Critial Thinking and Literature: Resources by villa45

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The aim of Critical Thinking and Literature: Resources is desgined to help students think critically about and analyze different kinds of writing. They can then arrive at their own understanding about the meaning of a selection. Students learn how to organize their thoughts and analysis so that they can write clearly, logically, and carefully. The volume is a book of literature selections including short stories, folklore, documents, newspaper columns, poetry, etc. The workbook is self-contained. All the readings are included in the workbook. Students complete most of the comprehension exercises and short written assignments in the workbook too. Critical Thinking and Literature: Resources is designed for readers in or above the middle school level. If you review the selections, you can easily see which can be used with lower level students, e.g., the Red Riding Hood selections while the comparison using Shelley’s “Ozymandias” is probably more suited for more mature readers. Students use various reading selections as the foundation for analyzing and thinking about the content, meaning, and theme. Graphics thinking organizers are the main vehicle that students use to help themselves: analyze the meaning of each selection they read and organize their thoughts in preparation for writing. The organizers cover such thinking or analytical areas as: comparison and contrast, classification, sorting, cause and effect, sequencing, etc. There are extensive guidance and tips on how to fill out a graphic thinking organizer when each is first introduced. After applying an organizer to a particular selection, students write their analysis, based on the reading selection and their completed thinking organizer. Readers who use Critical Thinking and Literature: Resources should have more options for analyzing and writing about other texts and literary selections they meet. They will probably be able to transfer much of the critical thinking “techniques” used in Criti

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									David Garnett
         © 2008 david garnett
           All rights reserved




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PRINTED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
                                          PREFACE
                                 For Parents and Teachers
The aim of Critical Thinking and Literature: Resources is to help students think critically
about and analyze different kinds of writing. They can then arrive at their own understanding
about the meaning of a reading selection. Students learn how to organize their thoughts and
analysis so that they can write about their understanding of each reading selection.
Critical Thinking and Literature: Resources a book of literature selections from short stories,
folklore, documents, newspaper columns, poetry, etc. The workbook is self-contained. All
the readings are included in the workbook. Students complete most of the comprehension
exercises and short written assignments in the workbook too.
Critical Thinking and Literature: Resources is designed for readers in or above the middle
school level. If you review the selections, you can easily see which can be used with lower
level students, e.g., the Red Riding Hood selections while the comparison using Shelley‘s
―Ozymandias‖ is probably more suited for more mature readers.
Students use various reading selections as the foundation for analyzing and thinking about the
content, meaning, and theme. Graphics thinking organizers are the main vehicle that students
use to help themselves:
       analyze the meaning of each selection they read;
       organize their thoughts in preparation for writing.
The organizers cover such thinking or analytical areas as:         comparison and contrast,
classification, sorting, cause and effect, sequencing, etc. There are extensive guidance and
tips on how to fill out a graphic thinking organizer when each is first introduced. After
applying an organizer to a particular selection, students write their analysis, based on the
reading selection and their completed thinking organizer. The section of the book entitled
COURSE INTRODUCTION gives details about the relationship among reading, meaning
and writing.
The analysis using the graphics thinking organizers in Critical Thinking and Literature:
Resources as well as the preparation exercises, called mini-exercises. A companion volume
―Snipp snapp snute, så er eventyret ute‖ – Folklore Reader and Critical Thinking Workbook
has additional critical thinking materials and different reading selections.
Readers who use Critical Thinking and Literature: Resources should have more options for
analyzing and writing about other texts and literary selections they meet. They will probably
be able to transfer much of the critical thinking ―techniques‖ used in Critical Thinking and
Literature: Resources to other curriculum areas.




                                                  iii
To Elvira and John
for all their support
CRITICAL THINKING AND LITERATURE: Resources
                      Table of Contents
               Topic                                         Page
COURSE INTRODUCTION                                           1
    Lesson Structure and Content                              1
    Reading, Meaning and Writing                              3

CRITICAL THINKING: AN INTRODUCTION                            5
    Definition and Approach                                   5
    Students and Critical Thinking                            8
    Critical Thinking in Critical Thinking and Literature:
    Resources                                                  9
    Thinking Organizers: Focus of Critical Thinking           11
    Thinking Organizers: An Example                           13
    Skills used with Thinking Organizers                      15

LESSON 1: CLASSIFICATION                                      17
    Introduction and Overview                                 17
    Lesson Activities                                         19
    Define classification: Triangles                          23
    Use a thinking organizer to classify                      26
    Walt Whitman: List Builder in American Literature         32
    Read ―Song of Myself‖                                     34
    Look at the poem                                          37
    Classify ―Song of Myself‖                                 39
    Classify a different kind of text                         42
    ―The Father‖                                              48
    Characters/People in ―The Father‖                         53
    Classify the people in ―The Father‖                       54
    Character Study                                           56
    Implicit and Explicit in a Character Study                57
    Implicit and Explicit in Another Character                58
     Character Study in ―The Father‖                          61
    Create your own character                                 63
    Genres                                                    66

                                     v
             Table of Contents, Continued
                       Topic                           Page
LESSON 2: COMPARISON AND CONTRAST                       67
    Introduction and Overview                           67
    Lesson Activities                                   69
    Two Versions of Little Red Riding Hood              73
    Three Important Folk Tale Writers                   74
     Charles Perrault‘s Version                         75
    Grimm Brother‘s Version                             77
    Comparison and Contrast: Definitions                80
    Thinking Organizer: Comparing and Contrasting       82
    Axis, Trait, Attribute: Examples                    86
    Use the organizer with ―Little Read Riding Hood‖    89
    Another Version by James Thurber                    92
    Two Poems for Contrast and Comparison               93
    Use the thinking organizer with the two poems       96
    Biography                                           98
    Two Chocolatiers: Hershey and Mars                 100
    Use a thinking organizer with Hershey and Mars     106
    Biography Project                                  108
LESSON 3: SIMILE AND METAPHOR                          111
    Introduction and Overview                          111
    Lesson Activities                                  112
    Define simile                                      117
    Similes in Literature                              119
    Attribute/Trait/Characteristic/Axis                120
    Extended Simile                                    122
    Metaphor                                           124
    Two Parts of a Metaphor                            125
    Carl Sandburg                                      127
    Look at Sandburg‘s poem ―Fog‖                      128
    Use an organizer with the poem                     130
    Another Fog Metaphor by T. S. Elliot               135




                                vi
             Table of Contents, Continued
                       Topic                              Page
LESSON 3: SIMILE AND METAPHOR (cont’d)
    Read the excerpt from ―The Love Song of J. Alfred     136
    Prufrock‖
    Use an organizer with T. S. Elliot‘s poem             139
    Compare Sandburg and T. S. Elliot                     140
    Another Metaphor                                      142
    Use the thinking organizer with ―XLIII‖               145
    Create your own metaphor                              148
    Use a thinking organizer to create a metaphor         151
LESSON 4: REASONS AND
          CONCLUSIONS: DEBATES                            157
    Introduction and Overview                             157
    Introduction to Debating                              158
    Independence or Dependence                            160
    Read Tom Paine‘s side of the debate                   161
    Charles Inglis‘ Side                                  163
    Debate Structure                                      166
     Use the Reasons and Conclusions Thinking Organizer   167
    Wilderness or Development                             170
    Chief Seattle of the Squamish Tribe: The Letter       172
    Look at Chief Seattle‘s letter                        176
    Theodore Roosevelt‘s Article                          178
    Jesup W. Scott: Another Perspective on the Debate     180
    Look for reasons and conclusions                      184
    Summarize the arguments                               187
LESSON 5: FICTION OR NONFICTION                           189
    Introduction and Overview                             189
    Lesson Activities                                     190
    Vocabulary                                            191
    Two Texts about the Okies from the 1930‘s             192
     Explore the two articles about the Okies             196
    Read some quotations for comparison and contrast      198
    Understand the Steinbeck quotations about the Okies   199
    Define fiction and nonfiction                         202
    Cause and Effect                                      205

                          vii
             Table of Contents, Continued
                       Topic                                Page
LESSON 6: CAUSE AND EFFECT                                  209
    Introduction and Overview                               209
     Lesson Activities                                      210
    Introduction to Cause and Effect                        212
    Cause/Effect and Writing                                213
    The Cause and Effect Thinking Organizer                 214
    Sand Dunes: A Short Definition                          215
    A Document about Sand Dunes                             216
    Use a thinking organizer with the sand dunes document   219
    Cause and Effect Project                                222

LESSON 7: ASSUMPTIONS                                       227
    Introduction and Overview                               227
    Lesson Activities                                       228
    Definition                                              229
    Some More Examples                                      234
    A Myth and Some Assumptions: Daedalos and Ikaros        235
    Daedalos and Ikaros: Use a thinking organizer           238
    ―The Open Window‖ by Saki                               241
    Look at Saki‘s story                                    246
    Use an organizer with Saki‘s story                      248
    Summarize your ideas about assumptions in the story     252




                                viii
             Table of Contents, Continued

                         Topic                       Page
LESSON 8: THEME AND VARIATIONS                       253
    Introduction and Overview                        253
    Mutiny!                                          253
    Theme                                            254
    Read a first-hand account about Lucknow          255
    Read a poem based on Lucknow                     259
    Explore the first-hand account and the poem      264
    Attribute or Trait: Examples                     265
    Compare and contrast the account with the poem   268

Sources                                              270
    Printed Sources                                  270
    Electronic Sources                               271




                                 ix
                  Critical Thinking and Literature: Resources

                       COURSE INTRODUCTION
Lesson Structure and Content
Scope: Content     Critical Thinking and Literature: Resources is first a source book
                   or resource for introducing students to literature. Texts include
                   short stories, poetry, and fables. There is even a bit of satire.
                   Nonfiction includes newspaper articles and a state document.


Scope: Critical    Since Critical Thinking and Literature: Resources is also a
Thinking           sourcebook in critical thinking.
                       Its purpose is to help readers read for meaning and later
                          write about the meaning in the various selections.
                         Critical thinking elements are introduced using graphic
                          thinking organizers and tables. These help students to see
                          or visualize their thoughts on the various selections before
                          committing them to paper.


Critical                 Each organizer is introduced with comments about how to
Thinking and              use it.
Content
Together                 The students use the organizer to help them understand and
                          analyze a literary selection(s) that they have just read.
                         Finally, using the completed organizer and the texts,
                          readers can write their analysis.

                                                                    Continued on next page




                                           1
Lesson Structure and Content, Continued
Focus of this               The lesson is the unit of instruction in this sourcebook. The table
Resource                    below shows the general structure of a typical lesson.


                                    GENERAL STRUCTURE OF A LESSON
     ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
     Lesson Element                                                                          Description

     Intro. and                               Lists and explains the texts of the lesson.
     Overview                                 Discusses the objectives of the lesson.
                                              Covers the time it would take to complete the lesson.
     Lesson                             A section-by-section discussion of each activity and
     Activities                         exercise in the lesson, including the thinking organizer(s).
                                         Introduces the author(s) of the text(s) in the lesson.
                                         Presents the texts for the students to read.
     Text(s)
                                         Includes follow-up exercise(s) to help students
                                           understand the content of the text(s).
                                              Presents the thinking organizer(s) that students will use
     Thinking                                  to analyze the text(s).
     Organizer                                Explains how students will use the thinking organizer(s)
                                               with the text(s) of the lesson.
                                        Students:
                                                 write the results of their completed thinking
     Written Work                                organizer
                                                           or
                                                 develop a special project.
                                        Includes guidance on either the written work or the project.




