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School Readiness Closing Racial

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School Readiness Closing Racial Powered By Docstoc
					      Programs and Policies to
    Reduce School Readiness Gaps
                                  Jeanne Brooks-Gunn

              Virginia and Leonard Marx Professor of Child Development and Education
                     Teachers College and the College of Physicians and Surgeons
                                        Columbia University

                                          March 2, 2009




National Center for Children & Families                          www.policyforchildren.org
Teachers College, Columbia University
                                     NAEP Reading Assessment for
                                   Grade 4 (1994) & Grade 12 (2002) ―
                                   Percentage of Students At or Above
                                      Proficient by Race/Ethnicity
                             50%
                                    43%                                                              44%
                             45%
                             40%          37%
    Percentage of Students




                                                                                              34%
                             35%
                             30%
                             25%                                     22%

                             20%                16%
                             15%                                            13%
                                                      9%
                             10%
                             5%
                             0%
                                      White       Black                Hispanic             AsianAmerican
                                                   Race/Ethnicity of Student

                                                Grade 12           Grade 4
                  National Center for Children and Families (NCCF) - Teachers College, Columbia University
                                                   www.policyforchildren.org
Rouse, Brooks-Gunn & McLanahan, 2005
            Gaps in Kindergartners’ Achievement:
                  Ethnicity and Social Class
                                                           0


                                                         -0.1
                        Standard deviation from whites




                                                         -0.2


                                                         -0.3


                                                         -0.4
                                                                                                -0.39

                                                                                                          -0.45
                                                         -0.5


                                                         -0.6
                                                                -0.61

                                                         -0.7
                                                                          -0.71

                                                         -0.8
                                                                  ECLS-K Math                    ECLS-K Reading

                                                         -0.9

                                                                                  Blacks   Hispanics

                 National Center for Children and Families (NCCF) - Teachers College, Columbia University
                                                  www.policyforchildren.org
Duncan & Magnuson, 2005
      What defines “school readiness”?




A child’s academic skills (e.g., vocabulary size, complexity of spoken
language, basic counting, “general knowledge”);

A child’s social and emotional skills (e.g., following directions, working
in a group, impulse control) – which are as important as academic skills
but not well studied.



         National Center for Children and Families (NCCF) - Teachers College, Columbia University
                                          www.policyforchildren.org
Children who are not “ready”
for school are more likely to…


                                   Perform less well in elementary
                                   & secondary school;
                                   Become teen parents;
                                   Engage in criminal activities;
                                   Suffer from depression.




    National Center for Children and Families (NCCF) - Teachers College, Columbia University
                                     www.policyforchildren.org
                              Vocabulary Scores for Black and
                              White Three and Four-year Olds
                                   30

                                   25
           Percent of Population




                                   20             Black
                                                                                   White
                                   15

                                   10

                                    5

                                    0
                                        20   25   30      35   40   45   50   55   60 65   70   75   80   85   90   95 100
                                                       PPVT-R Score (Black Median=40; White Median=52)


                     National Center for Children and Families (NCCF) - Teachers College, Columbia University
                                                      www.policyforchildren.org
(From Jencks & Phillips, 1998)
       Standard Deviation Units

If the standard deviation = 15 and white
   students score 12 points more than black
   students on average (a white-black gap of 12),
   then…
12/15 points = .80 standard deviation units(80%
   of the standard deviation)



    National Center for Children and Families (NCCF) - Teachers College, Columbia University
                                     www.policyforchildren.org
      If the white-minority gap in test
      scores is 1 standard deviation then…
       84% of white children will perform better than the average minority child

       16% percent of minority children will perform better than the average
       white child

       Whites students are 13 times more likely than minority students to score
       in the top 5% and enroll in “gifted” class

       The average textbook is written so that the average white student
       understands 75% of it

       The average minority student will understand 53% of the same textbook,
       virtually guaranteeing that such a reader will not engage with the text




