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									                                                               NIGMS MINORITY PROGRAMS

                                                     INSTITUTE    OF   GENERAL      MEDICAL    SCIENCES • WINTER 2003

INSIDE THIS ISSUE                            A B R C M S C O M M E M O R AT E S
NIGMS Celebrates 40 Years
of Discovery, Progress    4
                                                      NIGMS Anniversaries
                                                      BY JILLIENE MITCHELL, NIGMS

From the MORE Director:                                Undergraduate and graduate students, postdoctoral fellows, and faculty members came
Taking the Risk Out                                    from all over the country to attend the second Annual Biomedical Research Conference
of Taking Risks                       6
                                                       for Minority Students (ABRCMS), held November 13–16 in New Orleans, LA.
Zlotnik Appointed                                          The conference brought together MORE program participants, academic
MBRS Director                         7                administrators, grant officials, and other members of the scientific community
                                                       to hear research presentations; attend professional development workshops,
Profile: Nancy Urizar                  8
                                                       poster sessions, and exhibits; and network with each other. The meeting also
Research Highlight:                                    marked the special occasion of the 40th anniversary of NIGMS and the 30th
Study May Explain Fear
                                                       anniversary of the Institute’s Minority Access to Research Careers (MARC)
Response in PTSD                  10
                                                       and Minority Biomedical Research Support (MBRS) programs.
NIGMS Brochure Available 11                                The anniversary events began with a panel discussion by two Nobel laureates
                                                       and a scientist who has been described as a potential laureate in the future.
News and Notes                    12
                                                       Dr. Thomas R. Cech of the Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Dr. Alfred
Selected Publications             16                   G. Gilman of The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas
                                                       discussed their Nobel-winning research and encouraged students to pursue
Upcoming Meetings                 17
                                                       research opportunities. Dr. Erich Jarvis of Duke University, an up-and-coming
Recent Awards                                          scientist who participated in the MARC and MBRS programs as an under-
and Fellowships                   18
                                                       graduate student at the City University of New York, Hunter College,
                                                       described his research on vocal learning in birds. Jarvis’ honors include the
                                                       prestigious Waterman Award from the National Science Foundation in 2002.
                                                           Jarvis also participated in a panel discussion on the scientific accomplish-
                                                       ments and career pathways of MARC and MBRS alumni. The other speakers
                                                       were Dr. Juliette Bell of Fayetteville State University, Dr. Luis Haro of the
                                                       University of Texas at San Antonio, Dr. Yolanda Sanchez of the University
                                                       of Cincinnati, Dr. Michael Anderson of The Johns Hopkins University, and
                                                       Dr. Scottie Henderson of the University of Arizona.
                                                           The panelists shared their experiences and offered their advice to students.
Phyllis Wilson, a senior                                   Haro discussed the path that led him to a science career. Born into a family
biology and pre-med major at
Virginia State University, performs                    of migrant farm workers, he explained that he was the first in his family to
research in the university’s
Bridges to the Baccalaureate lab.                      attend college. He realized that he wanted to become a scientist while he was
For more on Wilson’s recent activi-
ties, as well as those of other
                                                       an undergraduate student participating in the MBRS program at the University
NIGMS minority program partici-                        of California, San Diego (UCSD).
pants, see the News and Notes
section on page 12.                                                                                                         continued on page 2

                U.S. DEPARTMENT OF
                National Institutes of Health
                National Institute of General Medical Sciences
2        National Institute of General Medical Sciences

                                                                                                   continued from page 1

                                                                                                       Anderson stressed the importance of having a
                                                                                                   mentor and emphasized that this was the most
                                                                                                   critical factor in helping him achieve his career
                                                                                                   goals. He urged students to find mentors who have
                                                                                                   their best interests at heart and told the students
                                                                                                   that mentors “don’t necessarily have to look like
                                                                                                   you” to do this.
                                                                                                       The anniversary activities concluded with a
                                                                                                   banquet marking the 30th anniversary of the
                                                                                                   MARC and MBRS programs. In the keynote
                                                                                                   address, the Honorable Louis Stokes, a strong
                                                                                                   supporter of the programs during his tenure as
                                                                                                   a Congressman from Ohio, noted the importance
                                                                                                   of honoring the efforts of the individuals who
                                                                                                   helped create these programs. Stokes particularly
                                                                                                   commended the hard work of the late Dr. Geraldine
                                                                                                   Pittman Woods, who played a pivotal role in the
                                                                                                   development of several NIH minority programs,
                                                                                                   particularly MARC and MBRS.
                                                                                                       Stokes also urged students to help others in
                                                                                                   need. He encouraged the students to remember
                                 ABRCMS meeting participants had the opportunity to meet one       that, as far back as 30 years ago when the MARC
                                 another and share their experiences. Nearly 1,000 students made
                                 oral and poster presentations at the meeting, representing nine   and MBRS programs were developed, people were
                                 disciplines in the biomedical sciences.
                                                                                                   working to help underrepresented minority stu-
                                                                                                   dents pursue biomedical research careers.

                                         Geraldine Woods Award Established
                                         This year’s ABRCMS meeting marked the establishment of the Geraldine Woods Award, which
                                         recognizes individuals who have had a significant impact in promoting the advancement of under-
                                         represented minorities in biomedical science. The first recipients were three early advocates for
The NIGMS Minority Programs              NIGMS’ minority programs: the Honorable Louis Stokes, Dr. Ruth L. Kirschstein, and Dr. Charles
Update is produced by the
Office of Communications and              A. Miller.
Public Liaison of the National
Institute of General Medical                 Stokes was recognized for his support and ongoing commitment to the research training of
Sciences. The material is not
copyrighted and we encourage
                                         underrepresented minorities. Stokes’ efforts resulted in the creation of a number of NIGMS and
its use or reprinting.                   NIH programs to support minority students and minority-serving institutions.
Editor: Susan Athey                          Kirschstein, currently a senior advisor to the NIH director, previously served as the deputy direc-
                                         tor of NIH. She was the director of NIGMS from 1974–1993, and she served as acting director of
Editorial Assistant:
Jilliene Mitchell                        NIH from 1999–2002. Kirschstein was cited for her leadership, dedication, and commitment to the
                                         research training of underrepresented minorities while at the helms of NIGMS and NIH.
Office of Communications
 and Public Liaison, NIGMS                   Miller, a former director of what at the time was the NIGMS Cellular and Molecular Basis of
Room 3AN.32
45 Center Drive MSC 6200
                                         Disease Program Branch, was recognized for his work to encourage the research training of under-
Bethesda, MD 20892-6200                  represented minorities in the biomedical sciences. Miller served as a champion at NIH for such
Tel: 301-496-7301
Fax: 301-402-0224                        programs and led efforts to establish the MARC program at NIGMS.
                                                                                                                NIGMS Minority Programs Update   WINTER 2003   3

    “You have the same obligation…to not only
achieve your career and do it with excellence, but
                                                                          Profiles of Excellence Available
also at the proper point to reach back and help
pull someone else up.”
    Dr. Marian Johnson-Thompson, director of
education and biomedical research development                             ABRCMS attendees received a 16-page
at the National Institute of Environmental Health                         booklet highlighting six successful MARC
Sciences, paid further tribute to Woods, who was                          and MBRS programs and the accomplishments
her mentor.                                                               of many current and former program partici-
    Dr. Clifton Poodry, director of the MORE                              pants. For free copies of the booklet, Profiles
Division, said “The recognition of the contribu-                          of Excellence: MARC and MBRS Programs,
tions of Geraldine Woods, with her family as                              contact:
guests in the audience, was very moving for me.”
                                                                          Office of Communications
    “If it weren’t for the efforts of Dr. Woods and
                                                                           and Public Liaison, NIGMS
her colleagues, NIGMS’ minority programs
                                                                          Room 3AN.32
wouldn’t be the success that they are today. I am
                                                                          45 Center Drive MSC 6200
proud we could honor such important individuals
                                                                          Bethesda, MD 20892-6200
as we marked the 30th anniversary of MARC and
MBRS,” he added. h                                                        301-496-7301
More information on the 2003 ABRCMS meeting, which will be held
October 15–18 in San Diego, CA, can be found on the ABRCMS meeting
Web site at http://www.abrcms.org .

