Frisco Police Department Uniformed Patrol Division and Field Training Program Sgt. Bob Fortenberry Frisco Police Department Uniformed Patrol Division & FTO Program About the Presenter: Bob Fortenberry, Sergeant March 2002 – Hired by Frisco Police Department November 2002 to December 2004 - Worked as Patrol Officer January 2005 to April 2007 – Assigned to the Criminal Investigations Divison as a Detective April 2007 to present – Promoted to the rank of Sergeant and transferred to the Patrol Division as a Patrol supervisor December 2009 - Selected as Field Training Sergeant responsible for the day-to-day operation of the Field Training Program Frisco Police Department Uniformed Patrol Division & FTO Program Objectives At the conclusion of this module, attendees should be able to: Identify the function of the Uniformed Patrol Division; Review issues relating to officer scheduling and training; Recognize the geographic layout of the City of Frisco and its associated patrol districts; Identify equipment used by patrol officers; Define the role and function of the department’s Field Training Program; List the phases of recruit officer training; Define the minimum standards required for successful completion of the FTO Program; and Review the selection of training officers and their training function. Frisco Police Department Uniformed Patrol Division & FTO Program Uniformed Patrol The Frisco Police Department Patrol Division is the largest and most visible aspect of the department with 80 dedicated officers. The division is responsible for the response to and preliminary investigation of calls for service. The patrol officer is generally the first contact citizens have with a police officer. The division provides coverage 365 days a year, 24 hours a day, seven days a week. Regardless of weekends, weather conditions, holidays, natural disasters, or anything else that might otherwise signal a day away from work for other professions, police officers assigned to the Patrol Division are at work and serving the public. Frisco Police Department Uniformed Patrol Division & FTO Program Uniformed Patrol (Continued) The Patrol Division utilizes 12-hour shifts for its officers, rotating two shifts on and off duty during each 24-hour period. Each shift contains three squads that cover all 80+ square miles of the City of Frisco during their 12-hour rotation. There are a total of four patrol shifts assigned to the Patrol Division: two day and two night shifts. Each shift is commanded by a lieutenant (a.k.a. ―Watch Commander‖) who has three patrol sergeants (a.k.a. ―Sarges‖) reporting directly to them at all times. The three patrol sergeants each manage a squad of officers that are assigned to different geographic regions of the city. To assist the sergeants, a corporal is assigned to each squad and is responsible for assisting in first-line supervision of each squad’s officers, approving reports and paperwork, directing and supervising officers in the sergeant’s absence, and the like. Frisco Police Department Uniformed Patrol Division & FTO Program The Patrol Shift For six months at a time, officers, corporals, sergeants, and watch commanders operate as a patrol shift team. These shifts work closely with one another on a daily basis, regardless of the district they’re assigned. Currently, all patrol shifts in the department are compromised of three squads that are responsible for reporting to duty at different times of day and patrolling different parts of the city. The off-set times for reporting to duty help to ensure that at any given time there is ample manpower on the streets to ensure that any incident—large or small—can be safely and efficiently handled by Patrol. Frisco Police Department Uniformed Patrol Division & FTO Program The Patrol Shift (Continued) The three squads that comprise each and every patrol shift in the department operate as follows: Day Shift 0500-1700 hrs – East Side 0530-1730 hrs – North Side 0600-1800 hrs – West Side Night Shift 1700-0500 hrs – East Side 1730-0530 hrs – North Side 1800-0600 hrs – West Side Frisco Police Department Uniformed Patrol Division & FTO Program Day Shift Patrol Lieutenant ―Watch Commander‖ North Sergeant East Sergeant West Sergeant 130 140 150 Corporal Corporal Corporal 129 149 159 Officer Officer Officer 121 141 151 Officer Officer Officer 131 142 152 Officer Officer Officer 132 143 153 Officer Officer Officer 133 144 154 Officer 155 Frisco Police Department Uniformed Patrol Division & FTO Program Night Shift Patrol Lieutenant ―Watch Commander‖ North Sergeant East Sergeant West Sergeant 230 240 250 Corporal Corporal Corporal 229 249 259 Officer Officer Officer 221 241 251 Officer Officer Officer 231 242 252 Officer Officer Officer 232 243 253 Officer Officer Officer 233 244 254 Officer 255 Frisco Police Department Uniformed Patrol Division & FTO Program The Patrol Squad The most basic element of a patrol shift is an individual squad. Commanded by a patrol sergeant, the squad is the most basic unit in a police department. On average, it is the squad that must ensure manpower needs are met and that proper scheduling and training are met. Though a watch commander will mandate and sometimes ensure that a shift is meeting all manpower and training needs, it is the individual squad that operationally ensures that this occurs. On a more personal level, the squad is more often than not comprised of officers who enjoy working together and, therefore, normally work well together. Since officers are given the ability to ―bid‖ for who they work for every six months, it is not unusual to see groups of officers continually working on the same squad or following particular supervisors around from shift to shift. This aspect of the shift bid is well-received