                                                                         2
Reading, Meaning and Writing
Reading   Reading is the first word in the title of this sourcebook. Looking at
          the table GENERAL STRUCTURE OF A LESSON on the previous
          page, Reading from that table is defined as:
                            Intro. and Overview
                            Text(s)
          These sections introduce the reader to the genre or type of literature
          in the lesson. They also cover the life of the author, who wrote the
          text selection(s).
          In presenting the text,
             New or difficult words and expressions are explained. In some
             instances readers have to look up the words and then do a
             vocabulary exercise to show they understand the words.
             Readers also get hints or tips on what to look for as they read.
             To help with the content of the text, students do study tables.
             These mini-exercises are designed to make them think more
             carefully about what they have read.


Meaning   Meaning in a text is not always so easy to grasp. Meaning is a two-
          pronged effort for most readers, whether they realize or intuit it.
          First, students are trying to arrive at what the author wants to say.
          What‘s implied in getting at the author‘s meaning is as important as
          an overt action or the explicitly stated idea or concept – something
          which students have to deal with.
          Part of getting at the meaning also involves the reader‘s interaction
          with the text to arrive at her own understanding of the text.
          The two may coincide, but usually the student‘s character,
          experience, and life color his/her approach to ―finding out‖ the
          author‘s meaning.
          The sections from the table GENERAL STRUCTURE OF A
          LESSON (on the previous page) that help students understand what
          the author means are:
                                           Text(s)
                                           Thinking Organizer(s)

                                                               Continued on next page


                                        3
Reading, Meaning and Writing, Continued
Importance of   Meaning is clearly the core of each text the students study.
Meaning
                Meaning is the ―gem‖ they search for among all the ―stones‖
                which support meaning, whether it is
                                       the pure gem of the author
                                                  or
                                       one polished and finished by the student.
                Thinking organizers are the path to meaning. They help students
                to organize their thoughts to eventually arrive at meaning, which
                they can write about.


Writing         Writing plays its ―role‖ primarily in the following sections from
                the earlier table GENERAL STRUCTURE OF A LESSON:

                                 Text(s)
                                 Thinking Organizer(s)
                                 Written Work

                Writing connects or ties together the texts and the meaning.
                Readers express their thoughts
                                on the meaning(s) in the texts,
                                               and
                                how important the meaning is to them personally.




                                         4
         CRITICAL THINKING: AN INTRODUCTION
Definition and Approach
“Thinking         Critical Thinking and Literature: Resources takes a thinking skills
Skills”           approach to helping students understand literature and other printed
Approach          venues. Students explore texts from a number of specific thinking-
                  based viewpoints.
                  In this ―exploration,‖ readers use thinking skills to analyze various
                  literary and printed venues.
                        Rather than just read a text and write a short essay about a
                           particular point in the text, students use a specific thinking-
                           based approach to read a text.
                        Basically, they learn to use information and concepts to find
                           meaning in texts.


What students     Readers won‘t just have a feeling that a poem is funny or that a
get from using    story is exciting. After completing a thinking organizer for a
thinking          particular text, they will understand
organizers
                                    why the story is exciting,
                                    what the moral of the poem may be,
                                    how the assumptions of the essay play out in
                                     everyday life.


Help for          Often in the process of reading and attempting to get at what an
Students with a   author means, student thinking becomes unfocused.
Common
Problem in              Students tend to concentrate on one point, but then skip to
Writing                  another issue, ending on a third, never coming to closure on
                         any of them; hence, their analysis may be fragmented.

                        As a result of this ―wandering syndrome,‖ students‘ writing
                         about a text is, at worst, incoherent; at best, incomplete.

                                                                     Continued on next page




                                            5
Definition and Approach, Continued
Process      Critical Thinking is an active process for figuring or puzzling out a
             literary text – in an organized, thoughtful way.
                       Figuring or puzzling out includes:
                                     analyzing,
                                     synthesizing,
                                        and
                                     evaluating
                      information that results from study, observation and
                      experience.


Purpose of   Critical thinking does not demand set, predetermined information
Critical     and ideas. It requires a concentrated, organized effort with attention
Thinking     to the literary text at hand.
             To arrive at the ―meaning,‖ as each student understands it in his
             own thought matrix, students refine the information by reflection
             and reasoning. The result is a piece of writing that shows
                                       at least, good organization;
                                       at best, originality and creativity.
             In a nutshell, the purpose of critical thinking in literature is to reach
             beyond the ―matter at hand‖ and arrive at a ―solution‖ that is
             original for the thinker.

                                                                 Continued on next page




                                       6
Definition and Approach, Continued
Content      Critical thinking cuts across all subjects by using ―reasoning‖ in it
             broadest sense. This includes any of the following reason-based
             ways:
                   Scientific method.
                   Socratic dialogues.
                   Deductive/inductive logic.
                   Brainstorming.
                   Alternative problem solving, etc.


Student      Students use any of the above ways of reasoning to think critically.
Tasking in   They apply this kind of thinking to ―traditional‖ subject areas such
Critical     as science, history, and in the case of this sourcebook, to literature.
Thinking     Together or alone, these approaches
                               help readers understand literary texts in their
                                own thinking
                                                  and
                               give them a personal appreciation of the text they
                                are reading.




                                       7
Students and Critical Thinking
Important         Students who use critical thinking to arrive at solutions are
Traits            basically ―conceptualizing‖ information. Their thinking involves
                  any or all of the following:
                                    Clarity.
                                    Accuracy.
                                    Consistency.
                                    Breadth.
                                    Depth.


“Abilities” and   More specifically, critical thinking involves a student doing the
Critical          following:
Thinking
                        Observing.
                        Gathering information as he/she reads.
                        Refining and filtering material to determine its importance
                         and priority.
                        Analyzing and synthesizing information to come up with a
                         core understanding of the literary text.
                        Identifying criteria for studying texts.
                        Developing optional solutions to problem(s) in a literary
                         text.


Importance of     The skills or abilities that readers use in critical thinking can form
Abilities         a sound ―process‖ for framing and resolving problems. They help
                  to:
                      Define the key elements of the problem.
                      Focus on the problem from the best perspective.
                      Identify options to consider in defining the final solution.

                                                                     Continued on next page




                                            8
Students and Critical Thinking, Continued
In Everyday    Students use critical thinking if they are doing any of the
Situations     following:
                   Identify a problem to be solved, task to be performed, or
                    decision to be made.
                   Evaluate information.
                   Make inferences and connections.
                   Identify ways to evaluate.
                   Identify potential causes and effects or consequences.
                   Come up with alternative solutions or processes, if
                    necessary.
                   Work out an appropriate solution or process.


Old and New    Readers may still need to use the old information-related method
               of memorizing facts for simple, often pre-set problem solving.
               More important, in using critical thinking, students:
                   Understand components or elements of information.
                   Put these components or elements together to form their
                    own new whole.
                   Then make judgments about their newly formed
                    information.

Critical Thinking in Critical Thinking and Literature: Resources
Introduction   The lessons in Critical Thinking and Literature: Resources help
               students understand literature in various forms --
                                             fable and myth,
                                             biography,
                                             public documents,
                                             newspaper articles,
                                             short stories,
                                               and
                  
                                       poetry --
               by applying critical thinking to these literary texts.
                                                                    Continued on next page

                                          9
Critical Thinking in Critical Thinking and Literature: Resources,
Continued

Methodology:     Students read a text.
A Short Intro.
                 Then they do traditional exercises such as fill in the blanks,
                 answering questions, etc., to ensure a basic comprehension of the
                 text content.
                 They figure out the text using a critical thinking organizer.
                 Finally, based on their completed thinking organizer, students
                 complete the results of their analysis in their own writing.

Thinking Organizers: Focus of Critical Thinking
Definition       The focus of critical thinking in Critical Thinking and Literature:
                 Resources is the thinking organizer (which has been around for
                 many years). A thinking organizer is a pictorial or graphic format
                 that helps students to
                     Figure out and analyze texts.
                     Organize their thoughts about the text in preparation for
                      writing.


Figuring out     Students think critically about the text at hand by applying critical
                 thinking in the form of a thinking organizer to the text. In other
                 words, students are helped by the organizer to figure out the
                 following:
                       What the author means.
                       How the writer gets across the main point to the reader.
                       What the structure of the text is.
                       Why the work is important, particularly to the student.

                                                                   Continued on next page




                                          10
Thinking Organizers: Focus of Critical Thinking,
Continued

Advantages of   A thinking organizer is like a map.
Thinking
Organizers            On a map, you can see the specific city or town where you are
                       going.
                      You can also see the larger area around the town at the same
                       time.
                A map shows a general broad structure of an area as well as a specific
                smaller or mini-area. Organizers help students in the same way.
                                    Students can see the specific point from the
                                     text that they are writing about.
                                    At the same time, students can see the larger
                                     structure of the piece of writing they are
                                     working on.


Enhancing       Thinking organizers enhance a student‘s thinking – the process and
Student         organization of thoughts. They help students to see what they are
Thinking        analyzing more clearly and with less effort.
                A thinking organizer also
                                   lessens the ―wandering‖ syndrome discussed earlier,
                                   focuses students‘ concentration on single elements of
                                    a text, one at a time,
                                                       and
                                  makes the students attend to a specific issue that they
                                   will eventually incorporate in a final piece of writing.

                                                                    Continued on next page




                                            11
Thinking Organizers: Focus of Critical Thinking,
Continued

Students and   Specifically, a thinking organizer:
Thinking
Organizers           Guides students in their thinking so that they can come to
                      closure in their analysis, developing a coherent, clear, and
                      complete piece of writing.
                     Allows students to immediately note information that may be
                      difficult to retain in memory. Students can write their
                      information on the organizer and return to it for further work
                      or for later use in writing.
                     Shows more clearly how the different elements of a text are
                      related. Students can see all the individual parts of a text and
                      still view it as whole, something which is difficult to do in the
                      reading process.


An Example     On the next page is a sample thinking organizer for cause and effect
               with the instructions for its use. Most of the lessons in Critical
               Thinking and Literature: Resources are organized like the short
               example, which follows, with its guidance. (See the next page -
               Thinking Organizers: An Example.)
                     In some instances students can learn to use a thinking
                      organizer on their own by reading the directions.
                     For some of them, an instructor needs to explain how to use
                      the organizer.




                                       12
Thinking Organizers: An Example
                       CAUSE AND EFFECT
     Cause(s)




                                                                     Effect(s)
                                                            1.

                                                            2.

                                                            3.

                                                            4.




    NOTE: Instructions for this organizer follow in the next page. You
          will need to look back at this organizer as you read the
          guidance for it.

                                                                    Continued on next page
                                        13
Thinking Organizers: An Example, Continued
Guidance         The guidance for using the thinking organizer on the previous page
                 is in the remaining ―blocks‖ on this page. You may need to refer
                 back to the organizer on the previous page as you read this guidance.


Purpose          This CAUSE AND EFFECT thinking organizer will help you sort out
                 the cause(s) and effect(s) about the growth of cities in the twentieth
                 century. (As you read about this thinking organizer, refer back to the
                 previous page.)


Cause(s)         Along the left side of the thinking organizer is a vertical row of
                 Cause(s) blocks.
                                              Write a cause in each block.


Effect(s)        On the right side of the organizer is a block labeled Effect(s).
                              Here you write the effect(s), one beside each number.


Filling in the   On the CAUSE AND EFFECT thinking organizer, which you have as
organizer        a handout,
                      Fill in the blocks.
                      Use only the material from the paragraph that you have read
                       to fill in the blocks of the organizer.
                 (Although there is no literary text to go with this table, it is not difficult to see
                 what you would need to do when you have one.)