Recipients of the Geraldine Woods Award (from left) the Honorable Louis Stokes, Dr. Charles Miller, and
Dr. Ruth Kirschstein.
4       National Institute of General Medical Sciences

                                 NIGMS Celebrates 40 Years of Discovery, Progress
                                 BY ALISA ZAPP MACHALEK, NIGMS

                                                          The year is 1962. John            and MBRS—commemorated their 30th anniver-
                                                          Glenn, Jr., becomes the           saries in 2002.
                                                          first American to orbit the
                                                                                            Training Tomorrow’s Scientists
                                                          Earth, Sam Walton opens
                                                                                            Since its inception, NIGMS has been dedicated
                                                          the first Wal-Mart, a first-
                                                                                            to teaching students how to become independent
                                                          class stamp costs 4 cents,
                                                                                            researchers. Nearly half of all NIH predoctoral
                                                          and —most relevant
                                                                                            trainees, and a large portion of postdoctoral
                                                          here — NIGMS is created.
                                                                                            trainees, receive their support from NIGMS.
                                                                 Established by
                                                                                                Recognizing that the most significant biomed-
                                                             Congress to support
                                                                                            ical investigations often involve and affect several
                                                             research and training in
                                                                                            different fields, the Institute designed its training
                                                             the “general or basic med-
                                                                                            programs to cut across disciplinary and depart-
                                                             ical sciences,” NIGMS has
                                                                                            mental lines. In addition, NIGMS has several
                                                             a strong record of sup-
                                                                                            programs that address areas of critical scientific
                                                             porting scientists at the
                                                                                            need. One of these, the Medical Scientist Training
                                                             forefront of their fields. In
                                                                                            Program, leads to a combined M.D.-Ph.D. degree
                                                             its 40-year history, more
                                                                                            and prepares scientists to bridge the gap between
                                                             than 50 of its grantees
                                                                                            basic and clinical research. Other programs train
                                                             have won Nobel Prizes for
                                                                                            scientists to conduct research in the rapidly growing
                                                             their groundbreaking
                                                                                            field of biotechnology and at the interface between
                                                             research—including two
                                                                                            chemistry and biology. The Institute also sponsors
                                                             in 2002.
                                                                                            a Pharmacology Research Associate Program—its
                                                                 Today, NIGMS has one
Renee Hosang, a graduate student at Florida International                                   only intramural activity—that trains postdoctoral
University, benefited from a MORE program.
                                                             of the largest budgets at
                                                                                            scientists in pharmacology in NIH and Food and
                                                             NIH, coming in at more
                                                                                            Drug Administration laboratories and clinics.
                                 than $1.7 billion. The Institute—which is almost
                                 entirely extramural— funds more than 4,000                 Forging Paths into New Areas
                                 research grants to universities, medical schools, hos-     In the late 1990s, NIGMS held meetings with
                                 pitals, and other research institutions. Its broad         leaders of the scientific community to get
                                 interests lie in areas such as cell, molecular, develop-   their advice and vision on new directions in
                                 mental and computational biology; genetics;                science and the needs of researchers. A common
                                 chemistry; and pharmacology. Basic studies in these        theme emerged: Solving many of the most
                                 and other areas covered by NIGMS increase our              complex—and interesting—questions in biology
                                 understanding of life processes and lay the founda-        requires interdisciplinary cooperation and
                                 tion for advances in disease diagnosis, treatment,         multifaceted approaches. In response, NIGMS
                                 and prevention.                                            established collaborative and integrative grants
                                       The Institute has a longstanding commitment          (better known as “glue” grants) to bring together
                                 to increasing the number and competitiveness               large groups of scientists from diverse fields to
                                 of minority biomedical and behavioral scientists.          help tackle these complicated research problems.
                                 Through the MORE Division, NIGMS has helped                    Another area that benefits from NIGMS’
                                 thousands of minority students pursue degrees              emphasis on collaboration is pharmacogenetics,
                                 in science and has enhanced research and training          the study of how genes affect the way people
                                 at minority-serving institutions throughout                respond to medicines. Already, more than a dozen
                                 the country. Adding to the air of celebration at           NIGMS-sponsored research teams have begun
                                 NIGMS, both of MORE’s branches —MARC                       unraveling why the same dose of a drug can help
                                                                                                                NIGMS Minority Programs Update         WINTER 2003   5

some people, have no effect on others, and           NIGMS has also capitalized on
harm a few. This knowledge can allow             advances in genome sequencing through
physicians to tailor the doses of certain        its Protein Structure Initiative. Launched
medications and save lives.                      in 2000, this project builds on the                       As part of its 40th anniversary
    The Institute recognizes that vast sci-      Institute’s significant investment in
                                                                                                           celebration, NIGMS selected 40
entific treasures are hidden within the           structural biology. The goal is to solve
burgeoning masses of genome sequence             the structures of 10,000 genetically                      topics that reflect its interests and
and other biological data. To mine these         unique proteins in 10 years, enabling
                                                                                                           accomplishments. Brief descriptions
will require quantitative tools and              scientists to produce an inventory of all
approaches. Beginning in 1998, NIGMS             the shapes that proteins can take in nature.              and illustrations of these topics
created a set of initiatives to encourage        This, in turn, will help make it possible
                                                                                                           are at http://www.nigms.nih.gov/
mathematicians, physicists, computer             to predict the structure of any protein
scientists, and engineers to apply their         based on its sequence.                                    anniversary/discovery/.
expertise to biomedical research. In 2001,           To further advance the field of
to serve as the focal point for such activi-     molecular structure determination,
ties, NIGMS created its newest component,        NIGMS funds the cutting-edge equip-
the Center for Bioinformatics and                ment and facilities necessary for these
Computational Biology.                           studies. In recent years, the Institute
                                                                                  continued on page 11

Banking on Cells
In 2002, NIGMS also celebrated the 30th anniversary of
the Human Genetic Cell Repository, which plays a vital
role in genetics research. Maintained by the Coriell
Institute for Medical Research in Camden, NJ, the
repository houses the world’s largest collection of
human cell cultures. It contains nearly 8,000 high-
quality cell lines and DNA samples from people
with various genetic disorders, their family mem-
bers and unaffected people whose cells can be used
as controls. (Strict policies ensure informed consent
and confidentiality.) Every week, the repository
ships about 100 cell lines and 1,000 DNA samples
to scientists from any of 60 countries.
    Cell cultures from the repository have already
aided discovery of the genes associated with hun-
dreds of diseases, including cystic fibrosis,
Huntington’s disease and retinitis pigmentosa.
Repository materials are used extensively in studies
of gene expression and mutagenesis, as well as in
studies such as the HapMap project, which seeks to
identify patterns of human gene variation. Inform-
ation on the repository is available at
                                                          At the Coriell Repository tank room, cells are stored in liquid nitrogen and are preserved
http://locus.umdnj.edu/nigms. h                           virtually indefinitely.
6   National Institute of General Medical Sciences

                               FROM THE MORE DIRECTOR
                                     Taking the Risk Out of Taking Risks
                               BY CLIFTON POODRY, PH.D.