by officers and ensures a positive working environment. With four different watch commanders and 12 patrol sergeants available to bid for, it’s easy for those officers with seniority to manage their work environment. Frisco Police Department Uniformed Patrol Division & FTO Program Shift Bid As previously noted, the patrol shift bid occurs every six months. Running from January to July and vice-a-versa, lieutenants, sergeants, corporals, and officers bid for the shifts and squads that they wish to work for and with. First, lieutenants will bid in order of seniority which shift they would like to manage: days or nights and days on/off alignment. In regard to days on/off alignment, a shift’s assigned work days are set for six months in advance. During the second bid that occurs each year, officers will review where holidays fall or special events to try and ensure that their schedule is the most suitable for their situation. Next, sergeants bid in order of seniority, selecting not only days or nights, but also the days on/off alignment and which lieutenant they most wish to work with. Then corporals go through the same process, and ultimately the patrol officers themselves (all in their respective order of seniority). Frisco Police Department Uniformed Patrol Division & FTO Program Patrol Shift Scheduling With as many as 20 officers on-shift at any given time—not including those officers assigned to Traffic or other specialized divisions operating simultaneously with Patrol—the need to manage vacation requests, training schedules, and desk officer duty, to name a few, is paramount. Each shift’s lieutenant and sergeants work closely with one another to ensure that minimum manpower requirements are met on a daily basis. Currently, the department requires that no fewer than 12 officers are working at any given time, not including the desk officer or those on their 8-hour day. This becomes very tedious and time consuming for supervisors. Frisco Police Department Uniformed Patrol Division & FTO Program Patrol Shift Scheduling (Continued) On a personal level, officers like the 12-hour shifts and knowing their schedules for the upcoming six months in order to schedule vacations and training dates. If officers time their vacations right, they can burn only two days (or 24 hours) of vacation time in order to get a full seven days off from work. Here’s how the days on/off work for officers assigned to Patrol: Week 1 Mon Tue Off Off Fri Sat Sun Week 2 Off Off Wed Thur Off Off Off Obviously, if you do the math and realize that officers work seven days during a pay period for 12 hours per shift, they’re working a total of 84 hours; therefore, one day in the pay period is what officers call their ―eight.‖ In other words, one day during the pay period is only eight hours in duration to ensure that there is a total of 80 hours in one pay period (excluding overtime, court, or other such factors). Frisco Police Department Uniformed Patrol Division & FTO Program Geographic Layout To this point, we have discussed the patrol shifts, squads, and the officers who present the face of the department to the public. Now let’s talk about the city that these officers protect and serve. The City of Frisco encompasses 80+ square miles and resides in two counties: Collin and Denton. Officers with this agency are afforded great opportunities to patrol commercial, residential, and undeveloped areas of the city that provide a uniqueness to the sometimes routine patrol function. Additionally, due to the city’s size officers routinely work with surrounding agencies, which are many. The police departments of Plano, McKinney, Little Elm, The Colony, and Prosper all share common borders with Frisco, in addition to the two sheriffs departments. And now with the completion of the Dallas North Tollway and the SH- 121 toll road, the Texas Department of Public Safety and Frisco Police Department work closely with one another. Frisco Police Department Uniformed Patrol Division & FTO Program Training Officers are required by the Texas Commission on Law Enforcement Officer Standards and Education (TCLEOSE) to perform 40 hours of training every two years. This includes numerous mandated courses and those that are specific to officer’s interest and/or job functions. Currently, our officers train no fewer than 40 hours every year to ensure that we exceed those standards set forth by the state. The bulk of our training hours come in the form of firearms, defensive tactics, and driver training. Though officers assigned to specialized divisions such as CID, Traffic, or even the School Resource Officer program attend more training than those officers assigned to Patrol, this is mainly due to the fact that the Patrol Division is the largest single division in the department, does not require finely specialized courses, and has manpower restraints not present in the other divisions. Frisco Police Department Uniformed Patrol Division & FTO Program Training (Continued) Officers assigned to Patrol normally identify those trainings courses that they wish to attend and send ―training requests‖ up through their chain-of-command. Most training can be offered regionally, but some courses require travel and overnight stays outside of the Metroplex. As previously noted, firearms, defensive tactics, and driver training is conducted every year and accounts for a bulk of the training hours accumulated by officers. These three training areas are conducted in-house by certified instructors employed by the department. Frisco Police Department Uniformed Patrol Division & FTO Program Firearms Training Officers are required to qualify with their firearms twice a year, achieving a score of 80% or better in order to maintain certification. One of these