Writing               With your completed thinking organizer and the original text,
                       write a short composition on the causes and effects of urban
                       and suburban expansion.
                      Be sure to support your statement about causes and effects
                       with examples from the text and from your thinking
                       organizer.




                                                14
Skills used with Thinking Organizers
Various Skills   The list below includes the main thinking skills that students will use
                 with the various printed media venues mentioned earlier. (Each of
                 these skills as a thinking organizer is usually included in a lesson of this
                 sourcebook.)

                         Comparison/Contrast of characters and points of views in
                          various literary writings.
                         Understanding similes in poetry and prose.
                         Creating a metaphor.
                         Assumptions in a short story and in opinions.
                         Cause/Effect in fiction and nonfiction.
                         Sequencing in the plot of a short story.
                         Classification in poetry, prose, and other genres.


Reading and      For the each of the specific skills above, students apply a thinking
Thinking         organizer to various literary texts. The texts used with a thinking
Organizers       organizer are usually short, about 1-5 pages.
                 Students learn through interactive exercises: They work with texts,
                 using the organizer to help them understand the following:
                                          The text, looking at the structure and elements
                                           of the work.
                                          The meaning or main points that the author is
                                           trying to get across.
                                          How the work affects them, including their
                                           opinion – likes and dislikes -- of the work.

                                                                              Continued on next page




                                               15
Skills used with Thinking Organizers, Continued
Writing         Students may apply each organizer in three different interactive
together with   situations:
Thinking
Organizers         1. Interactive Exercise: Students and the instructor together
                      apply the thinking organizer with its attendant ―procedure‖ to
                      a specific text.
                       Objective:     to familiarize students with the
                                     skill as a tool for analyzing text
                                     and to show how the text itself
                                     exemplifies the skill.

                   2. Interactive Exercise: Students, in small groups, may apply
                      the same skill to a second text in the same way as the whole
                      group did earlier with the instructor.
                       Objective: After analyzing the new text using
                                    the same thinking organizer,
                                    students     develop     a    group
                                    composition about the results of
                                    their thinking organizer analysis of
                                    the second text.

                   3. Interactive Exercise: This may be independent work.
                        Objective: Students, individually, will either:
                         create an original text (e.g., if the text under
                         discussion was a metaphor, they would write
                         an original metaphor) using a thinking
                         organizer to help them
                                              or
                         write a composition about a new and
                         different text after using the thinking
                         organizer to analyze it.
                   
                      NOTE:       Students would work on the last interactive
                       exercise depending on their skill level: More advanced
                       students would write an original text. Students with lesser
                       skill would analyze a new text independently.




                                        16
                            LESSON 1
                         CLASSIFICATION

Introduction and Overview
Lesson        In lesson 1, you are introduced to an important critical thinking
Objectives:   skill. You will:
What to do
                  Learn about the characteristics or traits of a number of
                   genres or kinds of literature.
                  Learn about thinking organizers and how to use them.
                  Write about the texts you read and on the work you do with
                   the thinking organizer.
                     NOTE: You should complete this introductory lesson before any
                           other lessons of this resource book. You will get a good
                           introduction to using thinking organizers in this first
                           lesson.


Genre         One of the most important points about dealing with literature is to
Recognition   identify the kind of text or the genre of literature you are reading.
              This first lesson will introduce you to the various genres you will
              read in this course. You will learn to:
                  Recognize different kinds of literature, some of which you
                   will cover more in-depth in this course.
                  Identify some of the aspects or important elements of these
                   literary texts.
              Later, you may try your hand at writing some texts like the ones
              covered in this introductory lesson or those presented in later
              lessons.

                                                               Continued on next page




                                      17
Introduction and Overview, Continued
Types of     The genres or types of literature that you are going to read in lesson
Literature   1 include the following:
                   A number of poems.
                   Short nonfiction text.
                   Short story by a Norwegian author.
             All texts are included in this lesson.


Lesson       A text or group of texts that you will read. Most of the writing and
Components   other work you do require you to read and refer to these selections
             resource(s).
             Any of a number of activities or exercises which you need to
             complete. These activities include:
                        Vocabulary exercises
                        Questions to answer
                        Study tables to complete
                        Thinking organizers (graphics or picture diagrams) to fill out
                        Written work to plan, organize, and write

             All these activities should help you to read and understand the texts
             or to write about them.
             You may have to complete a project, which requires limited
             research.

                                                                  Continued on next page




                                       18
Introduction and Overview, Continued
Lesson Content   The main texts that you will study and write about in this lesson are:
                 The following poems by Walt Whitman:
                           ―From Paumanok Starting I Fly Like a Bird‖
                           ―Song of Myself‖
                 A nonfiction article about types of volcanoes.
                 A short story, ―The Father‖ by Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson.


Lesson Time      You will probably use 4-6 hours on this lesson if you do all lesson
Frame            activities and exercises listed on the following pages.
                 You can adjust this lesson to the level of your students. Younger or
                 less advanced students can work on one of the Whitman poems.
                 Instead of doing all the analytical work on ―The Father,‖ they might do
                 only the character study or the section.
                 Again, since this is a resource book, each instructor has to make the
                 decision, base on numerous personal instructional style, student ability,
                 and economy factors, what exactly to choose for each lesson.

Lesson 1: Activities
Definition       In this section, you
                       Are introduced to classification with a short exercise on
                        classifying triangles.
                       Do a quick classification of four-wheeled vehicles.

                                                                  Continued on next page




                                         19
Lesson 1: Activities, Continued
Use a thinking   You are introduced to the CLASSIFICATION thinking organizer and
organizer to     learn the importance of the organizer.
classify
                       The structure of the organizer is covered, specifically all the
                        components or elements of the thinking organizer.
                       The triangles classified earlier are used to show how to fill out
                        a CLASSIFICATION thinking organizer.
                 You then fill out a CLASSIFICATION thinking organizer, using the
                 work you did on four-wheeled vehicles.


Walt Whitman     You read a short biography of Walt Whitman.
                 Then you read a short poem of Whitman to introduce you to his style
                 of poetry.


Classification   In this section, you do the following:
and Poetry
                     Read an excerpt from Walt Whitman‘s ―Song of Myself.‖
                     Do a mini-exercise to help you understand this poem.
                     Use a CLASSIFICATION thinking organizer to help you prepare
                      for your written work on ―Song of Myself.‖
                     Write about ―Song of Myself.‖


Classifying          Read the excerpt from Volcanoes: USGS General Interest
another kind          Publication.
of text              Do a study table to help you understand this short article.
                     Use a CLASSIFICATION thinking organizer to help you prepare
                      for your written work on this article.
                     Write a short paper on types of volcanoes.


“The Father”     In this section of lesson 1, you
by                    Learn about the famous Norwegian writer, Bjørnstjerne
Bjørnstjerne              Bjørnson.
Bjørnson
                      Read his short story, ―The Father‖.
                                                                  Continued on next page
                                         20
Lesson 1: Activities, Continued
Characters/      You learn about:
People in
“The Father”           The importance of characters in a short story.
                       The different types of characters.


The               You use a CLASSIFICATION thinking organizer to study the
CLASSIFICA-        different kinds of characters in ―The Father.‖
TION Thinking
Organizer and     Then you write a short composition on the results of your
“The Father”       CLASSIFICATION thinking organizer.


Character        You are introduced to this two-part project:
Study Project
of “The              First you do a character study of one of the two main
Father”               characters in the ―The Father.‖
                     Then you develop your own character.


Implicit and
Explicit:        You learn about explicit and implicit (implied) traits or attributes of
Important in a   characters in preparation for your character study of ―The Father.‖
Character
Study


Character             You learn about the TRAITS/ATTRIBUTES/
Study in “The          CHARACTERISTICS organizer and how to use it to help
Father”                you do a character study.
                      Then you fill out the TRAITS/ATTRIBUTES/
                       CHARACTERISTICS organizer for either the father or the
                       priest in ―The Father.‖
                      Finally, you write your study of the character you chose from
                       the short story.
                                                                   Continued on next page




                                          21
Lesson 1: Activities, Continued
Creating your       Using a TRAITS/ATTRIBUTES/ CHARACTERISTICS
own character        organizer, you create your own character.
                    Then you write a ―biography‖ of the character your created.


Lesson          The lesson summary covers a few important points:
Summary
                    In an exercise, you summarize the genres or kinds of
                     literature you have read in this lesson. You will cover them
                     in later lessons.
                    You review the kinds of thinking organizers you have used
                     in the lesson.
                    Then you write about one of the thinking organizers you
                     used in this lesson, giving your opinion of it.




                                      22
Define classification: Triangles

                  Before you begin to learn about the kinds of texts you will read in
                  this course, let‘s do a little work on classification. To do this, look at
                  the triangles below. They come in all shapes and sizes, but they
                  have one thing in common: All triangles have three sides.




How to classify    How do you classify these various triangles?
                   The way to do this is to look for common traits or characteristics that
                   will allow you to put the triangles into different groups or categories.
                          What are these traits to look at, in classifying triangles into
                           categories? The traits are angles and sides. These are the
                           two characteristics or traits that are common to all triangles.
                           They define triangles.
                          First let‘s classify triangles by their sides. All triangles can
                           be classified by their sides. Look at how triangles are
                           classified by sides on the next page.

                                                                      Continued on next page


                                            23
Define classification: Triangles, Continued
Classification
by Sides         Type I: All sides are equal in length. This is called an equilateral
                 triangle.




                 Type II: Two sides have the same length. This is called an
                 isosceles triangle.




                 Type III: No sides are the same length. This is called a scalene
                 triangle.




                                                                  Continued on next page




                                         24
Define classification: Triangles, Continued
Important Tips   As you can see, this is one way to classify triangles. All triangles
                 can fit into one of the categories: equilateral, isosceles, or scalene.
                 This leads to some important information that you need to keep in
                 mind.
                       Each group of triangles -- equilateral, isosceles and scalene --
                        is called a category.
                       The method of putting different triangles into these
                        categories is called classifying.
                       The total number of groups -- all the groups together -- form
                        a classification or system of classification.


Quick            Get a sheet of paper.
Classification
                         Let‟s take vehicles: We will define them as four-wheeled
                         vehicles:
                  Write vehicle at the top of the sheet.
                         Now what groups can you think of that fit into this large
                         group? Here‘s one: automobiles. Automobiles are a
                         category of four-wheeled vehicles.
                  Write the word automobile under vehicle. Leave space beside
                   automobile for additional categories. Now think of three or four
                   additional categories.
                  Write your additional categories in a row beside automobiles.
                   Leave space below each type of four-wheeled vehicle category as
                   you are going to add to each of these groups.
                  Okay, now fill out each category with as many types that fit
                   under it as you can think of. For example one of the details that
                   fits under automobiles is SUV. You can think of some others.
                   Write them under automobile.
                  Do the same for the other four-wheeled vehicle categories you
                   just wrote.
                         What do you call this whole thing you have just done?
                 Be prepared to share your work with your classmates.


                                          25
Use a thinking organizer to classify
Introduction     To help you classify, your will use a CLASSIFICATION thinking
                 organizer.

                       The organizer helps you to see the different categories and
                        the traits or characteristics that are part of each category.
                       You can also see all the ―items‖ that belong to each category.


What a           A thinking organizer should help you to:
thinking
organizer does         Keep the categories of your work separated.
                       Define the characteristics or traits that you put under each
                        category.