                               Directors of training grants or other student development   likely to succeed. In such a case, the value of giving
                               programs want to have superior outcomes to show for         someone a chance is outweighed by the value of
                               their efforts, especially when the time comes to submit     avoiding failure.
                               a grant renewal application. The obvious, “risk-                Assuming that we want to reap the potential
                               averse” approach is to select students who appear           benefits of accepting into our programs students
                               to be the most likely to succeed. However, by doing         who have unorthodox credentials, are there ways
                               so, we reduce the size and diversity of the pool by         to minimize the risk of taking risks? I believe so,
                               not accepting students with different credentials           provided that three elements are in place:
                               who may be capable of making major contribu-                    • a plan to provide assistance;
                               tions to science. What strategy would minimize                  • a clear measure of accomplishments; and
                               the risk and optimize the success of a program                  • a set of alternatives if satisfactory progress
                               that is willing to accept the latter type of student?               is not being made.
                                   As a scientist whose career started when a                  In order to provide the most effective assis-
                               professor was willing to take a risk on me as a grad-       tance, it is necessary to determine the initial skill
                               uate student, I have a bias in favor of thinking            levels of the applicant and develop a plan for
                               broadly and boldly when considering students for            guiding needed improvements. Is the applicant
                                     admission to graduate programs. My                    a self-learner and a self-starter? Does he or she
                                       undergraduate grade point average was               possess good critical-thinking skills? Is the appli-
                                         just that—average. I am fortunate that            cant’s background knowledge well-rounded?
                                         a program took a risk in admitting me             Does he or she have good communication skills?
                                        (and supporting me on an NIH training              These and similar questions will help identify a
                                       grant). Years later, I asked my graduate            student’s relevant strengths and weaknesses and
                                    advisor why he had taken a chance on me.               guide the development of an individually tailored
                                   His response was that I had earned 98th                 course of study.
                                          and 99th percentiles on the GRE and                  In order to ensure that progress is being made,
                                          As in organic chemistry and genetics.            take periodic measures of the student’s skills to
                               He figured that my being a football                          provide individualized, constructive feedback and
                               player as an undergraduate might have impacted              reinforcement.
                               my grades. He also saw that I was successfully                  If a program takes risks, there will be a certain
                               completing a master’s degree with no scholarship            amount of fallout. Conscientious career guidance
                               support (I took out loans).                                 can help mitigate the trauma of failure and the
                                   The notion of risk is very subjective. It involves      distress this causes to the entire program. When
                               an interplay between the probability that an adverse        students have multiple options before them, they
                               event will occur and the severity of its perceived          will see that many paths can lead to success as
                               consequences. There are high financial stakes                long as they utilize their energy and talents. I knew
                               when funds are committed to supporting a student            that with my master’s degree I could become a
                               for multiple years, which must be weighed against           high school science teacher, which was a whole lot
                               the risk of accepting a student who might not               better than some other jobs I could imagine. One of
                               complete the course of study. Perhaps more impor-           the great skills of my advisor/mentor was his
                               tant, the failure of a student is often traumatic and       enthusiastic support that instilled self-confidence.
                               demoralizing, not only to the student and his or her        He helped people see where they could make the
                               advisor, but to the whole department. The risk of           best match between their dreams and realities. He
                               that trauma is reason enough for some to err on             did this for everyone—from students to techni-
                               the side of selecting only those students who are           cians to postdocs—without passing judgment,
                                                                                                     NIGMS Minority Programs Update   WINTER 2003   7

guiding individuals to their own decisions. He was        credentials of the graduating class? I invite your
taking risks, but calculated ones—he was admitting        comments and suggestions on how the “value-added”
students of varying background levels and variable        aspects of a program could be evaluated and how
career trajectories, then helping them to become          risk-taking could be addressed in review and award
successful.                                               criteria. h
    How can programs look beyond the “risk-free”
student pool and take calculated risks with some          Dr. Clifton Poodry, poodryc@nigms.nih.gov,
students who have unconventional, but potentially         Director, MORE Division, NIGMS, Room 2AS.37,
valuable backgrounds? Should the quality of our           45 Center Drive MSC 6200, Bethesda, MD 20892-6200,
training programs be judged on more than the              301-594-3900
high credentials of the incoming class and the high

Zlotnik Appointed MBRS Director

Dr. Hinda Zlotnik, a microbiologist with extensive        Universidad Nacional Autónoma de
experience in grant and program administration, has       México in Mexico City, and her Ph.D.
been appointed chief of the MBRS Branch at NIGMS.         in microbiology and immunology from
    Zlotnik had been working as a program director        Temple University in Philadelphia.
in the MORE Division since 1999. She came to              She did postdoctoral work at Temple
NIGMS from the University of Puerto Rico School           University’s Skin and Cancer Hospital,
of Medicine in San Juan, where she was director of        as well as at the National Institute of
the Office of Sponsored Research and a professor in        Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney
the department of microbiology and medical zoology.       Diseases’ (NIDDK) Laboratory of
During her academic tenure, Zlotnik’s research            Enzymes and Biochemistry. In 1995,
focused on pathogenic actinomycetes (bacteria             she spent 6 months as an NIH extramu-
related to those that cause strep infections). In addi-   ral associate, performing assignments
tion, she was active in training underrepresented         with the MARC Branch and with the
minority students for careers in science, a major         National Institute on Deafness and
aim of the MORE Division.                                 Other Communication Disorders.
    “Dr. Zlotnik brings a solid science background            Zlotnik is a member of several scien-    Dr. Hinda Zlotnik

and a sensitivity to the needs and concerns of the        tific societies, including the American
grantee community,” said Dr. Clifton Poodry. “She         Association for the Advancement of Science,
has earned the respect of colleagues here at NIH as       the American Society for Microbiology, the
well as from the directors of MORE programs               International Society for Human and Animal
across the country.”                                      Mycology, and the Medical Mycological Society of
    Zlotnik succeeds Dr. Ernest Márquez, who              the Americas. She served as president of the Puerto
directed the MBRS Branch from 1996–2002 and               Rico Society of Microbiologists from 1991–1992
who is now associate director for special popula-         and editor of the Medical Mycological Society of the
tions at the National Institute of Mental Health.         Americas newsletter from 1994–1997. h
    Zlotnik earned her undergraduate degree
in biochemistry and microbiology from the
8    National Institute of General Medical Sciences

                                                      Profile                               NANCY URIZAR

                                                      This section profiles former MORE               other schools, Urizar did not get into
                                                      participants who have excelled in their        Baylor, which was her top choice.
                                                      fields. We hope that the profiles will give      Determined to go there, she continued
                                                      students an idea of the types of careers       working as a lab assistant at Baylor and
                                                      available with science degrees and the paths   then reapplied for admission. She was
                                                      others have taken to achieve those careers.    accepted the following year.
                                                                                                         In addition to her strong will and
                                                      A Bright Future for an Aspiring                determination, Urizar attributes much of
                                                      Scientist                                      her success to the MBRS program, which
                                                      BY JILLIENE MITCHELL, NIGMS                    provided her with financial assistance and
                                       “ I became interested in science after taking                 offered her the chance to go to meetings
                                         a high school biology class,” said Nancy                    such as the Gordon Research Conference
                                         Urizar, a graduate student at Baylor                        on Hormone Action, which she attended
                                         College of Medicine in Houston, Texas.                      during her first year of graduate school.
                                             “The instructor’s enthusiasm for sci-                       “The Gordon Conference gave me the
                                         ence led me to value both scientists and                    opportunity to meet many well-known
                                         scientific discovery,” she added.                            scientists,” Urizar said. “Seeing their excel-
                                             Urizar recalls seeing the inside of a lab               lent research motivated me to work even
                                         for the first time on a high school field                     harder,” she added.
      “If you reach a point where something is not        trip to Baylor. This experi-                   Urizar also attributes her success to
     working after more than three or four tries, go      ence helped inspire her to                 having a good mentor, Dr. David D.
    and get help from an expert in that technique.”       pursue a scientific career                  Moore. She currently works in his lab in
                                                          and later prompted her to                  the department of molecular and cellular
                                         choose Baylor for graduate school.                          biology, studying the role that FXR, a type
                                             Encouraged by her parents to stay in                    of protein called a nuclear hormone
                                         the Houston area, Urizar received her                       receptor, plays in maintaining the balance
                                         undergraduate education at the University                   of lipids in the body, especially cholesterol
                                         of Houston on a full scholarship. She got                   levels. Urizar was the first author on a
                                         hands-on laboratory experience working                      paper in Science identifying a natural
                                         part-time as a laboratory assistant at                      product that lowers cholesterol levels in an
                                         Baylor.                                                     animal model (see the full citation in the
                                             Urizar earned a bachelor’s degree in                    Selected Publications section). This work
                                         biochemistry, but she knew that she                         received international attention.
                                         wanted to further her education. After                          Urizar credits Moore with helping her
                                         taking a year off from school, she applied                  to become an independent researcher.
                                         to several graduate schools, including                          “When I go to Dr. Moore for help, he
                                         Baylor. Although she was accepted into                      doesn’t simply tell me what to do. Instead