qualifications is focused on day shooting and the second qualification on night shooting. In addition, shotgun and off-duty or back-up firearms qualifications is conducted simultaneously. Prior to qualifications, numerous firearms training scenarios are provided to officers that focus on shoot/no shoot decision making, move-and-shoot, low light situations, cover and concealment, etc. This training helps to provide officers with the skills and ―time on range‖ needed in order to maintain proficiency with their firearms. Frisco Police Department Uniformed Patrol Division & FTO Program Firearms Training (Continued) Additionally, a growing number of officers are certified as Rifle Operators and can carry AR-15 patrol rifles on-duty. In order to do this, officers must first attend and pass a two-day training course in order to gain patrol rifle certification, and then must qualify annually with their rifles. For this course, officers are required to achieve a score of 100% in order to maintain certification. The department currently employs a large number of officers that are certified firearms instructors. Some of these instructors specialize in pistols, others in patrol rifles, and yet others in armory and firearm repair. Frisco Police Department Uniformed Patrol Division & FTO Program Defensive Tactics Each year, officers attend a two-day, 16-hour refresher on defensive tactics. The Frisco Police Department uses Pressure Point Control Tactics (PPCT) training that focuses on pain compliance techniques to physically subdue combatants. This training uses both classroom and hands-on exercises to ensure that officers meet minimum requirements. PPCT training teaches everything from handcuffing and handcuffing techniques to strikes, baton usage, and even weapons retention and disarming. Though the course is physically demanding, the only way to ensure that officers obtain the real- life training needed in order to act appropriately in times of stress is through this training methodology. The department currently employs four officers who are certified instructors of PPCT. Frisco Police Department Uniformed Patrol Division & FTO Program Driver Training Firearms and defensive tactics ensure that officers can handle any use of force confrontation that they encounter, which is essential. However, the frequency at which officers use their firearms or go ―hands on‖ with subjects is minute when compared to the number of hours spent behind the wheel of their patrol vehicles operating on city streets, down alleyways, and during pursuits. Officers attend a three-day, 24-hour initial qualification course that uses the National Academy for Professional Driving (NAPD) template for driver training. Then, officers are required to attend a one-day, eight-hour re-qualification course each subsequent year. The department currently employs three officers who are certified by NAPD and are in the process of selecting a fourth. Frisco Police Department Uniformed Patrol Division & FTO Program Equipment Patrol officers’ offices are in their cars. All the tools that an officer needs to complete his or her job is in the vehicle or on their person. Everyone has been given the opportunity to see what is carried in a patrol vehicle during the driving demonstrations. Now it’s time to see what officers carry on their ―bat belts.‖ Officers must have on their person those ―tools‖ that they may need in order to protect themselves or others, as well as take persons into custody at any given time. The duty belt that is worn by all police officers contains all of those items that an officer can call upon at any given time. This convenience does have its consequence, however, mainly in the form of weight. We’ll get to the added weight that we carry around on a daily basis, but first let’s examine what makes up an officer’s duty belt. Frisco Police Department Uniformed Patrol Division & FTO Program Duty Belt – Firearm Obviously, the most visible and often observed item on a duty belt is the officer’s firearm. Frisco police officers are allowed to carry any firearm that they wish, so long as it meets certain caliber and safety requirements as outlined in our general orders. The majority of officers with this agency carry Glock firearms, as is the standard duty weapon of agencies such as the Federal Bureau of Investigation. However, numerous other officers carry Sig Sauer, Kimber, Heckler & Koch, and Springfield. The flexibility provided by this agency to allow officers to carry their firearm of choice means that officers can tailor their choice of firearm to their particular needs and requirements. Officers with smaller hands tend to select smaller-framed firearms. Officers in specialized divisions such as CID tend to select firearms that are more easy to conceal, and so on. The only caveat is that officers must purchase their own weapon. Frisco Police Department Uniformed Patrol Division & FTO Program Duty Belt – Holster Every officer is required to carry their firearm in a holster that is Level I in retention or greater. Most officers carry Level II holsters, but there are those who carry up to a Level III while on-duty. The Level I, II, and III designation refers to the number of safety features present on the holster that help to prevent it being taken from the officer. Additionally, many officers are now carrying holsters that allow for tactical lights to attached to the firearm at all times, thus eliminating the need to use a smaller tactical flashlight during low-light exercises. This new addition to the law enforcement arsenal has been well-received by officers, especially those working on night shift. Frisco Police Department Uniformed Patrol Division & FTO Program Duty Belt – Handcuffs Next to the firearm, handcuffs are