                       Keep the items in each category where they belong.
                       Give you a complete picture of your system of classification.
                        You can see your whole classification at a glance.

                       Help you to organize your written work and make it easier to
                        write a complete composition.

                       See easily what you will write in your whole written
                        composition as well as its parts.


Thinking             Look at the CLASSIFICATION thinking organizer on the
Organizer             next page.
                     Read each label or title on the organizer carefully.
                     Look at the organizer as you read the information that
                      follows the thinking organizer. This information helps you
                      understand how to use the organizer to classify.

                                                                  Continued on next page




                                         26
     Use a thinking organizer to classify, Continued
                      The organizer has been used to develop a classification for triangles.


                                  CLASSIFICATION
                            TYPE OF ITEM TO BE CLASSIFIED
                                       Triangles




     CATEGORY                    CATEGORY                            CATEGORY
      Equilateral                  Isosceles                           Scalene


  DEFINING                      DEFINING                            DEFINING
CHARACTERISTI                CHARACTERISTICS                     CHARACTERISTICS
     CS
                       1. Two sides of same length.     1. No sides of same length.
1. All sides have
     same length.
                       2. Two angles have same          2. No angles have the same
2. All angles have          number of degrees.               number of degrees.
     same number of
     degrees.
                       3.                               3.

3.


        ITEMS                       ITEMS                              ITEMS

1. Type I triangle     1. Type II triangle              1. Type III triangle


2.                     2.                               2.


3.                     3.                               3.


                                                                       Continued on next page
                                                 27
Use a thinking organizer to classify, Continued
Use the organizer below to help you classify four-wheeled vehicles. Refer back to
the earlier work you did.


                            CLASSIFICATION
                             TYPE OF ITEM TO BE CLASSIFIED
                                  Four-wheeled Vehicles



        CATEGORY                    CATEGORY                       CATEGORY
          Cars


        DEFINING                    DEFINING                       DEFINING
     CHARACTERISTICS             CHARACTERISTICS                CHARACTERISTICS

1. Usually carry people     1.                             1.

2.
                            2.                             2.
3.
                            3.                             3.


          ITEMS                        ITEMS                         ITEMS

1. SUV                      1.                             1.


2.                          2.                             2.


3.                          3.                             3.




                                         28
Use a thinking organizer to classify, Continued
What thinking   You are going to use this thinking organizer to help you organize your
organizers do   work on categories and classification.
for you and
your writing!      The organizer gives you a picture of all the possible
                    characteristics or traits of each category.
                   It is like a record of your thoughts and ideas about your
                    classification.
                   It is a pictorial diagram you can refer to as you do your written
                    work.
                     Refer to the CLASSIFICATION thinking organizer or
                       diagram on triangles to help you classify four-wheeled
                       vehicles, as you read the information below.


Title           This is at the top of the diagram. The title of this organizer is
                CLASSIFICATION. The title tells you that you are going to use this
                organizer for: classifying.


Item Block      Under the title is a block labeled TYPE OF ITEM TO BE
                CLASSIFIED. In this block, what has already been filled in the
                triangles classifier?
                If you were classifying something different from triangles, for
                example four-wheeled vehicles, what would be appropriate for
                you to fill in from the exercise on four-wheeled vehicles?
                     Fill it in on the on blank organizer entitled Four-wheeled
                      Vehicles.


Category        The block labeled CATEGORY is where you write each separate
Blocks          category. What is written here for the triangle classification?
                In each block under an arrow, you write an individual category of
                your classification. Of course, each category has to be related to the
                TYPE OF ITEM TO BE CLASSIFIED.
                    What would you write in the blocks for the categories of
                    four-wheeled vehicles?
                     Fill them in your categories on the blank organizer
                       entitled Four-wheeled Vehicles.

                                                                  Continued on next page
                                         29
Use a thinking organizer to classify, Continued
Exclusivity       A very important point about the categories you fill in the
                  CATEGORY blocks:

                          The CATEGORY in each block has to be exclusive.
                          It cannot overlap with any other categories.
                          Each CATEGORY has to stand by itself. It cannot depend
                           on any other categories in your classification.


Characteristic    The block labeled DEFINING CHARACTERISTICS is where you
Block:            list the important traits, attributes, or CHARACTERISTICS that
Exclusive again   belong to the category above it. [These three things – traits, attributes, and
                  characteristics are all about the same; some people say one thing, others use
                  another.]

                  The traits or characteristics you list are exclusive just like the
                  categories. The characteristics:
                              Fall only in one specific category.
                              Don‘t overlap with any other characteristics in any
                               other category.
                              Don‘t occur under the other categories of your
                               classification.
                       What is listed under each DEFINING CHARACTERISTICS
                       for the triangle classification?

                       Now write some characteristics, traits, or attributes for
                           each of your four-wheeled vehicle categories in
                           DEFINING CHARACTERISTICS under each category on
                           the blank organizer entitled Four-wheeled Vehicles.
                       Refer back to the organizer on triangles if you need
                        an example to follow.

                                                                             Continued on next page




                                               30
Use a thinking organizer to classify, Continued
Items        In each ITEMS block, list the actual items or things that show the
              characteristics above it and exactly fit in the category above the
               DEFINING CHARACTERISTICS.
                       The items in each ITEMS block are like the source from
                        which you got the defining characteristics.
                       Each item has to have the DEFINING
                        CHARACTERISTICS it is under.
                       Each item can only fall under one DEFINING
                        CHARACTERISTICS label. It cannot be under any other
                        DEFINING CHARACTERISTICS label.
                   What has been listed in each ITEMS block in the triangle
                   classification?

             Now write all the items you thought of, for four-wheeled
              vehicles on the blank organizer entitled Four-wheeled
              Vehicles.
                  Write each item under the proper list of DEFINING
                     CHARACTERISTICS.

             Check to make sure that each item can only fall under these
              characteristics and under no other ones. The item can‟t be
              put anywhere else!


Writing     Now that you have seen a couple of ways to categorize and classify,
            write a composition in which you:
                           Summarize the ways to classify triangles.
                  Explain how to use the CLASSIFICATION thinking organizer
                   for triangles.
                  Be sure to use examples from the classification system for
                   triangles.
                                            OR
                   Summarize the ways to classify four-wheeled vehicles.
                  Explain how to use the CLASSIFICATION thinking organizer
                   for four-wheeled vehicles.
                  Be sure to use examples from your classification system for
                   vehicles.


                                    31
Walt Whitman: List Builder in American Literature
Life       Walt Whitman (1819 – 1892) was born into a large family in Long
           Island, New York. He grew up in Brooklyn, New York.

           Whitman began his career as a journalist and editor. For a while,
           he was editor of The Long Islander, which was his own
           newspaper. He then spent some time working on a newspaper in
           New Orleans, Louisiana, but returned to Brooklyn, where he
           worked on a literary publication, Aurora.

           His first and most famous book of poetry, Leaves of Grass, was
           published in 1855, but really wasn‘t widely recognized until 1864.
           This volume launched his writing career.

           During the Civil War, Whitman served as a nurse on the side of
           the North. After the end of the war, his influence as a poet grew
           tremendously.

           Whitman is considered the greatest and most influential poet the
           United States has ever produced. His works have been translated
           into more than 30 languages.

           Whitman created modern American literature as a genre. He has
           influenced many modern American poets as well as foreign
           writers.

           In this section of lesson 1, you will read a number of Walt
           Whitman‘s poems.

                Adapted from: http://www.bookrags.com/wiki/Walt_Whitman

                                                            Continued on next page




                                   32
Walt Whitman: List Builder in American Literature,
Continued
                Before we look at a Whitman text in depth, let‘s sample one of his shorter
Sample Poem     pieces.
                           “From Paumanok Starting I Fly Like a Bird”
                ‖From Paumanok starting I fly like a bird,
                Around and around to soar to sing the idea of all,
                To the north betaking myself [going] to sing there arctic songs,
                To Kanada [old spelling of Canada] till I absorb Kanada in myself, to
                Michigan then, To Wisconsin, Iowa, Minnesota, to sing their songs,
                (they are inimitable;)
                Then to Ohio and Indiana to sing theirs, to Missouri and Kansas and
                Arkansas to sing theirs,
                To Tennessee and Kentucky, to the Carolinas and Georgia to sing
                theirs,
                To Texas and so along up toward California, to roam accepted
                everywhere;
                To sing first, (to the tap of the war-drum if need be,)
                The idea of all, of the Western world one and inseparable,
                And then the song of each member of these States.‖
                inimitable means superb, unmatched.
                inseparable means joined together, not able to come apart.


Mini-exercise   Reread the poem; do the study table below to help you understand the poem.
                Check all boxes that apply to ―From Paumanok Starting I Fly Like a Bird.‖

                      The poem is patriotic.
                      Whitman‘s poetry rhymes.
                      The poem is broken into verses or stanzas.
                      The theme of ―From Paumanok Starting I Fly Like a Bird‖ is the
                      union or unity of all the states.
                      Nature plays a role in the poem.
                      Whitman makes his point about the union by listing states of the
                      USA.
                      Whitman emphasizes himself in the poem too.
                      The lines of the poem are all equal in length.

                                                                       Continued on next page
                                          33
Walt Whitman: List Builder in American Literature,
Continued

Typical          All the important points you checked about ―From Paumanok
Attributes       Starting I Fly Like a Bird‖ are themes and traits that run throughout
                 most of Whitman‘s poetry:
                        Emphasis on the poet himself as part of the poem.
                        Nature as a means for expression in the poem.
                        Lots of lists.
                        Patriotism.

Read “Song of Myself”
Use a            Remember the CLASSIFICATION thinking organizer you read
classification   about and used earlier – the one used to classify triangles and four-
thinking         wheeled vehicles. You will use that same organizer to help you
organizer with   analyze a poem by Walt Whitman.
poetry
                 This is a long poem. There is a lot to work on. You should be able
                 to easily find categories, defining traits, and items to fill out your
                 thinking organizer from such a broad poem.
                 (Use the blank organizer that follows ―Song of Myself‖ to help you classify.)