                                                                                                       NIGMS Minority Programs Update   WINTER 2003   9

he and I discuss ways to solve the prob-                     “I just have to find the career that’s
lem,” she explained.                                      perfect for me,” she said. h
    Urizar advises students entering
graduate school to seek assistance from                   If you know an outstanding former
advisors, instructors, postdocs, and other                MARC, MBRS, or Bridges participant who
students.                                                 has excelled professionally and you would
    “If you reach a point where something                 like to nominate that person as a future
is not working after more than three or                   Update profile subject, please let us know.
four tries, go and get help from an expert                Your suggestions are always welcome.
in that technique,” Urizar said.
    Although uncertain of the direction
she wants to take in the future, Urizar
knows she wants a career in science.

Nancy Urizar (right) performs research with postdoctoral fellow Wendong Huang (left)
and graduate student Jun Zhang in her lab at Baylor College of Medicine.
10      National Institute of General Medical Sciences

     Study May Explain Fear Response in PTSD
Nearly all of us have had a traumatic experi-            instead generates a new safety memory to      lated the prefrontal cortex in rats that had
ence at some point in our lives, but most of us          block the fear response. According to this    never exhibited extinction and paired the
can move on and go about our daily business.             theory, some part of the brain must create    stimulation with the sound, the stimulated
People with post-traumatic stress disorder               the safety memory by increasing its activ-    rats displayed little fear, acting as if their
(PTSD), however, experience recurrent                    ity after extinction. In the November 7,      fear response had been erased. Later, these
fear and anxiety that never seems to go                  2002, issue of the journal Nature, Milad      rats continued to be unafraid of the sound
away, even long after the traumatic event                and Quirk showed for the first time that       even without stimulation.
is over. An MBRS-supported researcher in                 nerve cells in the prefrontal cortex              What could be going on?
Puerto Rico was part of a team that iden-                increased their activity in response to the       The researchers speculate that since
tified one area of the brain that may be                  sound only after extinction, creating what    the prefrontal cortex sends signals to the
essential for learning how not to be afraid.             the researchers called a “safety signal.”     amygdala, which is a cluster of nerve cells
The researchers suggest that people with                 The team found that the more active this      in the brain that stores memories, includ-
PTSD may have impaired function in the                   brain region was, the less afraid the rats    ing those of fear, stimulating the
front part of the brain, called the pre-                 were when they heard the sound. The rats      prefrontal cortex may directly impact
frontal cortex.                                          with the most prefrontal cortex               the ability to remember a fear response.
    MBRS researcher Dr. Gregory Quirk                    activity acted as if they had never been      The findings also suggest the exciting
and graduate student Mohammed Milad                      conditioned to fear at all. The scientists’   possibility that stimulating the prefrontal
at the Ponce School of Medicine have                     findings lend support to the idea that        cortex could someday be used to strengthen
studied this area of the brain by recording              fear reduction is an active process.          the extinction response in people with
electrical activity in the prefrontal cortex                 Milad and Quirk, who both receive         anxiety disorders. h
of laboratory rats. The team conditioned                 funding from the National Institute of
the rats to fear a sound the scientists                  Mental Health, did more experiments           Reference: Milad MR, Quirk GJ. Neurons
played while delivering a foot shock to                  with the rats and learned that stimulating    in medial prefrontal cortex signal memory
the rats. They measured fear by the degree               one particular region of the prefrontal       for fear extinction. Nature 2002;420:70-4.
to which the rats became immobilized,                    cortex diminished the rats’ fear response.
known as the freezing response. Repeated                  When the researchers electrically stimu-     Research Highlights features the research
presentations of the sound without the                                                                 being done by current and former students
shock caused fear responses to slowly                                                                  and faculty in the MARC, MBRS, and
disappear, a process researchers call                                                                  other NIGMS minority programs. We
extinction of the response.                                                                            welcome your story ideas and suggestions
    Classic behavioral experiments                                                                     for future Research Highlights items.
dating back to Pavlov’s dogs have
suggested that extinction does not
erase a fear association
from memory, but
                                                                                               NIGMS Minority Programs Update   WINTER 2003   11

 continued from page 5

 has supported construction of the most             For 40 years, NIGMS has been at the
 powerful NMR magnets available (900            leading edge of supporting this progress. As
 MHz) and, together with the National           it continues to champion basic research,
 Cancer Institute, it is funding the design     to train future scientists, and to forge
 and construction of three beamlines at         paths into new areas, its future promises
 Argonne National Laboratory’s Advanced         to hold even more exciting and significant
 Photon Source, the newest and most             advances. h
 advanced synchrotron in the country.

 A Bright Future                               “NIGMS is a very special organization, dedicated to the
“ The most important biomedical
                                                expansion of knowledge that will lead to the prevention,
  questions today—how genes are regu-
  lated, how cells and organisms develop        diagnosis, treatment and hopefully, cure, of diseases that
  and function, and what causes cellular
                                                still plague humankind. The institute is not only support-
  processes to go awry—have not changed
  much in the last four decades,” says          ing research at the forefront of the biological sciences,
  Dr. Judith H. Greenberg, acting director
                                                it is also drawing in valuable perspectives of the chemical,
  of NIGMS. “But the level of detail at
  which we can answer these questions has       physical, and mathematical sciences.”
  changed dramatically. This progress not
                                                —Dr. Ruth Kirschstein, Senior Advisor to the NIH Director,
  only helps us understand the biological
  basis of life, it has also been translated    who directed NIGMS for 19 years (1974–1993)
  into new approaches to treating and
  preventing diseases.”