                   National Center for Children and Families (NCCF) - Teachers College, Columbia University
                                                    www.policyforchildren.org
(From Rock & Stenner, 2005)
                                              Racial / Ethnic Gaps in Selected Test
                                              Scores and in Family Socio-economic
                                                   Status for Kindergartners
                                         0


                                       -0.1


                                       -0.2
      Standard deviation from whites




                                       -0.3


                                       -0.4
                                                                     -0.39
                                                                              -0.45
                                       -0.5


                                       -0.6
                                                 -0.61

                                       -0.7
                                                          -0.71                            -0.70

                                       -0.8
                                                                                                   -0.78
                                                     ECLS-K Math       ECLS-K Reading    Socioeconom ic Index
                                       -0.9

                                                                   Blacks    Hispanics

                 National Center for Children and Families (NCCF) - Teachers College, Columbia University
                                                  www.policyforchildren.org
Duncan & Magnuson, 2005
                        Mean at Each Measurement Point
         f or Full Trajectories of Two Groups of Children
       Growth Sample (top black) & Kids in Repeat Pov erty (bottom orange)
                                     150
               Reading IRT Score

                                     100




                                                                         Full sample



                                                                                                           Repeat poverty
                                     50




                                           Fall K          Spr K                Spr 1st                         Spr 3rd                                               Spr 5th
                                           0 Mos           9 Mos                21 Mos                          45 Mos                                                69 Mos
                                                                                              Grade/TimeMos point
                                   *Children whose families are in repeated poverty (poverty at the time of the Fall K test and poverty at one or more subsequent measurement points).


                                     National Center for Children and Families (NCCF) - Teachers College, Columbia University
                                                                     www.policyforchildren.org
Layzer, 2008
                                                 Poverty Affects Development


                                               1200                                              College Educated Parents
               Cumulative Vocabulary (Words)




                                                600
                                                                                                  Working Class Parents


                                                                                                    Welfare Parents

                                                200




                                                      16 mos.      24 mos.           36 mos.
                                                            Child’s Age (Months)
                 National Center for Children and Families (NCCF) - Teachers College, Columbia University
                                                 www.policyforchildren.org
Hart & Risley, 1995
               Language Gaps Increase During
                     Preschool Years

           Age span of children                     Median deficit                           Sample size

       CCDP
       3 years to 3 years,11 months                  8.7 months                                   2541

       4 years to 4 years,11 months                  13.8 months                                  2360

       5 years to 5 years, 9 months                  14.8 months                                  2878

       Even Start
       3 years to 3 years,11 months                  8 months                                     2187

       4 years to 4 years,11 months                  12 months                                    2805




               National Center for Children and Families (NCCF) - Teachers College, Columbia University
                                               www.policyforchildren.org
Layzer, 2008
 Parenting Programs as a Strategy

• Parenting
  – Home Visiting Programs
  – Center-based Programs with Parenting
    Component
  – Parental Language and Literacy Programs
  – Parent Behavior Training Programs



    National Center for Children and Families (NCCF) - Teachers College, Columbia University
                                     www.policyforchildren.org
Early Childhood Education as a Strategy

Access and attendance
• Low access for specific groups
• Head Start and access
• Most common child care arrangements
• Access and school readiness
Quality
• Quality indicators
• High quality programs
• Quality and school readiness
    National Center for Children and Families (NCCF) - Teachers College, Columbia University
                                     www.policyforchildren.org
      Preschool Enrollment for Four Year-
            olds, from 1968 to 2002
             Black, Non-Hispanic
             Hispanic
            60
             White, Non-Hispanic

