Docstoc

Fiji - PDF

Document Sample
Fiji - PDF Powered By Docstoc
					From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Fiji

Fiji
Republic of the Fiji Islands Matanitu Tu-Vaka-i-koya ko Viti Fijī Ripablik ????? ????? ???? ??????? GDP (PPP) - Total - Per capita GDP (nominal) - Total - Per capita HDI (2007) Currency Time zone
Flag Coat of arms

2008 estimate $3.668 billion[2] $4,185[2] 2008 estimate $3.590 billion[2] $4,095[2] ▲0.762 (medium) (92nd) Fijian dollar (FJD) (UTC+12) left .fj 679

Motto: Rerevaka na Kalou ka Doka na Tui
Fear God and honour the Queen

Drives on the Internet TLD Calling code
1

Anthem: God Bless Fiji

Recognised by the Great Council of Chiefs.

Capital (and largest city) Official languages Demonym Government Paramount Chief of Fiji President Prime Minister GCC Chairman

Suva
18°10′S 178°27′E / 18.167°S 178.45°E / -18.167; 178.45

English, Bau Fijian, and Hindustani[1] Fiji Islander, Fijian Unelected civilian government with a military leader Queen Elizabeth II1 Ratu Josefa Iloilovatu Uluivuda (Josefa Iloilo) Commodore Josaia Voreqe (Frank) Bainimarama Ratu Epeli Nailatikau from the United Kingdom 10 October 1970 18,274 km2 (155th) 7,056 sq mi negligible 944,720 (156th) 46/km2 (148th) 119/sq mi

Fiji /ˈfiːdʒi/ (Fijian: Matanitu ko Viti; Fijian Hindustani: ?????), officially the Republic of the Fiji Islands (Fijian: Matanitu Tu-Vaka-i-koya ko Viti; Fijian Hindustani: ????? ????? ???? ???????, fiji dvip samooh gannarajy), is an island nation in the South Pacific Ocean east of Vanuatu, west of Tonga and south of Tuvalu. The country occupies an archipelago of about 322 islands, of which 106 are permanently inhabited, and 522 islets. The two major islands, Viti Levu and Vanua Levu, account for 87% of the population.

Etymology
Fiji’s main island is known as Viti Levu and it is from this that the name "Fiji" is derived, through the pronunciation of their island neighbours in Tonga. Its emergence was best described as follows: Fijians first impressed themselves on European consciousness through the writings of the members of the expeditions of Cook who met them in Tonga. They were described as formidable warriors and ferocious cannibals, builders of the finest vessels in the Pacific, but not great sailors. They inspired awe amongst the Tongans, and all their Manufactures, especially bark cloth and clubs, were highly esteemed and much in demand. They called their home Viti, but the Tongans called it Fisi, and it was by this foreign pronunciation, Fiji, first promulgated by Captain James Cook, that these islands are now known.[3]

Independence - Date Area - Total Water (%)

Population - July 2008 est. estimate - Density

1

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Fiji
policy disallowing the use of native labour and no interference in their culture and way of life. Fiji was granted independence in 1970. Democratic rule was interrupted by two military coups in 1987 because the government was perceived as dominated by the Indo-Fijian (Indian) community. The second 1987 coup saw the British monarchy and the Governor General replaced by a non-executive President, and the country changed the long form of its name from Dominion of Fiji to Republic of Fiji (and to Republic of the Fiji Islands in 1997). The coups and accompanying civil unrest contributed to heavy Indian emigration; the population loss resulted in economic difficulties but ensured that Melanesians became the majority. In 1990, the new Constitution institutionalised the ethnic Fijian domination of the political system. The Group Against Racial Discrimination (GARD) was formed to oppose the unilaterally imposed constitution and restore the 1970 constitution. Sitiveni Rabuka, the Lieutenant Colonel who carried out the 1987 coup became Prime Minister in 1992, following elections held under the new constitution. Three years later, Rabuka established the Constitutional Review Commission, which in 1997 led to a new Constitution, which was supported by most leaders of the indigenous Fijian and Indo-Fijian communities. Fiji is re-admitted to the Commonwealth of Nations.
History of Fiji