                                                                           Continued on next page




                                             34
Read “Song of Myself”, Continued
                                “Song of Myself”
15
      ―The pure contralto [a woman singer with a deep voice] sings in the organ loft,
      The carpenter dresses [shaving down the wood] his plank, the tongue of his
      foreplane whistles its wild ascending lisp,
      The married and unmarried children ride home to their Thanksgiving dinner,
      …
      … The spinning-girl retreats and advances to the hum of the big wheel,
      The farmer stops by the bars as he walks on a First-day loafe [off] and looks at
      the oats and rye,
      The lunatic is carried at last to the asylum a confirm'd case, (He will never
      sleep any more as he did in the cot in his mother's bed-room;) …

                           Some definitions to help you

contralto = female singer with a deep voice    foreplane = tool for shaving wood

lisp = ―sh‖ sound                              pilot = a sailor who steers a ship

king-pin = a pin connecting two joints         spin = to make wool into yarn by twisting

lunatic = crazy person                         asylum = secure place or building


                                                                      Continued on next page




                                          35
Read “Song of Myself”, Continued
15
       ―… The half-breed straps on his light boots to compete in the race,
       The western turkey-shooting draws old and young, some lean on their rifles,
       some sit on logs,
       Out from the crowd steps the marksman, takes his position, levels his piece;
       The groups of newly-come immigrants cover the wharf or levee, …
       The youth lies awake in the cedar-roof'd garret and harks to the musical rain,
       The bride unrumples her white dress, the minute-hand of the clock moves
       slowly,
       … The President holding a cabinet council is surrounded by the great
       Secretaries,

       The floor-men are laying the floor, the tinners are tinning the roof, the masons
       are calling for mortar,
       In single file each shouldering his hod pass onward the laborers;

       Seasons pursuing each other the indescribable crowd is gather'd, it is
       the fourth of Seventh-month, (what salutes of cannon and small
       arms!)
       Seasons pursuing each other the plougher ploughs, the mower mows,
       and the winter-grain falls in the ground;”

                             Some definitions to help you

 half-breed = half white and half native        wharf = large pier where ships dock
 American
 garret = attic                                 harks to = listens to

 unrumples = smoothes out                       toting = carrying

 tinning = to lay tin on a roof                 mason = some who lays bricks

 hod = a pack attached to a pole                plough = break up soil with a plow


                                                                    Continued on next page



                                           36
Read “Song of Myself”, Continued
― … The stumps stand thick round the clearing, the squatter strikes deep with his axe,
… Coon-seekers go through the regions of the Red river or through hose drain'd by
the Tennessee, or through those of the Arkansas,
Torches shine in the dark that hangs on the Chattahoochee or Altamahaw,
Patriarchs sit at supper with sons and grandsons and great-grandsons around them,
In walls of adobie, in canvas tents, rest hunters and trappers after their day's sport,
The city sleeps and the country sleeps,
The living sleep for their time, the dead sleep for their time,
The old husband sleeps by his wife and the young husband sleeps by his wife;
And these tend inward to me, and I tend outward to them,
And such as it is to be of these more or less I am,
And of these one and all I weave the song of myself.‖

                                Some definitions to help you

 squatter = person who settles on            stump = the left over part of a tree after the trunk
 land without pay for or renting it.         is cut down
 coon = raccoon                              patriarchs = respected old men
 Adobie (now spelled adobe) = sun            weave = make cloth by interlacing threads of
 dried bricks                                yarn; usually done on a loom

Look at the poem
Mini-exercise       Do the study tables. Follow the directions in each table.

                  What does Whitman list the most in “Song of Myself”?
                  (Circle all letters that apply.)

                  a. He mainly lists animals.
                  b. Whitman mostly talks about mountains.
                  c. He emphasizes far-away places.
                  d. Whitman mainly concentrates on people.
                  e. He focuses on hearing music.

                                                                             Continued on next page
                                                     37
Look at the poem, Continued

        What kinds of topics or subjects does Whitman sing about in
        “Song of Myself”?                       (Circle all letters that apply.)

        a.   He sings about people in their jobs.

        b.   Places with strange names.

             He sings about mainly foreign people in far-away lands.
        c.

        d.   Young and old people.

        e.   He sings a lot about scenery like mountains, rivers, etc.

             He tells of many foreign countries in the world
        f.

Important        Look at the excerpts below from the poem; then answer the
Quotations       questions that follow:
from the Poem
                 ―Seasons pursuing each other the indescribable crowd
                 is gather'd, it is the fourth of [the] Seventh-month,
                 (what salutes of cannon and small arms!)
                 Seasons pursuing each other the plougher ploughs, the
                 mower mows, and the winter-grain falls in the ground;‖
             In the first part of the excerpt: ―Seasons …small arms!,‖
                        What holiday is Whitman referring to?
                  (Hint: Pay attention to the numbers, what do they refer to?)

                                                    Write you answer in the shaded box below.




                                                                            Continued on next page




                                              38
Look at the poem, Continued
                    In the second part: ―Seasons … in the ground,‖
    what season does Whitman mean when he writes, “…the plougher ploughs, …‖?
                  (Hint: Who is usually a plougher and when does he plough?)

                                                   Write you answer in the shaded box below.




     What season is Whitman referring to, with the words, ―the mower mows, … ”?
                  (Hint: What does a mower do? When do we harvest crops?)

                                                    Write you answer in the shaded box below.




Classify “Song of Myself”
Thinking        Remember the CLASSIFICATION thinking organizer you used to
Organizer       classify vehicles. You are going to use the same type of thinking
                organizer to classify the topics or subjects in Song of Myself.
                A blank thinking organizer is below. Only the TYPE OF ITEM TO BE
                CLASSIFIED has been filled in.
                You will need to fill out the rest of the CLASSIFICATION THINKING
                ORGANIZER for Song of Myself.

                                                                      Continued on next page




                                          39
Classify “Song of Myself”, Continued

                      CLASSIFICATION
                     TYPE OF ITEM TO BE CLASSIFIED
                   Main Topics/Subjects in “Song of Myself”




     CATEGORY                 CATEGORY                  CATEGORY


DEFINING                       DEFINING           DEFINING
CHARACTERISTICS             CHARACTERISTICS       CHARACTERISTICS

1.                     1.                         1.

2.                     2.                         2.

3.                     3.                         3.

        ITEMS                   ITEMS                         ITEMS
1.                     1.                         1.

2.                     2.                         2.


3.                     3.                         3.

4.                     4.                         4.


5.                     5.                         5.


6.                     6.                         6.

                                                        Continued on next page




                                  40
Classify “Song of Myself”, Continued
Some Tips     Look back at the mini-exercise on the poem, which you
               completed earlier. It has a number of possible categories you
               might use to fill out the CATEGORY part of the organizer.
              From the categories, work out the DEFINING
               CHARACTERISTICS.
              Finally, the ITEMS are the actual persons, places, etc., which
               Whitman actually names and writes about, in the poem. Group
               them all under the proper category.


Writing      Now that you have completed the CLASSIFICATION thinking
             organizer for ―Song of Myself‖, write about the poem, with the
             following:
                 Explain what you did with the thinking organizer.
                 Describe what the results were.
                 Show what kinds of categories you came up with.
                 Relate the categories to ITEMS from the actual poem.
                 Briefly summarize your classification for the poem.
             Remember to refer back to the poem and to your organizer for
             supporting statements in your writing.




                                    41
Classify a different kind of text
Volcanoes          Read the selection below about volcanoes. Then do the study table
                   that follows it. Think about how you might classify these
                   volcanoes as your read the selection.

     Caldera volcanoes are the largest and most explosive volcanic eruptions. They
     eject [spit out] … hundreds of cubic miles of magma [hot lava from inside the
     volcano] onto the Earth's surface. When such a large volume of magma comes
     out of a volcano, the ground subsides or collapses into the emptied space. In
     this way, a huge depression or immense hole called a caldera is formed. Some
     calderas are more than 15 miles in diameter and several miles deep.
            Adapted from: Brantley, 1994, Volcanoes of the United States: USGS General
            Interest Publication.

     Cinder cones are the simplest type of volcano. They are built from particles
     and blobs of congealed [stuck together] lava ejected from a single vent. As the
     liquid lava is blown violently into the air, it breaks into small fragments that
     solidify and fall as cinders [red, hot burning ashes] around the vent to form a
     circular or oval cone. … There are a lot of cinder cones are in western North
     America.
        Adapted from: Tilling, 1985, Volcanoes: USGS General Interest Publication.

     Some of the grandest mountains are composite volcanoes, sometimes called
     stratovolcanoes. They are steep-sided, large symmetrical cones built of
     alternating layers of lava …, volcanic ash, … cinders, [and] blocks. They may
     be as high as 8,000 feet above their bases. Some of the most beautiful
     mountains in the world are composite volcanoes: Mount Fuji in Japan, Mount
     Cotopaxi in Ecuador, Mount Shasta in California, Mount Hood in Oregon,
     Mount St. Helen and Mount Rainier in Washington.
     Most composite volcanoes have a crater at the summit [top] which … [has] a
     central vent or a group of vents. Lavas either flow through breaks in the crater
     wall or come from fissures [slits] on the sides of the cone. Composite volcanoes
     tend to erupt explosively and …[are very dangerous to people and animals who live
     near them].
            Adapted from: Tilling, Topinka, and Swanson, 1990, Eruptions of Mount St.
            Helens: Past, Present, and Future: USGS General Interest Publication.

                                                                   Continued on next page




                                          42
Classify a different kind of text, Continued
      Submarine volcanoes and volcanic vents are common …on …the ocean floor.
      Some are active at the present time. … In shallow water, they show their
      activity by blasting steam and rock-debris high above the surface of the sea.
      Some of them may lie … so deep in the ocean … that the tremendous weight
      of the water above them results in very [strong] pressure on them. This
      prevents …them from … releasing their steam and gases. Even very large,
      deepwater eruptions may not disturb the ocean surface. –
          Adapted from: Tilling, 1985, Volcanoes: USGS General Interest Publication.

      Shield volcanoes are built … of fluid lava flows. Flow after flow of liquid lava
      pours out in all directions from a central top vent. These flows of lava build a
      broad, gently sloping, flat dome much like … the shape of a warrior's shield.
      … Shield volcanoes … [build] up slowly by the …[addition] of thousands of
      flows of highly fluid [moving liquid] lava that spreads … over … long distances.
      The lava flow …then cools [and hardens] into thin, gently dipping sheets. ...
      Some of the largest volcanoes in the world are shield volcanoes. In northern
      California and Oregon, many shield volcanoes have diameters of 3 or 4 miles
      and heights of 1,500 to 2,000 feet. The Hawaiian Islands are composed of
      linear chains of these volcanoes including Kilauea and Mauna Loa on the
      island of Hawaii -- two of the world's most active volcanoes. …
         Adapted from: Tilling, 1985, Volcanoes: USGS General Interest Publication.


Mini-exercise    What kind of text would you call this one? Do the study table, which
                 follows, to help you understand the text.

                                                                    Continued on next page




                                           43
Classify a different kind of text, Continued
    Below are four of the volcanoes which you read about:

    I.         Caldera volcano
    II.        Composite volcano
    III.       Shield volcano
    IV.        Submarine volcano

    Beside each statement below:

              Put I.   if the statement is true of only a caldera volcano.

              Put II. if it is true of a composite volcano only.

              Put III. if it is true of a shield volcano only.
           
              Put IV. if the statement is true of a submarine volcano only.
           
              Put V. if the statement is not true of any of the volcanoes

    You can write more than one number beside each statement. Remember, the
    statement must be true for the text you read. We have done one statement as an
    example for you.

           … is usually erupts under water.
   II.     … is usually a very grand and beautiful mountain.
           … is the simplest type of volcano.
           Lava from this volcano cools and solidifies into gently undulating sheets.
           … is formed from small particle and blobs of stuck-together lava.
           … produces the most explosive and violent eruptions.
           … is usually formed inside submarines as they glide along the ocean.
           These types of volcanoes have steep, symmetrical craters.
           Water pressure controls eruptions from these volcanoes.

                                                                        Continued on next page



                                                44
Classify a different kind of text, Continued
How to use the   Using a CLASSIFICATION thinking organizer on the next page,
organizer        develop a classification for volcanoes you read about, in the same
                 way you did for ―Song of Myself.‖
                                                                 Continued on next page




                                         45
Classify a different kind of text, Continued

                    CLASSIFICATION
                    TYPE OF ITEM TO BE CLASSIFIED
                              Volcano Types




     CATEGORY               CATEGORY                CATEGORY



DEFINING                     DEFINING         DEFINING
CHARACTERISTICS           CHARACTERISTICS     CHARACTERISTICS

1.                   1.                       1.

2.                   2.                       2.

3.                   3.                       3.

        ITEMS                 ITEMS                    ITEMS
1.                   1.                       1.

2.                   2.                       2.


3.                   3.                       3.

4.                   4.                       4.


5.                   5.                       5.


6.                   6.                       6.