            50


            40


            30


            20


            10


             0
             68

                   70

                         72

                               74

                                     76


                                           78

                                                 80

                                                       82

                                                             84

                                                                   86

                                                                         88

                                                                               90


                                                                                     92

                                                                                           94

                                                                                                 96

                                                                                                       98

                                                                                                             00
           19

                  19

                        19

                              19

                                    19


                                          19

                                                19

                                                      19

                                                            19

                                                                  19

                                                                        19

                                                                              19


                                                                                    19

                                                                                          19

                                                                                                19

                                                                                                      19

                                                                                                            20
                                                             Year
                 National Center for Children and Families (NCCF) - Teachers College, Columbia University
                                                  www.policyforchildren.org
Magnuson & Waldfogel, 2005
          State Pre-K and Head Start Enrollment
             as Percentage of Total Population
                                        3-Year-Olds                                 4-Year-Olds

        Pre-K                                    2.7                                        17.3

        Head                                     7.3                                        11.3
        Start
        Special                                  3.9                                         6.2
        Ed
        Other                                   24.8                                        33.6

        None                                    61.3                                        31.6


                      National Center for Children and Families (NCCF) - Teachers College, Columbia University
                                                       www.policyforchildren.org
The National Institute for Early Education Research, The State of Pre-School 2005
               Head Start Enrollment
About 10% of all of all 3 and 4 year-olds are in Head Start
   – 20% of black children
   – 15% of Hispanic children
   – 4% of white children

If Head Start did not exist, gaps in preschool enrollment would
   increase (compared to white children)
    – 9 percentage points for black children
    – 31 percentage points for Hispanic children

Gaps in school readiness would increase if Head Start did not
  exist


       National Center for Children and Families (NCCF) - Teachers College, Columbia University
                                        www.policyforchildren.org
    School Readiness: Comparing Head Start
         and Other Care Arrangements

                                                             OLS          Prop

   PPVT-III                                                  0.08          0.19

   WJ-R Letter-Word Identification                           0.11          0.16

   Social Competence                                         0.10          0.14

   Attention Problems                                        -0.11        -0.16


N=2803; OLS includes city- & child-fixed effects; Prop. indicates propensity matching
Bold indicated significance.
Fragile Families Study
     Access and School Readiness
If all children whose families were in poverty
   were in a preschool, reductions in test gaps
   would be:
• 2 to 12 percent for black children
• 4 to 16 percent for Hispanic children

If all children whose families were at or below
   200% of the poverty threshold, were in a
   preschool, reductions in test gaps would be
   possibly double
     National Center for Children and Families (NCCF) - Teachers College, Columbia University
                                      www.policyforchildren.org
        Reading Scores By Preschool Attendance
          & Kindergarten Reading Instruction




   N=7748; ECLS-K




                 National Center for Children and Families (NCCF) - Teachers College, Columbia University
                                                  www.policyforchildren.org
Magnuson, Ruhm, & Waldfogel, 2007
Indicators of High Quality Preschool

  •    Teacher training
  •    Teacher education
  •    Teacher to child ratios
  •    Class size
  •    Language and conversation
  •    Organization of classroom
  •    Continued training

      National Center for Children and Families (NCCF) - Teachers College, Columbia University
                                       www.policyforchildren.org
Child Care Global Quality Measures
 Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale-
   ECERS (37 items)
   •   Space and furnishings
   •   Personal care routines
   •   Language-Reasoning
   •   Activities
   •   Interaction
   •   Program Structure

 Each item is scored 1-7 with average of all items
   used as quality score:
   •   1 = inadequate
   •   3= minimal
   •   5= good
   •   7= excellent

    National Center for Children and Families (NCCF) - Teachers College, Columbia University
                                     www.policyforchildren.org
               Distribution of Quality in Fragile
              Families and Child Well-being Study

                    Excellent                                                                    Inadequate
                      10%                                                                           20%




                 Good
                 33%
                                                                                        Minimal
Data based on 786 three-year-olds in 13 Cities from the Fragile Families Study            37%
                   National Center for Children and Families (NCCF) - Teachers College, Columbia University
                                                    www.policyforchildren.org
Rigby, Ryan & Brooks-Gunn, 2006.
      Quality of Care in Different Settings