the most symbolic of items carried by police officers. A number of manufacturers offer handcuffs that offer a greater variety of options than one might think. Officers now have the ability to carry chrome, metal, or even black handcuffs. In addition, there are now plastic-metal combination handcuffs that can come in a variety of colors such as red, brown, and even pink. Frisco Police Department Uniformed Patrol Division & FTO Program Duty Belt – Flashlights Obviously, the need to see at night means that a flashlight is always within reach of a patrol officer. Many officers carry small flashlights on their duty belts that allow them to always have a flashlight present. In addition, many officers carry D-cell flashlights for traffic stops where repeated and extended use would wear down smaller flashlights. Thankfully, flashlight technology has progressed significantly to the point where officers can recharge their flashlights every night after duty and not purchase batteries every few weeks. And the brightness that’s now offered rivals that which the military might use! Frisco Police Department Uniformed Patrol Division & FTO Program Duty Belt – Defense Spray Though Frisco officers do not carry tasers, we are allowed to carry defense spray. Defense spray, or OC spray, is used to spray combatants in the face and eyes, causing an extremely painful and irritating reaction that can last 30-60 minutes, depending on the spray and other personal factors. Word of advice: If you see an officer take out his spray, move out of the way! Frisco Police Department Uniformed Patrol Division & FTO Program Duty Belt – Baton Officers no longer carry the long wooden batons seen in the old cop movies. Now, officers are armed with expandable batons from manufacturers such as ASP. The expandable baton is made of a lightweight metal polymer that is short enough to be worn on a duty belt and then expanded prior to use. The baton is not a required item to be worn by officers at Frisco, but most officers do carry them for use in striking combatants or for even simpler uses such as removing snakes from residences, breaking glass, and bending metal out of the way of tires on wrecked automobiles. Frisco Police Department Uniformed Patrol Division & FTO Program Duty Belt – Radio Many offenders who don’t want to be caught by the police run away and cause a foot pursuit. It is at this point that one must remember one of the best sayings and officer can recite: You may outrun me, but you won’t outrun my Motorola. The Frisco Police Department utilizes many different radio channels for a variety of purposes. Everyone has most-likely seen police radios and knows about 10-codes. I’m sure your time with the dispatchers during the Communications Division presentation told you all about radio usage. From an officer’s perspective, the radio is our most important tool that can call for help, run offender’s personal information and get important details about their background, and relay any bit of information deemed important. Frisco Police Department Uniformed Patrol Division & FTO Program Duty Belt – Extra Magazines Lastly, officers carry two additional magazines for their firearms on their person. Some officers carry mag holders that are open-top, while others carry those that have flaps over the magazines. Obviously, the variety of the mag holder varies just as much as the position in which the magazine is carried on the duty belt. Regardless of what mag carrier is used or how it is worn, the presence of two additional magazines is a requirement for all officers on duty. Frisco Police Department Uniformed Patrol Division & FTO Program The Duty Bag The last bit of equipment to be discussed is that equipment which is carried in an officer’s duty bag. The duty bag is usually carried in the front seat of the officer’s patrol vehicle and contains items such as clipboards, ticket book, flashlights, extra magazines, rain gear, snacks, etc. Frisco Police Department Uniformed Patrol Division & FTO Program Field Training Program The Field Training Officer (FTO) Program is what all officers must first go through and successfully complete prior to being sent out to patrol the streets on their own. Regardless of whether an officer is fresh out of the academy or a transfer from another agency, all officers must successfully complete the program. The FTO Program is comprised of two major elements: Recruit Precursive Training (RPT) and Field Training. Frisco Police Department Uniformed Patrol Division & FTO Program FTO Program – Recruit Precursive Training Recruit Precursive Training training consists of five weeks (200 hours) of instruction that exposes the recruit officers to finer points of instruction not normally provided in basic academies. Additionally, this training focuses on providing that training which is unique to the Frisco Police Department. Frisco Police Department Uniformed Patrol Division & FTO Program FTO Program – Recruit Precursive Training (Continued) The 200 hours of instruction during RPT is broken up into 37 individual training modules. These modules are taught by current field training officers, former field training officers assigned to specialized divisions, and subject matter experts such as crime scene investigators, city attorneys, etc. In order to successfully complete RPT, recruits must pass a 100-question written cumulative final examination and receive a passing score on the 2-day, 24-hour practicals training that serves as a culmination of all the skills and knowledge they learned during the 5-week program and their academy training. Practicals training consists of real-life scenarios ranging from traffic stops, high-risk vehicle stops, building searches, family violence investigations, defensive