                                                    Continued on next page




                                46
Classify a different kind of text, Continued
Writing     Based on your completed organizer, write up your classification
            system about volcanoes.

                  Much of what you write should come from your organizer.
                  Details should be from the excerpts.


Preview     In the next section, you are going to:
                Read a short story, ―The Father,‖ by a famous Norwegian
                 writer.
                Explore the characters in ―The Father.‖
                Do a character study of one of the people in the short story.
                Develop and write up your own character.




                                     47
“The Father”    by Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson
Author‟s Life    Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson is a Norwegian writer. He was born in 1832, in
and Work         Kvikne, Norway. He grew up and attended school in rural Norway. Early
                 in his career, he realized he wanted to be a poet. He then started his
                 university studies at the University of Oslo, Norway, in 1852.
                 In 1857, Bjørnson published Synnøve Solbakken, the first of his peasant
                 [a small farmer] novels; in 1858 this was followed by Arne, in 1860 by
                 En glad Gut (A Happy Boy), and in 1868 by Fiskerjenten (The Fisher
                 Maiden). He popularized peasant tales through these novels in his native
                 land, Norway. The stories made him famous around the world. ―The
                 Father‖ is in many ways a mini-peasant story or bondefortelling.
                 Beside the bondefortelling, Bjørnson wrote a number of plays about
                 peasant life. He worked as a manager at theaters in Bergen [on the
                 Atlantic coast of Norway] and in Oslo [the capital of Norway] and later
                 wrote a number of social dramas such as The Bankruptcy and The Editor
                 (1874).
                 Much of his later life was spent in the political arena. He took up
                 various international and national causes. He was strongly interested in
                 the language of the farmer and peasants of Norway. Bjørnson is
                 considered one of Norway‘s greatest writers and one of Scandinavia‘s
                 most famous.
                  Adapted
                 from:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bj%C3%B8rnstjerne_Bj%C3%B8rnson


A Little         ―The Father‖ takes place is rural Norway. The people in the story are
Background       peasants (similar to farmers in the U. S.).
                 Peasants or small farmers usually lived on a farm called a gaard
                 (pronounced like American English Gore. You know the former vice
                 president). This was a cluster of buildings for living, working, and cooking.
                 The land the peasants worked was outside the gaard, in what we might call
                 strips of land.
                 Life was very difficult in the harsh climate of Norway. Work was often
                 backbreaking. It meant clearing the rough slopes of stones and debris so that
                 seed could be sowed and eventually crops harvested.

                                                                      Continued on next page




                                           48
“The Father”   by Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson, Continued
                                   “The Father”
                               Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson
                (From The Bridal March Translated by Prof. R. B. Anderson)

      The man whose story is here to be told was the wealthiest and most influential
      person in his parish; his name was Thord [pronounced like ―tore‖ in American
      English] Overaas. He appeared in the priest's study one day, tall and earnest.
      "I have gotten a son," said he [Thord], "and I wish to present him for baptism."
      "What shall his name be?" [asked the preacher.]
      "Finn,--after my father."
      "And the sponsors?"
      They were mentioned, and proved to be the best men and women of Thord's
      relations [relatives] in the parish.
      "Is there anything else?" inquired the priest, and looked up. The peasant
      hesitated a little.
      "I should like very much to have him baptized by himself [alone, with no other
      child]," said he, finally.

                             Vocabulary to help you
   influential = with authority; highly    parish = a local church community
   respected

   sponsors = the                          hesitated = to stop for a moment
   godfather/godmother
   earnest = serious and intent            relations = relatives like an uncle or
                                           aunt


                                                                       Continued on next page




                                           49
“The Father”   by Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson, Continued
    …"Is there anything else?" inquired the priest.
    "There is nothing else;" and the peasant twirled his cap, as though he were
    about to go.
    Then the priest rose. "There is yet this, however," said he [the priest], and
    walking toward Thord, he took him by the hand and looked gravely into his
    eyes: "God grant that the child may become a blessing to you!"
                                           ***
    One day sixteen years later, Thord stood once more in the priest's study.
    "Really, you carry your age astonishingly well, Thord," said the priest; for
    he saw no change whatever in the man.
    "That is because I have no troubles," replied Thord.
    To this the priest said nothing, but after a while he asked: "What … [would
    you like] this evening?"

    "I have come this evening about that son of mine who is to be confirmed to-
    morrow."
    "He is a bright boy."
    "I did not wish to pay the priest until I heard what number the boy would
    have when he takes his place in church to-morrow." [Children who were to be
    confirmed were ranked by how well they did in their confirmation studies.]

    "He will stand number one."
    "So I have heard; and here are ten dollars for the priest."
    "Is there anything else I can do for you?" inquired the priest, fixing his eyes
    on Thord.
    "There is nothing else." Thord went out.

                             Vocabulary to help you
   astonishingly = extremely       confirmed = to become a member of a church
   gravely = seriously             inquired = asked

                                                                     Continued on next page

                                           50
“The Father”    by Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson, Continued
      Eight years more rolled by, and then one day a noise was heard outside of the
      priest's study, for many men were approaching, and at their head was Thord,
      who entered first. The priest looked up and recognized him.
      "You come well attended this evening, Thord," said he.
      "I am here to request that the banns may be published for my son; he is about
      to marry Karen Storliden, daughter of Gudmund, who stands here beside me."
      "Why, that is the richest girl in the parish."
      "So they say," replied the peasant, stroking back his hair with one hand.
      The priest sat a while as if in deep thought, then entered the names in his
      book, without making any comments, and the men wrote their signatures
      underneath. Thord laid three dollars on the table.
      "One is all I am to have," said the priest.

                             Vocabulary to help you
    banns = marriage announcement read          stroking back = pushing back
    in church

      "I know that very well; but he is my only child, I want to do it handsomely."
      The priest took the money. "This is now the third time, Thord, that you have
      come here on your son's account."
      "But now I am through with him," said Thord, and folding up his pocket-book
      he said farewell and walked away. The men slowly followed him.
                                                ***
      A fortnight later, the father and son were rowing across the lake, one calm,
      still day, to Storliden to make arrangements for the wedding.
      "This thwart is not secure," said the son, and stood up to straighten the seat on
      which he was sitting.
      At the same moment the board he was standing on slipped from under him; he
      threw out his arms, uttered a shriek, and fell overboard.

                             Vocabulary to help you
   handsomely = fine or very good/well           fortnight = two weeks
   thwart = a rower‘s seat in a boat             shriek = a yell full of fear

                                                                      Continued on next page
                                           51
“The Father”   by Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson, Continued
     "Take hold of the oar!" shouted the father, springing to his feet
     and holding out the oar. But when the son had made a couple of efforts he
     grew stiff.
     "Wait a moment!" cried the father, and began to row toward his son. Then
     the son rolled over on his back, gave his father one long look, and sank.
     Thord could scarcely believe it; he held the boat still, and stared at the
     spot where his son had gone down, as though he must surely come to the
     surface again. There rose some bubbles, then some more, and finally one
     large one that burst; and the lake lay there as smooth and bright as a
     mirror again.
     For three days and three nights people saw the father rowing round and
     round the spot, without taking either food or sleep; he was dragging
     [pulling a net through the water] the lake for the body of his son. And toward
     morning of the third day he found it [the body of his son], and carried it in
     his arms up over the hills to his gard.
     It might have been about a year from that day, when the priest, late one
     autumn evening, heard some one in the passage outside of the door,
     carefully trying to find the latch [a fastener on a door]. The priest opened
     the door, and in walked a tall, thin man, with bowed form and white hair.
     The priest looked long at him before he recognized him. It was Thord.
     "Are you out walking so late?" said the priest, and stood still in front of
     him.
     "Ah, yes! it is late," said Thord, and took a seat. The priest sat down also,
     as though waiting. A long, long silence followed. At last Thord said:

                                                                  Continued on next page




                                         52
“The Father”    by Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson, Continued
       "I have something with me that I should like to give to the poor; I want it to be
       invested as a legacy [money left in memory of someone] in my son's name."
       He rose, laid some money on the table, and sat down again. The priest counted
       it. ―It is a great deal of money," said he.
       "It is half the price of my gard [farm]. I sold it today."
       The priest sat long in silence. At last he asked, but gently: "What do you
       propose to do now, Thord?"
       "Something better."
       They sat there for a while, Thord with downcast eyes, the priest with his eyes
       fixed on Thord. Presently the priest said, slowly and softly: "I think your son
       has at last brought you a true blessing."
       "Yes, I think so myself," said Thord, looking up, while two big tears coursed
       slowly down his cheeks.
                From: http://www.gutenberg.org/dirs/etext04/strsb10.txt Not in copyright.

Characters/People in “The Father”
Definition        Characters are the imaginary ―folk‖ that an author creates.
                         Characters can be people, animals, imaginary types like elves
                          or orcs – you can think of many other kinds.
                         Characters are a key element in most short stories, novels,
                          plays and movies. In many cases, characters are the most
                          important thing in a short story or novel.
                         Through a character‘s actions, thoughts, attitudes, and deeds,
                          the plot progresses, and the author tells the ―story.‖
                                                                    Continued on next page




                                            53
Characters/People in “The Father”, Continued
Types of     There are various types of characters. In some cases, a single
Characters   character can be a couple of types. The different types of
             characters in a story may be:
             Protagonist is a major character who is the focus of attention in the
             story. Sometimes the protagonist may be a hero. Often, the protagonist
             is considered "the good guy‖ in the novel, play, or short story.
             Antagonist opposes the protagonist. He may try to harm or hinder the
             protagonist. (How about Gollum in the Ring trilogy!) Sometimes, the
             antagonist may be a force, such as a disease or a volcano, which the
             antagonist has to overcome.
             Static character does not change. A static character remains the
             same through out the plot. Consider the evil stepmother in
             ―Cinderella.‖
             Dynamic character changes in some important way. Sometimes the
             change may be physical; in other instances, the character changes
             psychologically -- in attitude, outlook, or thinking. Think about how
             Frodo changed in the Tolkien trilogy. Did Gollum really ever change?
             How would you classify Gollum?
             Minor character doesn‘t usually play a large role in the plot. A
             minor character may support another person such as the protagonist or
             the antagonist.
             Adapted from:
              http://www.roanestate.edu/owl&writingcenter/OWL/owl.html

Classify the people in “The Father”
Tips         Use the CLASSIFICATION thinking organizer to help you lay out
             your writing about the characters in the story ―The Father‖. You
             will:
                  Use the types of characters on the previous page as
                   categories in the organizer.
                  Figure out the important DEFINING CHARACTERISTICS
                   for each category of character.
                  Now take each character in ―The Father‖ and put the
                   character in an ITEMS column of a category.
             (We have started a category for you. Use the handout to complete your work.)

                                                                     Continued on next page


                                        54
                             CLASSIFICATION
                        TYPE OF ITEM TO BE CLASSIFIED
                             Characters in “The Father”




          CATEGORY                   CATEGORY                      CATEGORY
     Minor Character


DEFINING                              DEFINING            DEFINING
CHARACTERISTICS                    CHARACTERISTICS        CHARACTERISTICS

1. Supports another           1.                          1.
person.
                              2.                          2.
2.

3.                                                        3.
                              3.




           ITEMS                       ITEMS                          ITEMS

1. Gudmund Storliden          1.                          1.
supports the father. He is
the bride’s father

2.                            2.                          2.


3.                            3.                          3.


4.                            4.                          4.


5.                            5.                          5.