                              Care ratings:
                                     •   Kith and kin = 3.5
                                     •   Family child care = 4. 0
                                     •   For-profit centers = 4.2
                                     •   Non-profit centers = 5.0
                              1=inadequate, 7=excellent




                  National Center for Children and Families (NCCF) - Teachers College, Columbia University
                                                   www.policyforchildren.org
Rigby, Ryan, and Brooks-Gunn, 2007
  High Quality Preschool Education
       and School Readiness
1. Large effects for small-scale experiments
   (one-half to three-quarters of a SD)
2. Small to modest effects for federal
   programs (one-sixth to one-quarter of a SD)
3. Effects for mothers with a high school
   education or less, but not for mothers with
   BA
4. Effects sometimes larger for black than
   white or Hispanic children
     National Center for Children and Families (NCCF) - Teachers College, Columbia University
                                      www.policyforchildren.org
 Small-scale Early Childhood Education
              Evaluations

• Perry Preschool
• Abecedarian
• Infant Health & Development Program

• Parent-Child Development Centers
• Tennessee Program
• Planned Variation Program

    National Center for Children and Families (NCCF) - Teachers College, Columbia University
                                     www.policyforchildren.org
 Infant Health & Development Program
         Intervention Services
• Intervention Group
   – Home visiting in child’s 1st – 3rd years of
     life
   – Day care center in child’s 2nd and 3rd years
     of life
      • Transportation available
      • Center open all workday
• Intervention and Follow-up Only Groups
   – Free medical surveillance, referrals to
     specialists in child’s 1st – 3rd years of life
      National Center for Children and Families (NCCF) - Teachers College, Columbia University
                                       www.policyforchildren.org
                Infant Health & Development Program:
                       Impacts from Age 3 to 18

                                                              IQ                       PPVT
                        3 Years                              14.3                       9.4
                        5 Years                               3.7                       6.0
                        8 Years                               4.4                       6.7
                        18 Years                              3.3                       5.1
    *Heavier low birth weight children only
    *All impacts were significant




                    National Center for Children and Families (NCCF) - Teachers College, Columbia University
                                                     www.policyforchildren.org

Brooks-Gunn et al., 1994, JAMA; McCarton et al., 1997, JAMA; Table 3 & 4, McCormick et al., 2006, Pediatrics
                Infant Health & Development Program:
                    Impacts on Math Achievement



                                                                           WJ Math
                       8 Years                                                     4.9
                      18 Years                                                      3.6
    *Heavier low birth weight children only
    *All impacts were significant




                    National Center for Children and Families (NCCF) - Teachers College, Columbia University
                                                     www.policyforchildren.org


Brooks-Gunn et al., 1994, JAMA; McCarton et al., 1997, JAMA; Table 3 & 4, McCormick et al., 2006, Pediatrics
              Infant Health & Development Program:
             IQ Impacts Based on Likely Care Situation


                                                                Age 3                  Age 5                 Age 8


     Maternal Care                                               20.2                   12.3                     8.2
     Other Home Based Care                                       16.4                      5.9                   7.2
     Center Based Care                                           11.6                      2.0                   1.7
    *Heavier low birth weight children only




                      National Center for Children and Families (NCCF) - Teachers College, Columbia University
                                                       www.policyforchildren.org
Hill, Waldfogel, Brooks-Gunn, 2002, JPAM
 School Readiness: Comparing Head Start,
    Parent, and Other Non-center Care
                                                       Parent                         Non-Center

                                                OLS              Prop.             OLS               Prop.

 PPVT-III                                       0.21               0.33            0.21              0.32

 WJ-R                                           0.39               0.46            0.32              0.41

 Social Competence                              0.17               0.24            0.03              0.05

 Attention Problems                            -0.11              -0.10           -0.18              -0.19

N=2803; OLS includes city- & child-fixed effects; Prop. indicates propensity matching
Bold indicated significance.
Fragile Families Study
          National Center for Children and Families (NCCF) - Teachers College, Columbia University
                                           www.policyforchildren.org
    School Readiness: Comparing Head Start and
             Other Center-based Care

                                                                   Pre-K                    Other Center

                                                             OLS           Prop.            OLS       Prop.