tactics, and the like. Actors are used to more closely simulate what the recruit will encounter in the field and to add to the realism of what’s being experienced. The more realistic the training, the better it equates to real-life experiences. In other words, we expose the recruits to the field before they actually experience it themselves. Frisco Police Department Uniformed Patrol Division & FTO Program Frisco Police Department Uniformed Patrol Division & FTO Program FTO Program – Field Training Once recruit officers complete RPT, they proceed to the actual field training portion of their academics. Field training can also be referred to as on-the-job training that exposes officers to applying what they learned in the classroom to real-life work on the streets. Field training normally consists of four phases of training: Three four-week phases (Phases I, II, and III) and a two-week Ghost Phase. Recruits that demonstrate deficient or substandard performance may be extended into prescriptive training, which will serve as a fourth four-week phase (Phase IV) of training prior to their entry into Ghost Phase. Those officers who do not demonstrate measurable improvement at the conclusion of prescriptive training are released from the program. Each phase of training is supervised by a Field Training Officer (FTO), who is an experienced officer specially trained to coach and mentor the recruit officer through the field training experience. Additionally, the recruits’ training officer for Phase I will also serve as their FTO for Ghost Phase. This allows the FTO to see first-hand the transformation from new recruit to formally trained and experienced recruit officer. Frisco Police Department Uniformed Patrol Division & FTO Program Ghost Phase RPT 2 weeks 5 weeks FTO Program 19 weeks Phase I Phase III 4 weeks 4 weeks Phase II 4 weeks Frisco Police Department Uniformed Patrol Division & FTO Program Success Rates for Recruit Officers In order to illustrate just how difficult the Field Training Program can be for recruits, let’s examine the past 12 months. From April 2008 to today, 15 recruit officers have entered the program and been released in one form or another. Of these 15 recruit officers: 8 recruits successfully completed the program in 19 weeks (53%); 4 recruits received prescriptive training (26%). Of these recruits, 2 completed the program in 23 weeks and 2 were released from duty; 1 recruit was extended to Phase IV training for disciplinary reasons and ultimately completed the program in 23 weeks (7%); 1 recruit resigned during Phase I training prior to non-voluntary release from duty (7%); 1 recruit was released from duty during RPT for medical reasons and has since re-entered the current recruit class (7%); For the past year, 78%* of those recruit officers who entered the Field Training Program successfully completed it. * This statistic does not include the officer held over for medical reasons. Frisco Police Department Uniformed Patrol Division & FTO Program Release from FTO Program Once recruit officers have completed their full training cycle, to include 19 weeks of total instruction and testing (and as many as 23 weeks), they are released to Patrol as a patrol officer. Shortly after their release from the program, the new patrol officers (no longer referred to as recruit officers) have the pleasure of having Chief Renshaw ride with them for a few hours as a form of ―confirmation‖ for their release from the program. This is a tradition that dates back to his first years as police chief when the department was much, much smaller. Back then, Chief Renshaw determined whether the recruit officers should be released from the program or not. However, these days with the size of our agency and the number of recruits that are cycled through the program, Chief Renshaw does not have the time to be the final say, but still likes getting out of the office and being able to talk to his new officers one-on-one in a patrol car. Frisco Police Department Uniformed Patrol Division & FTO Program The Training Officers Obviously, a recruit’s success through the FTO Program is dependent on the quality of training officers that he or she has. Officers wishing to be field training officers must apply for the position and meet certain requirements, such as being an experienced officer with no fewer than two years of full-time patrol experience, receive recommendations from their supervisors for the assignment, and pass a structured panel interview with current FTOs and the FTO command staff. Currently, the department has 14 field training officers who are assigned to both day and night shift patrols. There is also a FTO Sergeant who oversees the daily operation of the FTO Program and a FTO Coordinator who is a lieutenant in rank and reports directly to the Operations Commander. With the size of the training cadre, a recruit’s personality and training needs are able to be addressed by placing those training officers with the recruit for particular phases of training who will serve the recruit the best. Frisco Police Department Uniformed Patrol Division & FTO Program Conclusion We have discussed the following items: Identified the function of the Uniformed Patrol Division; Reviewed issues relating to officer scheduling and training; Recognized the geographic layout of The City of Frisco and its associated patrol districts; Identified equipment used by patrol officers; Defined the role and function of the department’s Field Training Program; Listed the phases of recruit officer training; Defined the minimum standards required for successful completion of the FTO Program; and Reviewed the selection of training officers and their training function.
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