 NIGMS Brochure Available
 NIGMS recently published a new brochure titled From Molecules to Medicines:
 Research and Training Programs of the National Institute of General Medical Sciences.
 The booklet provides a brief overview of the Institute’s mission, including a list of
 key research areas supported by NIGMS and a sampling of research advances.
 The booklet is available online at http://www.nigms.nih.gov/moleculestomeds/.
 Free copies of the booklet can be requested by contacting:

 Office of Communications
  and Public Liaison, NIGMS
 Room 3AN.32
 45 Center Drive MSC 6200
 Bethesda, MD 20892-6200
12   National Institute of General Medical Sciences

                            and Notes
                     • Dr. N. Kent Peters and Dr. Brian Pike recently           • Dr. Thomas Landefeld, the MARC and Bridges to
                     joined NIGMS as scientific review administrators in         the Baccalaureate program director at California State
                     the Office of Scientific Review, where they manage           University, Dominguez Hills (CSUDH), received the
                     the review of applications to the MORE Division as         2002 Society for Advancement of Chicanos and Native
                     well as other selected grant applications.                 Americans in Science (SACNAS) Undergraduate
                         Peters was formerly a program director for meta-       Institution Mentor Award at the society’s annual meeting
                     bolic biochemistry at the National Science Foundation.     in September. The award recognizes individuals who
                     Before that, he was a professor in the department of       have dedicated themselves to science, education, and
                     chemistry and biotechnology at the Agricultural            mentoring and who serve as role models for the next
                     University of Norway. He earned a bachelor’s degree        generation of minority scientists. Landefeld is associate
                     in biological sciences from Indiana University and         dean of the College of Arts and Sciences and is a
                     a Ph.D. in cellular and molecular biology from the         professor of biology at CSUDH.
                     University of Michigan. He conducted postdoctoral
                                                                                • Dr. Victoria Luine and Dr. Carol Woods Moore
                     research at Stanford University.
                                                                                were honored as Outstanding Women Scientists in
                         Pike was formerly a research assistant professor in
                                                                                November by the New York Metropolitan Chapter of
                     the department of neuroscience at the University of
                                                                                the Association for Women in Science. Luine is a pro-
                     Florida College of Medicine in Gainesville. He earned
                                                                                fessor of psychology and an MBRS program director
                     a bachelor’s degree in psychology and a Ph.D. in bio-
                                                                                at the City University of New York (CUNY), Hunter
                     logical psychology from Virginia Commonwealth
                                                                                College. Moore, a medical professor, is a principal
                     University in Richmond. He conducted postdoctoral
                                                                                investigator on an MBRS grant at the Sophie Davis
                     research in the department of neurosurgery at the
                                                                                School of Biomedical Education of the CUNY Medical
                     University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston.
                                                                                School. Both were recognized for the exceptional qual-
                     • Dr. Barry R. Komisaruk, a program director               ity of their scientific research and for their outstanding
                     in the NIGMS MORE Division, received a 2002                mentoring of women.
                     National Role Model Mentoring Award. The award
                                                                                • Barry University in Miami Shores, FL, marked the
                     was presented by Minority Access, Inc., a nonprofit
                                                                                20th year of its MARC program with a research sym-
                     educational organization that assists Federal agencies,
                                                                                posium at the university in February. The symposium
                     universities, and corporations to improve their recruit-
                                                                                included research presentations by some of the 100-
                     ment, retention, and training of minority researchers.
                                                                                plus current and past MARC students. For more on
                         Komisaruk was cited for his 17 years of service on
                                                                                the symposium, see http://www.barry.edu/
                     NIGMS’ MBRS grant at Rutgers, The State University
                     of New Jersey. During his affiliation with the MBRS
                     program at Rutgers, including 14 years as the grant’s      • Participants in the American Indian/Alaska Native
                     principal investigator, Komisaruk mentored more than       Bridges to the Doctorate program at the University of
                     100 minority students.                                     Minnesota-Twin Cities met in October for their
                         Komisaruk was among 10 individuals selected for        second annual project retreat. The retreat featured
                     a mentoring role model award. He received the award        student and faculty research focused on Indian health.
                     during a ceremony at the National Role Models              This Bridges program provides both cultural and
                     Conference in Washington, DC, in September.                academic support to students pursuing a Ph.D.
                                                                                in nursing.
                                                                                               NIGMS Minority Programs Update   WINTER 2003   13

• Sederick C. Rice, a former MBRS program partici-              Three MBRS program participants at the
pant at the University of Arkansas at Pine Bluff           University of California, San Francisco (UCSF),
(UAPB), was selected as one of Ebony magazine’s            received doctoral degrees during spring and summer
“Young Leaders of the Future.” Rice was featured in the    commencement ceremonies. Abraham Anderson
magazine’s February issue among the top 30 individu-       received a Ph.D. in bioengineering and is now a bio-
als aged 30 and younger who have “excelled in sports,      informatics scientist at Torrey Mesa Research Institute
the arts, religion, medicine, business, and education.”    in San Diego; Keith Reiling received a Ph.D. in
    Rice earned his bachelor’s degree in biology from      biophysics and is performing postdoctoral research
UAPB in 1994. He went on to earn a master’s degree in      at the University of California, Berkeley; and
biology from Delaware State University in 1996, and is     Christopher Reyes received a Ph.D. in biophysics
currently pursuing his Ph.D. in the department of pedi-    and is performing postdoctoral research at UCSD.
atrics at UVM’s College of Medicine. Rice’s research            Two former MBRS program participants at
focuses on the genetic effects of chemotherapy in chil-    Chicago State University who received Ph.D.s are
dren with acute lymphocytic leukemia.                      Reginald Teverbaugh, whose Ph.D. in chemistry
                                                           is from Northwestern University, and Chris
• Among the student participants in NIGMS’ minor-
                                                           Withers, whose Ph.D. in physics is from the
ity programs who earned degrees recently are:
                                                           University of Miami.
    Seven MARC undergraduate students at Delaware
                                                                Angela Erazo and Kester K. Haye, both MARC
State University received their bachelor’s degrees in
                                                           undergraduate students at CUNY, Brooklyn College,
May and entered Ph.D. programs with scholarships
                                                           received bachelor’s degrees in biology this past June.
this fall. Denise Davis received a degree in biology and
is attending Yale University; Patrice Green received a     • Many participants in NIGMS’ minority programs
degree in physics with an engineering emphasis and is      spent the summer of 2002 performing research away
attending the University of Delaware; Yvette Green         from their home institutions. The participants and
received a degree in biology and is attending Rutgers,     their summer institutions are listed below, grouped by
The State University of New Jersey/The University of       home institution:
Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey; Shari Lee                Barry University: Maria Abreu, Baylor College
received a degree in biology and is attending the          of Medicine; Constanza Berger, Western Kentucky
University of Pennsylvania; Darius Sanders received        University; Eauly Brautigam, University of Maryland,
a degree in physics with an engineering emphasis and       Baltimore County (UMBC); Melanie Camacho,
is attending Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State      Emporia University; Nikeisha Chin, Colorado State
University; Melissa Tamburo received a degree in           University; Paola Colmenares, University of the West
psychology and is attending Rutgers, The State             Indies, Jamaica; Dominique Florville, University of
University of New Jersey; and Aaron Williams               California, Los Angeles (UCLA); Empress Hughes
received a degree in physics and is attending North        and Nahshan St. Bernard, The Hormone Research
Carolina State University.                                 Center, Korea; Ivette Lopez, University of Miami;
    Two MBRS program participants at CUNY                  Raquel Peralta, Mt. Sinai School of Medicine;
received doctoral degrees in biology. They are Angel       Kevin Peterson and Amber Siler-Knogl, Columbia
Pimentel, who attended City College, and Melania           University; Roody Pierre-Charles, Stazione Zoologica,
Mercado Pimentel, who attended City College and            Italy; Erica Ramos, Northern Arizona University;
Lehman College. Both began postdoctoral fellowships                                                continued on page 14

at the University of Arizona in September.
14   National Institute of General Medical Sciences