PPVT-III                                                     0.06           0.09            0.04      0.09

WJ-R                                                        -0.02           0.01            0.03      0.05

Social Competence                                            0.13           0.15            0.09      0.17

Attention Problems                                          -0.06          -0.05           -0.15      -0.18

N=2803; OLS includes city- & child-fixed effects; Prop. indicates propensity matching
Bold indicated significance.
Fragile Families Study
           National Center for Children and Families (NCCF) - Teachers College, Columbia University
                                            www.policyforchildren.org
         Infant Health & Development Program:
          Impacts As A Function Of Number Of
               Days Of Center-Based Care

                                                                        >350 days
                                                                       of treatment
                                                          Total Sample over 2 years
                               Age 3
                               IQ                                14.3                    16.7
                               Age 8
                               IQ                                4.4                      8.4
                               *Heavier low birth weight children only




                    National Center for Children and Families (NCCF) - Teachers College, Columbia University
                                                     www.policyforchildren.org
Hill, Brooks-Gunn, Waldfogel, 2003, DP
               Federal ECE Programs and School
                          Readiness

       • Head Start Impact Study
       • Early Head Start National Evaluation
       • Early Reading First
       • Preschool Curriculum Evaluation
         Research Study (PCERS)

       All randomized trials of center-based early childhood education programs


                National Center for Children and Families (NCCF) - Teachers College, Columbia University
                                                 www.policyforchildren.org
Layzer, 2008
               Impacts of Federal ECE Efforts
       • Head Start: modest effects on letter
         recognition, none on language

       • Early Head Start has modest effects across a
         range of outcomes

       • Modest effect of Early Reading First

       • Some impacts in PCERS of many different
         curricula

                National Center for Children and Families (NCCF) - Teachers College, Columbia University
                                                 www.policyforchildren.org
Layzer, 2008
                              Change in Policy Scores over Time
                       0.6
Average Policy Score




                       0.4
                       0.2
                        -0
                       -0.2
                       -0.4

                       -0.6
                          1991                              1994                               1998                              2002

                                       ECE           Preschool               Subsidy             Tax          Regulation
                       Notes: N= 50 at each time point. Subsidy policy levels in 1991 unknown. Thus, 1994 policy levels are used to proxy
                       1991 subsidy policy choices.
                     National Center for Children and Families (NCCF) - Teachers College, Columbia University
                                                      www.policyforchildren.org
   NCCF, State ECE policies
             Five Different Policy Approaches
       Policy Approaches                      Number of States                                 States

       All                                                   1                                   MN

       Preschool                                             8                         KY, IL, NJ, OK
       Investment
       Child Care Tax                                        8                        AR, CO, OH, OR

       Subsidy and/or                                       21                         RI, VA, VT, WI
       Regulation
       Limited Policies                                     12                        AL, AZ, MS, SC




                  National Center for Children and Families (NCCF) - Teachers College, Columbia University
                                                   www.policyforchildren.org
NCCF, State ECE policies
     Improving Child Care Quality:
              Programs
• Be of high quality (e.g., small classes with high teacher-
  pupil ratios, teachers with BA degrees and training in
  early childhood education).
• Train teachers to identify children with moderate to
  severe behavioral problems and to work with them to
  improve their emotional and social skills.
• Include a parent-training component for mothers of low-
  literacy.
• Include (and document) high attendance
• Include well-defined and tested curricula


       National Center for Children and Families (NCCF) - Teachers College, Columbia University
                                        www.policyforchildren.org
              Challenges
• Sites vs. populations
• Dosage
• Timing and length of early childhood
  education
• Immigrants
• Curricula
• Training
       Rates of Return to Human Capital Investment
                         (Return to an extra dollar at various ages)