History
The first people of Fiji arrived long before contact with European explorers in the seventeenth century. Pottery excavated from Fijian towns shows that Fiji was settled before or around 3500-1000 BC, although the question of Pacific migration still lingers.It is believed that the Lapita people or the ancestors of the Polynesians settled the islands first but not much is known of what became of them after the Melanesians arrived but they may have had some influence on the new culture and archaeological evidence shows that they would have then moved on to Tonga, Samoa and Hawai’i. The first settlements in Fiji were started by voyaging traders and settlers from the west about 3500 years ago. Lapita pottery sherds have been found at numerous excavations around the country. Fijians have aspects of their culture that is similar to Melanesian culture to the western Pacific but has a stronger connection to the older polynesian cultures such as those of Samoa and Tonga. Trade between these three nations long before European contact is quite obvious with Canoes made from native Fijian trees found in Tonga and Tongan words being part of the language of the Lau group of islands. Pots made in Fiji have been found in Samoa and even the Marquesas Islands. For most of its history, across 1000 kilometres from east to west, Fiji has been a nation of many Languages; often people were unable to understand conversations of others. Nothing was static in Fiji. It was a history of settlement but also of mobility. Over the centuries, a unique Fijian culture developed. Constant warfare and cannibalism between warring tribes was quite rampant and very much part of everyday life. Fijians today regard those times as "na gauna ni tevoro" (time of the devil). The ferocity of the cannibal lifestyle deterred European sailors from going near Fijian waters, giving Fiji the name Cannibal Isles, in turn Fiji was unknown to the rest of the outside world.[4] The Dutch explorer Abel Tasman visited Fiji in 1643 while looking for the Great Southern Continent.[5] It was not until the nineteenth century, however, that Europeans settled the islands permanently.[6] The first European settlers to Fiji were Beachcombers, missionaries, whalers and those engaged in the then booming sandalwood and beche-de-mer trade. Ratu Seru Epenisa Cakobau was a Fijian chief and warlord from the island of Bau, off the eastern coast of Viti Levu, who united part of Fiji’s warring tribes under his leadership. He then styled himself as King of Fiji or Tui Viti and then to Vunivalu or Protector after the Cession of Fiji to Great Britain. The islands came under British control as a colony in 1874, and the British brought over Indian contract labourers to work on the sugar plantations as the then Governor and also the first governor of Fiji, Arthur Charles Hamilton-Gordon, adopted a

This article is part of a series

Early history Discovery of Fiji The rise and fall of Cakobau Colonial Fiji Modern history of Fiji Constitutional crisis of 1977 Coups of 1987 Military-church relations Coup of 2000 Timeline · Mutinies · Aftermath Mara deposed · Iloilo plot Investigations · Trials Court Martial · Military unrest Reconciliation Commission

2

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Supporters · Opponents Qualified positions · Military opposition Religious reaction · Foreign reaction Crisis of 2005–2006 Timeline · Reaction Baledrokadroka incident Coup of 2006 2009 Fijian constitutional crisis Fiji Portal

Fiji
2006 and early December 2006, Bainimarama was instrumental in the 2006 Fijian coup d’état. Bainimarama handed down a list of demands to Qarase after a bill was put forward to parliament, part of which would have offered pardons to participants in the 2000 coup attempt. He gave Qarase an ultimatum date of 4 December to accede to these demands or to resign from his post. Qarase adamantly refused to either concede or resign and on 5 December President, Ratu Josefa Iloilo, was said to have signed a legal order dissolving Parliament after meeting with Bainimarama. In April 2009, the Fiji Court of Appeal ruled that the 2006 coup had been illegal. This began the 2009 Fijian constitutional crisis. President Iloilo abrogated the constitution, removed all office holders under the Constitution including all judges and the Governover of the Central Bank. He then reappointed Bainimarama as Prime Minister under his "New Order" and imposed a "Public Emergency Regulation" limiting internal travel and allowing press censorship. For a country of its size, Fiji has a large armed forces, and has been a major contributor to UN peacekeeping missions in various parts of the world. In addition, a significant number of former military personnel have served in the lucrative security sector in Iraq following the 2003 US-led invasion.

Levuka, 1842. The new millennium brought along another coup, instigated by George Speight, that effectively toppled the government of Mahendra Chaudhry, who became Prime Minister following the 1997 constitution. Commodore Frank Bainimarama assumed executive power after the resignation, possibly forced, of President Mara. Fiji was rocked by two mutinies at Suva’s Queen Elizabeth Barracks, later in 2000 when rebel soldiers went on the rampage. The High Court ordered the reinstatement of the constitution, and in September 2001, a general election was held to restore democracy, which was won by interim Prime Minister Laisenia Qarase’s Soqosoqo Duavata ni Lewenivanua party. In 2005, amid much controversy, the Qarase government proposed a Reconciliation and Unity Commission, with power to recommend compensation for victims of the 2000 coup, and amnesty for its perpetrators. However, the military strongly opposed this bill, especially the army’s commander, Frank Bainimarama. He agreed with detractors who said that it was a sham to grant amnesty to supporters of the present government who played roles in the coup. His attack on the legislation, which continued unremittingly throughout May and into June and July, further strained his already tense relationship with the government. In late November

Politics
See also: 2006 Fijian coup d’état Politics of Fiji normally take place in the framework of a parliamentary representative democratic republic, whereby the Prime Minister of Fiji is the head of government, the President the head of state, and of a multiparty system. Executive power is exercised by the government. Legislative power is vested in both the government and the Parliament of Fiji. The Judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature. Since independence there have been four coups in Fiji, two in 1987, one in 2000 and one in late 2006. The military has been either ruling directly, or heavily influencing governments since 1987.