                      continued from page 13

                      Dick Salihah, Cornell University; Christina              Coca-Cola Company, Atlanta; Shylise Griffiths and
                      Stujenske, California Institute of Technology;           Franki Faulkner, University of North Carolina at
                      Florence Taylor, University of California, Berkeley;     Chapel Hill; and LaKisha Partman, University of
                      and Gesulla Toussaint, University of Florida.            South Carolina.
                         Chicago State University: Keyona Fletcher,                University of Arizona, Tucson: Irene Alvarez,
                      University of Michigan; Jeremy Harrison, Purdue          National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, NIH; Alex
                      University; Kara Scott, University of Alabama; Corpia    Barela, NIDDK, NIH; Nanibaa Garrison, Pasteur
                      Smith, Chicago State University; Stephen Smith,          Institute, Paris, France; Linda Mobula, The Johns
                      University of California, Berkeley; and Tiffany White,   Hopkins University; Humberto Sirvent, University
                      Northwestern University.                                 of Notre Dame; and Jennifer Thompson, UCSD.
                         CUNY, Brooklyn College: Allyson Bunbury,                  UCLA: Charisse Crenshaw, University of
                      National Institute on Aging, NIH; Tamara Edwards,        Florence, Italy.
                      Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey; Ismaele         Virginia State University: Phyllis Wilson,
                      Jacques, Weill Medical College of Cornell University;    Strategic Petroleum Reserve, New Orleans.
                      Ufeta Om’Iniabohs, UCSD; and Shella Saint Fleur,
                                                                               • The following participants in NIGMS’ minority
                      Harvard Medical School.
                                                                               programs made presentations about their research at
                         CUNY, Hunter College: Ten MARC and MBRS
                                                                               recent scientific meetings:
                      students participated in the Hunter College/Columbia
                                                                                   Benedict College: MBRS program participants
                      University Health Sciences summer research program.
                                                                               Nafeesa Ahamed, Shannel MacKall-Moore, and
                      They are Lauriaselle Afanador, Jeanne Amuta, Jayson
                                                                               Ndiya Ogba presented at the 2002 Annual Meeting
                      Bastien, Alain Berthold, Candice Etson, Lavonne
                                                                               of the South Carolina Alliance for Minority People
                      Hunter, Randy Jackson, Sidonie Jones, Tracy
                                                                               in Columbia, SC, in August.
                      Robinson, and Julane Thompson.
                                                                                   CSUDH: MARC undergraduate students Bernice
                         Delaware State University: Diana Ackah, Yale
                                                                               Aguilar, Ibette Lemus, Jerome Nwachukwu, and
                      University; Joyce Addo, Joel Copper, Michele LaMarr,
                                                                               Susana Rodriguez presented at the SACNAS annual
                      and Jenel Nixon, University of Pennsylvania; Anthea
                                                                               meeting in September. Jerome Nwachukwu presented
                      Aikins, Carrie Belfield, Jeniter Hughes, and Rozie
                                                                               at the XIII Undergraduate Research Symposium in
                      Townsend, University of Virginia; David Charlot,
                                                                               Puerto Rico in October. Dr. Thomas Landefeld, the
                      College of William and Mary; Mastingor Desir,
                                                                               MARC program director at CSUDH, served as the
                      University of Miami; Tiffany Hawkins, UCSF; Dorcey
                                                                               meeting’s keynote speaker.
                      Jones, Harvard Medical School; Donté Jones and
                                                                                   Medgar Evers College-Kingsborough Community
                      Victoria Williams, Rutgers, The State University of
                                                                               College: Bridges to the Baccalaureate program partici-
                      New Jersey; Emeka Omereh, University of Delaware;
                                                                               pants Sherise Warner, Shawlorna Morris, Kawasi
                      Meron Solomon, Cornell University; Alicia Sherrell,
                                                                               Lett, Turkesha Huggins, Candice King, and Ayodeji
                      UMBC; Dara Waiters, Brown University; KaTonna
                                                                               Nicholson presented at the 35th annual Metropolitan
                      Williams, The Johns Hopkins University; and Jessica
                                                                               Association of College and University Biologists
                      Witherspoon, Stanford University.
                                                                               Conference in October.
                         Jefferson State Community College: Bridgett
                                                                                   North Carolina A&T State University: MARC
                      Hill, University of Alabama at Birmingham.
                                                                               students Shylise Griffiths, Manza Atkinson, Jennifer
                         North Carolina A&T State University: Manza
                                                                               Davis, LaKisha Partman, and Franki Faulkner
                      Atkinson, University of Iowa; Jennifer Davis, The
                                                                                                  NIGMS Minority Programs Update WINTER 2003 15
                                                                                                  NIGMS Minority Programs Update WINTER 2003 15

presented at the First Annual North Carolina Alliance        participant at the University of Texas at San Antonio, is
to Create Opportunity Through Education Conference,          now an assistant professor of ophthalmology at UCLA
held in September on the campus of North Carolina            • Liz Reynoso Paz, a former MARC trainee at SJSU,
State University.                                            received her Ph.D. in immunology from the University
                                                             of California, Davis. She plans to start her own biotech
• In recent months, we have received word about the
                                                             company after completing postdoctoral work at the
following current and former student participants in
                                                             university • Elizabeth B. Torres, a former MARC
NIGMS minority programs • Sherrice Allen, Sue
                                                             trainee at SJSU, received her Ph.D. in cognitive science
Carson, and Roberto Frontera-Suau, former partici-
                                                             from UCSD and is now completing a postdoctoral
pants in the Institutional Research and Academic
                                                             fellowship at the California Institute of Technology. h
Career Development Award program at the University
of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, have gone on to fac-
                                                             We are always interested in hearing about NIGMS
ulty positions. Allen is a botany instructor at North
                                                             minority program faculty, alumni, and students.
Carolina State University, Carson is an assistant profes-
                                                             Photographs of your students, research labs, and
sor of biology at Fayetteville State University, and
                                                             activities are also welcomed and encouraged.
Frontera-Suau is an assistant professor of biology at
                                                             Please send information to:
Elizabeth City State University • Cheryl Anderson,
a former MBRS program participant at the University
                                                             NIGMS Minority Programs Update
of Washington in Seattle, is an assistant professor of
                                                             Room 3AN.32
epidemiology at the University of Pennsylvania School
                                                             45 Center Drive MSC 6200
of Medicine • Diana M. Avila, a former MARC
                                                             Bethesda, MD 20892-6200
trainee at St. Mary’s University and MARC predoctoral
fellow at the University of Texas Health Science Center      Tel: 301-496-7301
at Dallas, has joined the faculty of St. Mary’s University   Fax: 301-402-0224
as an assistant professor in the department of bio-          atheys@nigms.nih.gov
logical sciences • Carol Bristol, a former MARC
participant at CUNY, Brooklyn College, graduated
with a bachelor’s degree in psychology in June 2000
and is in her second year of studies for an M.P.H.
degree at George Washington University • Alexis
Epps, an MBRS program participant at the University
of Missouri-Columbia, has received a fellowship from
the National Science Foundation/Missouri Alliance
for Graduate Education and the Professoriate. The
award will provide Epps with 5 years of support to
pursue a doctoral degree in parasitology at the univer-
sity • Julio C. Gonzalez, a former MARC trainee at
San Jose State University (SJSU), earned an M.D.-
Ph.D. from the University of Michigan and is now a
fellow in the department of infectious diseases at the
University of Washington Medical Center-Roosevelt
• Nathan Mata, a former MBRS and MARC program
16      National Institute of General Medical Sciences