Heckman, J. “Investing in Disadvantaged Young Children Is Good Economics and Good Public Policy,”
Extra
             State Policies Affect All Children

                         • Preschool investment
                         • Subsidy generosity
                         • Regulation stringency
                         • Tax generosity




                  National Center for Children and Families (NCCF) - Teachers College, Columbia University
                                                   www.policyforchildren.org
NCCF, State ECE policies
                             States with the Lowest Scores (1990-2002)
                             2.5
 Standardized Policy Score




                             1.5

                             0.5

                             -0.5

                             -1.5

                             -2.5
                                    Alabama      Arizona           Idaho        North Dakota         South Dakota


          Preschool Investment                Subsidy Generosity      Tax Generosity          Regulation Stringency


                  National Center for Children and Families (NCCF) - Teachers College, Columbia University
                                                   www.policyforchildren.org
NCCF, State ECE policies
                             States with the Highest Scores (1990-2002)
                             2.5

                             1.5
 Standardized Policy Score




                             0.5

                             -0.5

                             -1.5

                             -2.5
                                    Alaska    Connecticut    New York              Hawaii            Minnesota


         Preschool Investment                Subsidy Generosity    Tax Generosity            Regulation Stringency



                  National Center for Children and Families (NCCF) - Teachers College, Columbia University
                                                   www.policyforchildren.org
NCCF, State ECE policies
             Sustained Impacts of ECE Programs:
                     Life-time Earnings
       • Outcome in adulthood
             – Life-time earnings based on completing
               high school or some college
       • Inputs in early childhood
             – Health (reduction of low birth weight)
             – Achievement (increase in achievement test
               scores)
             – Parenting (increase in HOME scores)

                  National Center for Children and Families (NCCF) - Teachers College, Columbia University
                                                   www.policyforchildren.org
Magnusson, Brooks-Gunn & Waldfogel, 2009
                 Reducing Low Birth Weight Rate:
                       Life-time Earnings
       • If LBW, 10 % to 15% reduction in life time
         earnings

       • Value of $41,156
         (10% effect of LBW on life time earnings)

       • Value of $61,733
         (15% effect of LBW on life time earnings)

                  National Center for Children and Families (NCCF) - Teachers College, Columbia University
                                                   www.policyforchildren.org
Magnusson, Brooks-Gunn & Waldfogel, 2009
          Increasing Early Math and Reading Skills:
                     Life-time Earnings
     • One SD increase in academic skills in
       adolescent is associated with 15% to 20%
       increase in LTE
     • One SD increase in academic skills at ages 5-6
       is associated with .16 (reading) & .22 (math)
       SD increase in youth achievement
     • One SD increase in math and reading at ages
       5-6 is associated with a .38 SD increase in
       youth achievement


                  National Center for Children and Families (NCCF) - Teachers College, Columbia University
                                                   www.policyforchildren.org
Magnusson, Brooks-Gunn & Waldfogel, 2009
                 Increasing Early Academic Skills:
                        Life Time Earnings
       If one SD increase in early skills, assuming a
          15% or 20% effect of youth achievement on
          LTE:

       • $33,138 if math & reading skills at 15%
         effect

       • $44,184 if reading & math skills & 20%
         effect

                  National Center for Children and Families (NCCF) - Teachers College, Columbia University
                                                   www.policyforchildren.org
Magnusson, Brooks-Gunn & Waldfogel, 2009
                  Increasing Quality of the HOME:
                         Life-time Earnings
       One SD increase in HOME in early childhood
        is associated with .10 to .28 increase in youth
        achievement:

       • $ 9,941 if .12 improvement in youth
         achievement & 15% effect
       • $13,255 if .12 improvement in youth
         achievement & 20% effect
       • $21,125 if .255 improvement in youth
         achievement & 15% effect
                  National Center for Children and Families (NCCF) - Teachers College, Columbia University
                                                   www.policyforchildren.org
Magnusson, Brooks-Gunn & Waldfogel, 2009