                                                               Continued on next page
                                      55
Classify the people in “The Father”, Continued
Writing          Now that you have completed the thinking organizer, use it to
                 write about the characters in ―The Father‖:
                     Tell what kind of character each person is. This means
                      essentially telling what category you placed a specific
                      character in.
                     Give a brief description of the character.
                     Explain the reason(s) why you put the characters in that
                      specific category.
                     Tell which character you liked the best and why.

Character Study
What you will    In this section, you look at one of the main characters in detail in
do               ―The Father.‖ This is called a character study.
                 You do more than just look at the character in relation to the plot;
                 you look at all aspects of the character: both
                                  what is obvious
                                      and
                                  what is not so obvious.
                 This project will take a bit of concentration. You need to take
                 your time to complete it. You should do the work a little at a time,
                 step-by-step.


What to do for   In this section, you are going to:
the character
study             Do a character study of one of the main characters of ―The
                   Father‖: either the father or the preacher.
                  Learn about implicit and explicit traits in a character.
                  Analyze the character you choose by using a
                   TRAITS/ATTRIBUTES/ CHARACTERISTICS thinking
                   organizer.
                  Write a character study of the person from ―The Father,‖ based
                   on your completed TRAITS/ATTRIBUTES/
                   CHARACTERISTICS thinking organizer and the short story.




                                          56
Implicit and Explicit: Important in a Character Study
Two Key Points   Implicit and Explicit are very important in looking at characters in a
                 story. Both give you a complete ―picture‖ of the person. Without
                 either, you miss a lot that an author is saying about the character.


Explicit         In the case of explicit traits or attributes or explicit characteristics, the
Statements       author gives direct information and interpretive comments about the
                 character. The narrator:
                        Describes the character‘s clothing, hair, eyes, etc.
                        Tells about actions that the character does.
                        Gives the thoughts that the character has.
                        States what the character likes and dislikes, or how the
                         character feels about another person or thing in the story.
                 The author directly explains these things. The reader doesn‘t really
                 have to do anything except read.


Implied          Here the author doesn‘t directly state something about the character.
Statements
                        The author tells you, the reader, in a description, example,
                         thought, etc., about the character. The author doesn‘t offer an
                         opinion, judgment, or idea about the character. You are
                         expected to get that idea or opinion from what the person is
                         saying or how she is behaving.
                        Then, you, the reader, make a judgment about the character
                         based on the description, action, etc.
                 This is called implied judgment and is very useful if a narrator wants
                 to tell about an attitude or thought of a character without directly
                 labeling it.

                                                                      Continued on next page




                                           57
Implicit and Explicit: Important in a Character Study,
Continued

Example         Instead of saying a person is a glutton, the author describes how
                the character gobbles up globs of food, using his hands and
                slobbering all over his mouth and chin. The author never says that
                the character is a glutton.
                      The author implies (never directly states) that the character
                       is a glutton from the ―piggy-like‖ description.
                      You, the reader, come to the conclusion about the
                       character‘s gluttony, by figuring out what the author means
                       from his description. You get at the character from what
                       the author implies, not directly states, about the character:
                This is called implied judgment. You will use it a lot in reading
                fiction.


Example         J. R. R. Tolkien‘s descriptions of Gollum in the Ring trilogy show
                how he uses implied or implicit judgment with this character.
                      Tolkien never directly states that Gollum is evil.
                      He just let‘s Gollum talk about himself and life and
                       describes Gollum‘s actions and feelings in relation to the
                       ring.
                You get the idea from all that Tolkien writes about Gollum that the
                creature really is evil – and pitiful.

Implicit and Explicit in another Character
Another         The excerpts below come from a book written in England in the
Example: Some   17th century.
Background
                This is a story of folks who go on a pilgrimage, a long journey.
                They probably walked for weeks, sometimes months, to a holy
                place to see the remains of a saint and possibly to ask for healing
                from some sickness or problem.
                During the Middle Ages (11th – 12th centuries), it was common for
                people to seek healing and better health by going on pilgrimages.

                                                                 Continued on next page

                                        58
Implicit and Explicit in another Character, Continued
A little about   In this book, called Pilgrim‘s Progress by John Bunyan, some pilgrims
the book         are challenged; others are hail and hardy [in good health].
                 One of the pilgrims is named Mr. READY-TO-HALT. He hobbles on
                 crutches. Let‘s take a look at a couple of passages from this book. You
                 will read Bunyan‘s description of this person.


Dialogue         The first excerpt is a short dialogue between Mr. FEEBLE-MIND,
                 another pilgrim, who is mentally challenged and Mr. READY-TO-
                 HALT. Look at what Mr. READY-TO-HALT says to Mr. FEEBLE-
                 MIND.
                      What is Bunyan showing you about Mr. READY-TO-HALT in
                       this conversation?
                      What do you think he implies about Mr. READY-TO-HALT?

      “Ready-to-halt. ‗I shall be glad of thy [your] company," said the other; "and
                         good Mr. FEEBLE-MIND, rather than we will part, since
                         we are thus happily met, I will lend thee [you] one of my
                         crutches.‘

        Feeble-mind. ‗Nay [No], …"though I thank thee for thy good-will, I am
                         not inclined to halt [stumble or fall] before I am lame.
                         [Although] I think … [the crutch] may help me against a
                         dog.‘

      Ready-to-halt. ‗If either myself or my crutches can do thee a pleasure [help
                         you out], we are both at thy [your] command, good Mr.
                         FEEBLE-MIND.‘ ”
                                                                  Continued on next page




                                         59
Implicit and Explicit in another Character, Continued
Another           In this excerpt, Mr. READY-TO-HALT is dying. As you read his
Excerpt           final scene, think about the following:
                       What he says to the other pilgrims.
                       What Mr. READY-TO-HALT leaves to his son.
                       What do you think Bunyan is telling you about Mr. READY-TO-
                        HALT?
      ―After this, Mr. READY-TO-HALT called for his fellow pilgrims, and told them,
      saying, "I am sent for; and God shall surely visit you also." [He is saying he is dying.]
      So he desired Mr. VALIANT [another pilgrim] to make his will. And because he had
      nothing to bequeath [leave] to them …, but his crutches and his good wishes;
      ―…therefore thus he said: ‗These crutches I bequeath [leave] to my son [who] …shall
      tread in my steps; with a hundred warm wishes that he may prove better than I have
      done.‘ ‖
             Quotations are from: http://www.raptureme.com/resource/bunyan/stage7.html.
Writing           Write about the character of Mr. READY-TO-HALT. Include such
                  topics as:
                     His appearance. You will have to imagine him limping on the road for
                      many days on the pilgrimage. He often fasted [didn‘t eat]. There
                      were no modern motels in the Middle Ages.
                     His struggle. Try to imagine how some of his fellow pilgrims felt
                      about his ability to keep up with them. How might some of them
                      have reacted? Positively? What might other pilgrims have done to
                      help him out?
                  You can imagine other topics to include in your writing about him.


Important!        You need to use implied judgment in writing about Mr. READY-
                  TO-HALT. Based on what Mr. READY-TO-HALT says in the two
                  excerpts:
                   What do you believe Bunyan wants you to think about Mr. READY-
                    TO-HALT?
                   How do you feel about Mr.READY -TO-HALT?
                  Both of these are important questions you need to answer in your
                  written work.



                                             60
Character Study in “The Father”
Character          Let‘s go back to the short story, ―The Father.‖ Keeping explicit and implicit
Study in “The      traits in mind,
Father”
                    Choose the father or the priest.
                    Fill out the TRAITS/ATTRIBUTES/CHARACTERISTICS organizer
                        to help you understand the character you choose. (Use the handout
                        organizer below.)

                TRAITS/ATTRIBUTES/CHARACTERISTICS

ACTS/ACTIONS: What does the                        FEELS/EMOTIONS:                   How does
person do – important actions!                     this character feel - attitudes, feelings!
1.                                                 1.

2.                                                 2.

3.                                                 3.




                       Which character are you writing about?




LOOKS/APPEARANCE: What                             SAYS/SPEECH:            What the
are the important physical traits of the           character says – important things!
person?
                                                   1.
1.
                                                   2.
2.
                                                   3.
3.



                                                                        Continued on next page

                                             61
Character Study in “The Father”, Continued
Writing     Using you completed TRAITS/ATTRIBUTES/
            CHARACTERISTICS thinking organizer and ―The Father‖ :
                 Write a five-paragraph character study of the person you
                  chose for your thinking organizer, the father or the preacher.
                 Write a final paragraph on how well the author does in
                  letting you, the reader, know about the character you are
                  writing on. Basically here you answer questions such as:
                     How well did you get to know the character?
                     Could you possibly be friends with him? Why or why not!


Tips           The TITLES in the boxes of the organizer, for example,
                ACTS/ACTIONS, SAYS/SPEECH, should help you with a topic
                sentence for each paragraph of your writing.
               The numbered items in each box and any other examples you
                find in the story itself should help you with supporting
                statements for your work.
               Remember, the last paragraph: It is your opinion of the story.
                You need to support your feelings about the character with a bit
                about yourself.


Preview     In the next section, you are going to develop your own character
            using the TRAITS/ATTRIBUTES/ CHARACTERISTICS thinking
            organizer.
            Then you will write a biography of your new character, using your
            completed thinking organizer.




                                    62
Create your own character
Using the         Now you are going to write up your own imaginary character. It can be
organizer again   a person, an animated figure, an animal, an imaginary or magical figure.
                  It must be able to speak, feel, act, and have a physical description.
                  You will use the TRAITS/ATTRIBUTES/ CHARACTERISTICS
                  thinking organizer you used earlier to develop the important points you
                  want to make about your character.
                  Do your development work on the thinking organizer on the next page.


Tips              The no 1. trait or characteristic you write in each box should probably
                  be an important trait of the character. Nos. 2. 3. 4. etc., can be
                  additional important supporting traits.
                        You may want to make the main trait or characteristic part of the
                         topic sentence for your paragraph.
                        You final paragraph about your new character should include
                         something about:
                                        How you came up with the character.
                                        How your feel about your newly created
                                        character.
                                                                  Continued on next page




                                          63
Create your own character, Continued
               TRAITS/ATTRIBUTES/CHARACTERISTICS

ACTS/ACTIONS: What does the                     FEELS/EMOTIONS:                   How does
person do – important actions!                  this character feel - attitudes, feelings!
1.                                              1.

                                                2.
2.

                                                3.
3.

                                                4.
4.




                    Which character are you writing about?




LOOKS/APPEARANCE: What                          SAYS/SPEECH:            What the
are the important physical traits of the        character says – important things!
person?
                                                1.
1.
                                                2.
2.
                                                3.
3.

                                                4.
4.




                                           64
Create your own character, Continued
Summary:     In this beginning lesson to the course, you were introduced to
Thinking     thinking organizers.
Organizers
                   The CLASSIFICATION THINKING ORGANIZER helped you
                    sort items or things into a classification system. You learned
                    how to define categories by their characteristics or traits and
                    to put the items that have those characteristics or traits into
                    the proper category.
                   The TRAITS/ATTRIBUTES/CHARACTERISTICS thinking
                    organizer helped you to do a character study.
             You will use other kinds of thinking organizers in the remaining
             lessons of this course.




                                     65
Genres
A Summary        In lesson 1, you were also introduced to the genres or kinds of
                 texts you will cover later in this course. To help you summarize
                 this, do the mini-exercise below.


                                     Mini-Exercise
                          Match each Work with its specific genre by writing the
                          letter for a genre in the space beside each work.
                          You may have to use a Genre more than once.

