including competency in international negotiation for fair benefit
      sharing and technology transfer.
      Initiate measures to prepare society for new knowledge, greater
      understanding of biotechnology and its benefits and guidelines in
      bioethical issues that follow and reflect the culture and values of
      Thai society.

Expected Economic Impact
      No less than 5 billion Baht of investment in bioscience and
      biotechnology research and development through emergence of new
      bio-business, both locally and from abroad, thereby creating 100 new
      companies in bio-business and generating total revenue of 30 billion
      Baht.
      Export value of agricultural and food products increase from 400
      billion Baht in 2002 to 1.2 trillion Baht in 2009, maintaining the
      minimum employment of 600,000 jobs, and also maintaining a leading
      position in the export of key products, such as shrimp, rice, etc.
      Decrease in import value of healthcare products, such as diagnostic
      kits, medical supplies, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals at about 15.5
      billion Baht.
      Prevent an economic loss of 32 billion Baht per year from the major
      diseases that severely affect Thai people.
      Saving of 22 billion Baht worth of energy per year by producing
      renewable energy from agricultural materials and waste/garbage.
      This type of recycling technology will also help lower international
      trade barriers.
      At least 5 billion Baht increase of revenue to local communities
      from the sale of their agricultural and food products.
      Strength in bioscience and biotechnology will enable the country to
      maintain its economic competitiveness and lead in selected products
      in a sustainable manner.




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Societal and Environmental Impacts
             Raise the quality of living for Thai people, in terms of health and
             welfare, knowledge, income and distribution of income, strong family
             units and self-reliant communities.
             Self-sufficient economy prevails in the local community due to the
             capability to generate income by adding value to local resources
             and at the same time conserving and managing their natural resources
             for sustainable use.
             Environment and bioresources are conserved and rehabilitated from
             state of erosion and deterioration.
             Thai society is equipped with qualified personnel with high potential,
             which is considered as intellectual capital for developing a knowledge-
             based economy.

Key areas of implementation that will transform policy initiatives
into practice
      1. Identify host for each goal: The appropriate host should fulfill the
         following conditions or qualification.


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                                   Thailand’s National Biotechnology Policy Framework 2004 - 2009




        Need not be a conventional authoritative body, but can be a
        person or a group of people knowledgeable and experienced
        enough with the particular goal, flexible enough to perform the
        role of host and achieve the goal.
        Possess strong leadership. In case of an organization, it should
        have a strong leader respected and recognized by relevant
        parties.
        Possess high competency to assume the central role in
        cooperating with other parties, having strong networks in the
        specific field and good linkage with the private/business sector.
        Be knowledgeable in biotechnology, either directly in research
        and development, management of research and development,
        business and industry development, policy study and decision-
        making, or indirectly by involvement as a user of biotechnology.

2. Develop infrastructure
      Palpable infrastructure for research and development, i.e.
      workplace that links public sector, private sector and academic
      institutions following the cluster concept, such as biotechnology
      parks.
      Legal infrastructure, e.g. laws and enactment of laws regarding
      biosafety, conservation and utilization of biological resources
      and biotechnology-related intellectual property, etc.

3. Resource allocation
   In developing biotechnology for the country, it is essential to invest
   in many areas such as infrastructure development, research and
   development, support of business development, joint ventures with
   foreign companies, human resource development, etc. Focus is to
   be placed on joint investment carried out by the public sector and
   private sector both Thai and foreign. In the initial phase, the major
   proportion of investment may come from the Thai government, but
   later on investment from the Thai private sector and foreign sources
   is to be gradually increased. By the year 2011, the proportion of
   investment will be 50:50 (Thai government : Thai and foreign private
   sector). In addition, if Thailand is to reap the genuine socioeconomic
   benefit of investment in biotechnology, it should invest in research
   and development in this field at least one third of total budget for
   science and technology research, or approximately 16.5 billion Baht
   annually.



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National Biotechnology Policy Committee Secretariat




      4. Implementing the six goals
         The lead host and relevant parties should cooperatively implement
         the strategy to achieve the milestones and the final goal. The lead
         host is expected to carry out the implementation through partnership
         with the National Biotechnology Policy Committee. The lead host
         is required to have a mechanism that will monitor and evaluate
         project/program implementation by relevant parties, in order to assess
         its success, quality of work and practicality by examining the outputs
         and results of the project. This will enable the lead host to adjust its
         strategy and implementation to suit the changing environment. The
         lead host will function as a learning center for involved parties to
         continually develop their capacity and to prepare progressive,
         forward-looking plans.

      5. Monitoring of progress and evaluation of implementation
         A mechanism to monitor and evaluate progress should be put in
         place by examination at both the overall level and in detail for some
         particular issues. The monitoring and evaluation process will begin
         reviewing this policy framework/roadmap commencing in the 4th
         year of implementation. This will assist with revising the
         biotechnology policy framework and formulating a policy plan for
         the ensuing 8-year period. In addition, in the event of any unexpected
         situation that affects the policy framework, revision can be made
         ahead of the schedule. A further mechanism to monitor the changes
         in technology and status of the country relevant to the rest of the
         world, in terms of economy (including key exports), society, politics
         and technology should be put in place in order to adjust policy and
         strategies in an appropriate and timely manner to cope with the
         changing situation, domestically and globally. As such, a monitoring
         and evaluation working group, consisting of experts in various fields
         and including private sector is to be appointed by the National
         Biotechnology Policy Committee. Together with the secretariat of
         the Policy Committee, they will function as the core team for
         cooperation in collecting, processing and analyzing opinions and
         recommendations and subsequently report their findings to the
         National Biotechnology Policy Committee.




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