     by MORE Faculty and Students (listed by institution)
UNIVERSITY OF ARIZONA                                    Yaspelkis BB III, Singh MK, Trevino B,       NORTH CAROLINA A&T STATE UNIVERSITY
Kavarana MJ, Trivedi D, Cai M, Ying J,                   Krisan AD, Collins DE. Resistance            Sappington PL, Yang R, Yang H, Tracey
Hammer M, Cabello C, Grieco P, Han G,                    training increases glucose uptake and        KJ, Delude RL, Fink MP. HMGB1 B box
Hruby VJ. Novel cyclic templates of                      transport in rat skeletal muscle. Acta       increases the permeability of caco-2 ente-
alpha-MSH give highly selective and                      Physiol Scand 2002;175:315–23.               rocytic monolayers and impairs intestinal
potent antagonists/agonists for human                                                                 barrier function in mice. Gastroenterol
                                                         CHICAGO STATE UNIVERSITY
melanocortin-3/4 receptors. J Med Chem                                                                2002;123:790–802.
                                                         Erhart MA, Lekgothoane S, Grenier J,
                                                         Nadeau JH. Pattern of segmental              UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA AT CHAPEL HILL
Quinones HI, List AF, Gerner EW. Selective               recombination in the distal inversion        Canman JC, Sharma N, Straight A,
exclusion by the polyamine transporter as                of mouse t haplotypes. Mamm Genome           Shannon KB, Fang G, Salmon ED.
a mechanism for differential radioprotec-                2002;13:438–44.                              Anaphase onset does not require the
tion of amifostine derivatives. Clin Cancer                                                           microtubule-dependent depletion of
                                                         CITY UNIVERSITY OF NEW YORK, YORK COLLEGE
Res 2002;8:1295–300.                                                                                  kinetochore and centromere-binding
                                                         Rockhill RL, Daly FJ, MacNeil MA, Brown
                                                                                                      proteins. J Cell Sci 2002;115:3787–95.
Reed C, Sturbaum GD, Hoover PJ, Sterling                 SP, Masland RH. The diversity of ganglion
CR. Cryptosporidium parvum mixed                         cells in a mammalian retina. J Neurosci      Hammond L, Castanotto D, Rice SR,
genotypes detected by PCR-restriction                    2002;22:3831–43.                             Nimgaonkar VL, Wirshing DA, Rossi JJ,
fragment length polymorphism analysis.                                                                Heston LL, Sobell JL. Alteration of branch
                                                         Rosenthal BS, Wilson WC. Relations of
Appl Environ Microbiol 2002;68:427–9.                                                                 site consensus sequence and enhanced
                                                         psychological distress with objective
                                                                                                      pre-mRNA splicing of an NMDAR1
Saengsirisuwan V, Perez FR, Kinnick TR,                  individual, family, and neighborhood
                                                                                                      intron not associated with schizophrenia.
Henriksen EJ. Effects of exercise training               characteristics of urban adolescents.
                                                                                                      Am J Med Genet 2002;114:631–6.
and antioxidant R-ALA on glucose trans-                  Psychol Rep 2002;90:371–86.
port in insulin-sensitive rat skeletal                                                                Shannon KB, Canman JC, Salmon ED.
                                                         UNIVERSITY OF THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA
muscle. J Appl Physiol 2002;92:50–8.                                                                  Mad2 and BubR1 function in a single
                                                         Choudhary MA, Mazhar M, Ali S, Song X,
                                                                                                      checkpoint pathway that responds to a loss
BARRY UNIVERSITY                                         Eng G. Synthesis, characterization, and
                                                                                                      of tension. Mol Biol Cell 2002;13:3706–19.
Lee JM, Petrucelli L, Fisher G, Ramdath S,               biological activity of dimethyltin dicar-
Castillo J, Di Fiore MM, D’Aniello A.                    boxylates containing geranium. Metal         Shannon KB, Salmon ED. Chromosome
Evidence for D-aspartyl-beta-amyloid                     Based Drugs 2002;8:275–81.                   dynamics: new light on aurora B kinase
secretase activity in human brain. J                                                                  function. Curr Biol 2002;12:R458–60.
                                                         Eng G, Desta D, Biba E, Song X, May L.
Neuropathol Exp Neurol 2002;61:125–31.
                                                         Specification of some triorganotin com-       Thompson JT, Kier WM. Ontogeny of
BAYLOR COLLEGE OF MEDICINE                               pounds in sediments from the Anacostia       squid mantle function: changes in the
Urizar NL, Liverman AB, Dodds DT, Silva                  and Potomac Rivers, Washington, DC,          mechanics of escape-jet locomotion in the
FV, Ordentlich P, Yan Y, Gonzalez FJ,                    using Mössbauer spectroscopy. Appl           oval squid, Sepioteuthis lessoniana lesson.
Heyman RA, Mangelsdorf DJ, Moore DD.                     Organomet Chem 2002;16:67–71.                Biol Bull 2002;203:14–26.
A natural product that lowers cholesterol
                                                         Song X, Cahill C, Eng G. Crystal structure   Wilkins HR, Ohneda K, Keku TO, D’Ercole
as an antagonist ligand for FXR. Science
                                                         of triphenyltin 4-methoxybenzoate. Main      AJ, Fuller CR, Williams KL, Lund PK.
                                                         Group Metal Chem 2002;25:177–8.              Reduction of spontaneous and irradiation-
CALIFORNIA STATE UNIVERSITY, NORTHRIDGE                                                               induced apoptosis in small intestine of IGF-I
                                                         Song X, Cahill C, Eng G. The crystal
Yaspelkis BB III, Saberi M, Singh MK,                                                                 transgenic mice. Am J Physiol Gastrointest
                                                         structure of tricyclohexyltin N-n-butyl
Trevino B, Smith TL. Chronic leptin treat-                                                            Liver Physiol 2002;283:G457–64.
                                                         dithiocarbamate. Main Group Metal
ment normalizes basal glucose transport in
                                                         Chem 2002;25:13–4.
a fiber type-specific manner in high-fat-fed
rats. Metabolism 2002;51:859–63.
                                                                                               NIGMS Minority Programs Update     WINTER 2003   17

Williams KL, Fuller CR, Fagin J, Lund PK.      of terpenylnaphthoquinones. Toxicol           pathway for visual-pigment regeneration
Mesenchymal IGF-I overexpression:              2002;175:167–75.                              in daylight. Neuron 2002;36:69-80.
paracrine effects in the intestine, distinct
                                               Montanez-Clemente I, Alvira E, Macias         YALE UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF MEDICINE
from endocrine actions. Am J Physiol
                                               M, Ferrer A, Fonceca M, Rodriguez J,          Dragon F, Gallagher JE, Compagnone-
Gastrointest Liver Physiol
                                               Gonzalez A, Barletta G. Enzyme activa-        Post PA, Mitchell BM, Porwancher KA,
                                               tion in organic solvents: co-lyophilization   Wehner KA, Wormsley S, Settlage RE,
PONTIFICAL CATHOLIC UNIVERSITY                 of subtilisin Carlsberg with methyl-β-        Shabanowitz J, Osheim Y, Beyer AL, Hunt
OF PUERTO RICO                                 cyclodextrin renders an enzyme catalyst       DF, Baserga SJ. A large nucleolar U3
Hales NW, Yamauchi K, Alicea A,                more active than the cross-linked enzyme      ribonucleoprotein required for 18S ribo-
Sundaresan A, Pellis NR, Kulkarni AD.          crystals. Biotechnol Bioeng                   somal RNA biogenesis. Nature
A countermeasure to ameliorate immune          2002;78:53–9.                                 2002;417:967–70.
dysfunction in in vitro simulated
                                               STATE UNIVERSITY OF NEW YORK,                 Wehner KA, Gallagher JE, Baserga SJ.
microgravity environment: role of
                                               COLLEGE AT OLD WESTBURY                       Components of an interdependent unit
cellularnucleotide nutrition. In Vitro Cell
                                               Hoyte RM, Zhang JX, Lerum R, Oluyemi          within the SSU processome regulate and
Dev Biol Anim 2002;38:213–7.
                                               A, Persaud P, O’Connor C, Labaree DC,         mediate its activity. Mol Cell Biol
PRAIRIE VIEW A&M UNIVERSITY                    Hochberg RB. Synthesis of halogen-            2002;22:7258–67.
Harris G, Doctor VM. The effect of 6-          substituted pyridyl and pyrimidyl deriva-
aminohexanoic acid and fucoidan on the         tives of [3,2-c]pyrazolo corticosteroids:     Send in your references for inclusion
activation of glutamic plasminogen by          strategies for the development of gluco-      in Selected Publications. We would
streptokinase. Blood Coagulation &             corticoid receptor mediated imaging           appreciate your contribution to this
Fibrinolysis 2002;13:355–9.                    agents. J Med Chem 2002;45:5397–405.          section in order to represent as many
                                                                                             MARC and MBRS programs as possible.
                                                                                             Complete bibliographical citations can be
Alegria AE, Cordones E, Santiago G,            Mata NL, Radu RA, Clemmons RS, Travis
                                                                                             phoned, faxed, mailed, or e-mailed to the
Marcano Y, Sanchez S, Gordaliza M,             GH. Isomerization and oxidation of vita-
                                                                                             Editor (see page 2).
Martin-Martin ML. Reductive activation         min A in cone-dominant retinas: a novel