                     Genre                                  Work
          a. movie                       _____ ―The Father‖

          b. nonfiction                  _____ ―Song of Myself‖

          c. play                        _____ Volcanoes

          d. poem                        ______ John Bunyan‘s Pilgrim’s
                                                 Progress.

          e.   fiction                   _____ ―From Paumanok Starting I Fly
                                         Like a Bird‖


Writing          Now write about one of the thinking organizers you used in this
                 lesson. Include the following in your written work:
                        A brief description of the organizer.
                        How the organizer helped you in organizing your thoughts
                         for writing.
                        How you like the organizer and why.




                                          66
                     LESSON 2
             C0MPARISON AND CONTRAST
Introduction and Overview
Purpose      In this lesson, you are going to read a number of different texts. Then
             you will compare and contrast elements of the texts, using a thinking
             organizer.
                     NOTE: It is recommended that you complete the introductory
                           lesson of this resource book before doing this lesson.
                           You will get a good introduction to using thinking
                           organizers in the first lesson.


The Texts    The types or genres of literature that you are going to read include the
             following:

                    18th and 19th century and modern folk tales
                    Poems
                    Biographies of 20th century businessmen


Lesson       A lesson may consist of any of the following:
Components
             A text or group of texts that you will read. Most of the writing and
             other work you do require you to read and refer to these texts.
             Any of a number of activities or exercises which you need to complete.
             These activities include:
                          Vocabulary exercises
                          Questions to answer
                          Study tables to complete
                          Thinking organizers (graphics or picture diagrams) to fill out
                          Composition to plan, organize, and write

                    All these activities should help you to read and understand the
                    texts or to write about them.
             You may have to develop and write up a project, which requires limited
             research.


                                      67
Introduction and Overview, Continued
Lesson           In this lesson you will learn to:
Objectives
                     Explore various texts to discover how the authors used
                      comparison and contrast in their writings.
                     Use a number of thinking organizers that will help you
                      organize your thoughts before you begin writing.
                     Develop your own biography project by interviewing a
                      person about his/her life.


Lesson Content   The selections that you study and write about in this lesson are:
                       A group of texts using the theme of Little Red Riding Hood.
                       Two poems about an ancient monument.
                       Two biographies of famous American chocolate makers.


Lesson Time      You will probably use 5-7 hours on this lesson if you do all lesson
Frame            activities and exercises listed on the following pages.
                 The lesson can be broken in to units or chunks, and some parts
                 skipped.

                       For example, to shorten it for younger readers, they could
                        study just the three Little Red Riding Hood versions and do
                        the biography part on the two chocolatiers.
                       More mature readers could include the comparison and
                        contrast of the two poems and the biography project.




                                          68
Lesson Activities
Introduction   In this section, You are going to:
                   Define the term folk tale.
                   Identify the differences between folk tales and fairy tales.


Three          You learn about:
Important
Folk Tale      The three authors who wrote the versions of the Little Red Riding
Writers        Hood tales you are going to read:
                             Charles Perrault
                             The Brothers Grimm: Wilhelm and Jacob
               Then you do some fill-in and matching exercises.


Charles        These two sections present the actual folk tales.
Perrault‟s
Version and        Read each version carefully.
The Grimm          Look for similarities and differences as you read these texts.
Brothers‟
Version


Introducing    You learn about this new thinking organizer:
the CAUSE
AND EFFECT           The elements or parts of this thinking organize.
thinking             How to use this thinking organizer with a text.
organizer

                                                                   Continued on next page




                                       69
Lesson Activities, Continued
Comparison                                     Comparison
and Contrast:
                Definition of comparison.
Definitions
                      The importance of axis, trait, or attribute in a comparison.
                      Two kinds of comparison: implied or implicit and explicit.
                                                Contrast
                Definition of contrast.
                      The importance of axis, trait, or attribute in a comparison.
                      Two kinds of contrast: implied or implicit and explicit.


The Thinking    The section of lesson 2 is important. In it you:
Organizer:
Comparing           Are introduced to the COMPARE AND CONTRAST
and                  thinking organizer.
Contrasting         Learn the importance of a thinking organizer to your reading
                     and writing.
                    Learn how to use and fill out a thinking organizer.
                There are some exercises to help you understand how to use this
                thinking organizer.

                                                                   Continued on next page




                                          70
Lesson Activities, Continued
Using the        Here you are given the beginning steps to filling out the COMPARE
thinking         AND CONTRAST thinking organizer for the two versions of the Little
organizer with   Red Riding Hood folk tale. To complete this thinking organizer, you
“Little Red      have to re-read the two versions carefully.
Riding Hood”


Another          You are introduced to an updated, modern version of the Little Read
Version by       Riding Hood folk tale with a ―new kind‖ of little red riding hood:
James
Thurber              Read this version carefully.
                     Then compare and contrast it with the two earlier versions.


Two Poems        In this section of the course, you
for Contrast
and                  Read two poems on the same subject, each written by a
Comparison            different poet:
                        "On A Stupendous Leg of Granite, Discovered Standing by
                        Itself in the Deserts of Egypt, with the Inscription Inserted
                        Below‖ by Horace Smith.
                        ―Ozymandias‖ by Percy Bysche Shelley.
                     Do some study tables to help you understand the two poems.
                     Use the COMPARE AND CONTRAST thinking organizer to
                      help you organize your thoughts on comparing and contrasting
                      these two poems.
                     Finally, write about comparing and contrasting the poems.

                                                                  Continued on next page




                                          71
Lesson Activities, Continued
Biography        You learn about another nonfiction genre or kind of literature:
                 biography. You read about the following:
                       The definition of biography.
                       Most important, the elements or components of a biography.


Two              Here you are introduced to the two biographies you will read: two
Chocolatiers:    chocolatiers [chocolate/candy makers] – Hershey (Have you been to
Hershey and      Hershey, PA?) and Mars.
Mars
                 You are going to:
                     Read the short biographies of these two famous men.
                     Answer some questions about their lives as presented in
                      their biographies.


Using a           Compare and contrast Hershey‘s and Mar‘s lives, using the
COMPARE AND        COMPARE AND CONTRAST thinking organizer.
CONTRAST
thinking          Write about comparing and contrasting the personalities and
organizer with     lives of Hershey and Mars, based on your completed thinking
Hershey &          organizer and their biographies.
Mars


Biography        You become a biographer and write a biography of a person whom
Project          you know.
                       The best way to get the information you need for this project
                        is to interview the person and keep notes.
                       The How to do it – EASY! This section gives you tips on
                        how to take these notes and complete your biography.




                                         72
                        “Little Red Riding Hood”
                                Charles Perrault
                                         and

                              “Little Red Cap”
                          Wilhelm and Jacob Grimm

Two Versions of Little Red Riding Hood
Folk Tale     A folk tale is a short story that was usually told by word of mouth (orally). The
              telling of stories is common to all people, no matter how complex or simple
              the society is. Because folk tales were originally oral stories, there are
              variations of the same story today. You will see this in the two versions you
              read.
              In their original versions, most folk tales were probably not children's stories.
              They were probably meant for adults because they are rowdy and often
              violent.
              The forms of folktales are similar from country to country. Studies of themes
              and stories comparing folk tales from various countries have shown common
              points.
              Folk tales often have to do with everyday life and frequently feature wily
              [crafty, sly] peasants, laborers, or farmers getting the better of their bosses or
              masters.
              In some cases, the characters are animals with human characteristics.


Folk versus   Fairy tales are a sub-genre or sub-division of folk tales and almost always
Fairy Tales   involve some element of magic and of good winning over evil.
              A fairy tale or fairy story is a fictional story that may feature folklore
              characters, such as fairies, goblins, elves, trolls, witches, giants, and talking
              animals, and enchantments, often involving a far-fetched [unbelievable]
              sequence of events.
              Originally, stories now called fairy tales were just tales, no different from
              other stories. The German word for fairy tale ("Märchen") means "tale" rather
              than any specific type.
              Later on, writers in the 14th and 15th centuries first defined a genre [group] of
              tales as fairy stories or fairy tales. The fairy tale became a regular genre later
              because of the works of many writers, particularly the Brothers Grimm.

                                                                      Continued on next page


                                          73
Two Versions of Little Red Riding Hood, Continued
Morals in      When you read the folk tale versions of Little Red Riding Hood, you
Fables         may find a moral at the end. This is the lesson that the tale is teaching
               you, the reader.

Three Important Folk Tale Writers
Introduction   During the late 18th and early 19th centuries, many writers went out to the
               villages and towns of their countries and took down the oral sayings,
               stories, and songs of the villagers, farmers, and peasants. Among the
               oral traditions collected were folk and fairy tales.


Charles        Charles Perrault was an 18th century French author who laid the
Perrault       foundations for the new literary genre, the fairy tale.
               His best known tales include ―Le Petit Chaperon rouge‖(Little Red Riding
               Hood), ―La Belle au bois dormant‖ (Sleeping Beauty), ―Le Maître chat ou
               le Chat botté‖ (Puss in Boots), ―Cendrillon ou la petite pantoufle de vair‖
               (Cinderella).


The Brothers   The Brothers Grimm, Jacob Grimm and Wilhelm Grimm, were German
Grimm          university professors. They are best known for collecting and publishing
               folk tales and fairy tales and for their work in linguistics [language
               studies].
               The Brothers Grimm are among the best-known storytellers of tales.
               They popularized such tales as ―Snow White,‖ ―Rapunzel,‖ ―Cinderella,‖
               and ―Hansel and Gretel‖ across Europe.
               The Brothers began collecting folk tales around 1807, because of a
               growing interest in German folklore. They produced a collection of
               several dozen tales, which they had put together by inviting storytellers to
               their home and transcribing [writing down] what they heard.
               In 1812, the Brothers published 86 German fairy tales in a volume titled
               Kinder- und Hausmärchen (Children and Household Tales). They
               published a second volume of 70 fairy tales in 1814.
               Adapted from:
               http://webinstituteforteachers.org/2000/teams/onceupon/whatisit.html and
               http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Folk_tale and
               http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brothers_Grimm

                                                                     Continued on next page

                                          74
Three Important Folk Tale Writers, Continued
Two versions to   Two versions of the story about Little Red Riding Hood follow. Read each
read              carefully. As you read, note the similarities and differences between the two
                  versions.

Charles Perrault‟s Version
                           “Little Red Riding Hood”
                                   Charles Perrault
       Once upon a time there lived in a certain village a little country girl, the
       prettiest creature who was ever seen. Her mother was excessively fond of her;
       and her grandmother doted [spoiled] on her still more. This good woman had a
       little red riding hood made for her. It suited the girl so extremely well that
       everybody called her Little Red Riding Hood.
       One day her mother, having made some cakes, said to her, "Go, my dear, and
       see how your grandmother is doing, for I hear she has been very ill. Take her a
       cake, and this little pot of butter.‖
       Little Red Riding Hood set out immediately to go to her grandmother, who
       lived in another village. As she was going through the wood, she met a wolf,
       who had a very great mind to eat her up, but he dared not, because of some
       woodcutters working nearby in the forest. He asked her where she was going.
       The poor child, who did not know that it was dangerous to stay and talk to a
       wolf, said to him, "I am going to see my grandmother and carry her a cake and
       a little pot of butter from my mother."
       "Does she live far off?" said the wolf
       "Oh I say," answered Little Red Riding Hood; "it is beyond that mill you see
       there, at the first house in the village."
       "Well," said the wolf, "and I'll go and see her too. I'll go this way and go you
       that, and we shall see who will be there first."
       The wolf ran as fast as he could, taking the shortest path,
								
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