APRIL                                          MAY                                           JUNE
11–15, 2003                                    18– 22, 2003                                  12–18,2003
FOR EXPERIMENTAL BIOLOGY                       103RD GENERAL MEETING                         June 12–14 BRIDGES MEETING
EXPERIMENTAL BIOLOGY 2003                      Washington Convention Center                  June 15–18 MARC/MBRS MEETING
San Diego Convention Center                    Washington, DC                                Granlibakken Conference Center
San Diego, CA                                  CONTACT: ASM                                  Lake Tahoe, CA
CONTACT: Office of Scientific Meetings           1752 N Street, NW                             CONTACT: MORE Division, NIGMS
and Conferences                                Washington, DC 20036                          45 Center Drive MSC 6200
9650 Rockville Pike                            Tel: 202-942-9356                             Bethesda, MD 20892-6200
Bethesda, MD 20814-3998                        meetingsinfo@asmusa.org                       Tel: 301-594-3900
Tel: 301-530-7010                              http://www.asmusa.org                         http://www.nigms.nih.gov/minority
18      National Institute of General Medical Sciences

     Awards and Fellowships
PREDOCTORAL FELLOWSHIPS          Nicholas J. Heredia              Kara A. Porwancher            Jason Watts                    North Carolina Central
FOR MINORITY STUDENTS            University of California,        Yale University,              University of Pennsylvania,    University, Durham
(listed by fellow and            Los Angeles                      New Haven, CT                 Philadelphia                   Allyn Howlett
graduate institution)
                                 Judith Jimenez                   Herson I. Quinones            BRIDGES TO THE FUTURE          University of Georgia,
Ana R. Adham                     University of California,        University of Texas           AWARDS                         Athens
Rice University, Houston, TX     Irvine                           Southwestern Medical          (listed by institution and     Anthony C. Capomacchia
                                                                  Center at Dallas              principal investigator)
Brittnaie J. Bell                Francis S. Kinderman                                                                          MBRS RISE AWARDS
University of South Carolina,    University of California,        Amy C. Raymond                Bridges to the Baccalaureate   (listed by institution and
Columbia                         San Diego                        San Diego State University,                                  principal investigator)
                                                                                                California State University,
Ma Margie Borra                  Kelly M. Kitchens                                              San Marcos                     California State University,
Oregon Health and Science        University of Maryland,          Carmencita Rojas-Cartagena    Victor Rocha                   Hayward
University, Portland             Baltimore County                 Ponce School of Medicine,                                    Maria C. Nieto
                                                                                                Francis Marion University,
                                                                  Puerto Rico
Mark Del Campo                   Vanessa A. Koelling                                            Florence, SC                   Dull Knife Memorial College,
University of Miami, FL          University of Georgia,           Jan Antoinette Romero         Julia E. Krebs                 Lame Deer, MT
                                 Athens                           University of Pennsylvania,                                  Robert R. Madsen
Nikki A. Delk                                                                                   Harold Washington College,
Rice University, Houston, TX                .
                                 Bradford P Mallory                                             Chicago, IL                    Turtle Mountain Community
                                 Cincinnati Children's Hospital   Celeste A. Roney              Uthman O. Erogbogbo            College, Belcourt, ND
Emily Derouen                    Medical Center, OH               University of Texas                                          Charmane F. Disrud
Yeshiva University, New                                                                         James Madison University,
                                                                  Southwestern Medical
York, NY                         Jason A. Miranda                                               Harrisonburg, VA               Xavier University of
                                                                  Center at Dallas
                                 University of Texas at Austin                                  Daniel A. Wubah                Louisiana, New Orleans
Kenneth J. Dery                                                   Julie L. Tubbs                                               Cheryl L. Stevens
Beckman Research Institute       Opeyemi Olabisi                                                Kingsborough Community
                                                                  Scripps Research Institute,
City of Hope National            Yeshiva University, New                                        College, City University of
                                                                  La Jolla, CA                                                 MBRS SCORE AWARD
Medical Center, Duarte, CA       York, NY                                                       New York
                                                                                                                               (listed by institution and
                                                                  Wanda H. Vila-Carriles        Arthur Zeitlin
                                                                                                                               principal investigator)
Luis A. Estrella-Perez           Miguel A. Padilla                Baylor College of Medicine,
University of Medicine and       University of Florida,                                         University of Delaware,
                                                                  Houston, TX                                                  Hampton University, VA
Dentistry of New Jersey          Gainesville                                                    Newark
                                                                                                                               Hugh M. McLean
Robert Wood Johnson                                               Igor Vivanco                  David C. Usher
Medical School, Piscataway       Ainsley A. Parkison              University of California,
                                                                                                Bridges to the Doctorate       MARC ANCILLARY TRAINING
                                 Herbert H. Lehman College,       Los Angeles
                                 City University of New York                                    Montclair State University,    ACTIVITIES AWARD
Jessica H. Fong
                                                                                                Upper Montclair, NJ            (listed by institution and
Princeton University, NJ
                                                                                                Bonnie K. Lustigman            principal investigator)

                                                                                                                               American Association for the
                                                                                                                               Advancement of Science,
                                                                                                                               Washington, DC
     ACRONYMS USED IN THIS ISSUE                                                                                               Shirley M. Malcom

                                                                                                                               University of North Carolina
     ABRCMS         Annual Biomedical Research Conference for Minority Students                                                at Chapel Hill
     CSUDH          California State University, Dominguez Hills                                                               Walter E. Bollenbacher

     CUNY           City University of New York                                                                                MARC U*STAR AWARDS
     GRE            Graduate Record Examinations                                                                               (listed by institution and
                                                                                                                               principal investigator)
     MARC           Minority Access to Research Careers
                                                                                                                               Northern Arizona University,
     MBRS           Minority Biomedical Research Support                                                                       Flagstaff
     MORE           Minority Opportunities in Research                                                                                   .
                                                                                                                               Fernando P Monroy

     NIDDK          National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases                                           Savannah State University,
     NIGMS          National Institute of General Medical Sciences                                                             Harpal Singh
     NIH            National Institutes of Health
                                                                                                                               University of Minnesota,
     PTSD           Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder                                                                             Duluth
                                                                                                                               Benjamin L. Clarke
     SACNAS         Society for Advancement of Chicanos and Native Americans in Science
     SJSU           San Jose State University                                                                                  INSTITUTIONAL RESEARCH
                                                                                                                               AND ACADEMIC CAREER
     UAPB           University of Arkansas at Pine Bluff
                                                                                                                               DEVELOPMENT AWARD
     UCLA           University of California, Los Angeles                                                                      (listed by institution and
                                                                                                                               principal investigator)
     UCSD           University of California, San Diego
     UCSF           University of California, San Francisco                                                                    University of Kansas,
     UMBC           University of Maryland, Baltimore County                                                                   C.R. Middaugh
     UVM            University of Vermont
National Institute of General Medical Sciences
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