2006 Military takeover
Citing corruption in the government, Commodore Josaia Voreqe (Frank) Bainimarama, Commander of the Republic of Fiji Military Forces, staged a military takeover on December 5, 2006 against the Prime Minister that he himself had installed after the 2000 coup. There had been two military coups in 1987 and one in 2000 when the military had taken over from elected governments led by or dominated by Indo Fijians. On this occasion the military took over from an indigenous Fijian government which it alleged was corrupt and racist. The commodore took over the powers of the presidency and

3

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
dissolved the parliament, paving the way for the military to continue the take over. The coup was the culmination of weeks of speculation following conflict between the elected Prime Minister, Laisenia Qarase, and Commodore Bainimarama. Bainamarama had repeatedly issued demands and deadlines to the Prime Minister. At particular issue was previously pending legislation to pardon those involved in the 2000 coup. Despite intervention to reconcile the parties by the President, Vice President and Helen Clark, Prime Minister of New Zealand there was no willingness to make concessions on either side. This therefore failed to resolve the crisis. Bainimarama named Jona Senilagakali caretaker Prime Minister. The next week Bainimarama said he would ask the Great Council of Chiefs to restore executive powers to President, Ratu Josefa Iloilo.[7] On December 6, Bainimarama declared a state of emergency, and warned that he would not tolerate any violence or unrest. Following the coup, the Commonwealth of Nations held an emergency meeting in London, where they declared Fiji’s membership had been suspended. On December 9, the military rulers advertised for positions in the Government, including cabinet posts, in a national newspaper. They stated people wishing to apply must be "of outstanding character", have no criminal record, and never have been bankrupt.[8] Also on December 9 the IFNA withdrew the right of Fiji to host the 2007 World Netball Championships as a consequence of the Military takeover. The withdrawal is expected to have a significant impact in Fiji due to the popularity of the sport. On January 4, 2007, the military announced that it was restoring executive power to President Iloilo,[9] who made a broadcast endorsing the actions of the military.[10] The next day, Iloilo named Bainimarama as the interim Prime Minister,[11] indicating that the Military was still effectively in control. In the wake of the take over, reports have emerged of intimidation of some of those critical of the interim regime. It is alleged that two individuals have died in military custody since December 2006. These deaths have been investigated and suspects charged but not yet brought to court. Following ongoing criticism from neighbours, specifically Australia and New Zealand, the New Zealand High Commissioner Michael Green was expelled from Fiji in mid June 2007, in the aftermath of restrictive emergency regulations having been lifted (recognised as a generally positive development by outside observers). On 6 September 2007, Commodore Frank Bainimarama said Fiji’s military had again declared a state of emergency as he believed ousted Prime Minister Laisenia Qarase was engaged in destabilization efforts when he returned to Suva after 8 months of exile on his home

Fiji
island Vanuabalavu in Lau. Elections were tentatively set for March 2009.[12] The interim Government set-up an anti-corruption Commission which have received numerous complaints and allegations, there have also been a number of high profile dismissals from government and associated industry. The anti-corruption body however, has yet to successfully prosecute anyone for alleged corruption. During November 2007 there were a number of people brought in for questioning in regard to an assassination plot directed at the Interim Prime Minister, senior army officers and members of the Interim Cabinet. On April 9, 2009, the Court of Appeal overturned the High Court decision that Bainimarama’s take-over of Qarase’s government was legal, and declared the Interim Government illegal. Bainimarama agreed to step down as Interim PM immediately, along with his government, and President Iloilo was to appoint "a distinguished person independent of the parties to this litigation as caretaker Prime Minister, ..... to direct the issuance of writs for an election ..." On April 10, 2009, President Iloilo suspended the Constitution of Fiji, dismissed the Court of Appeal and, in his own words, "appoint[ed] [him]self as the Head of the State of Fiji under a new legal order".[13] As President, Iloilo had been Head of State prior to his abrogation of the Constitution, but that position had been determined by the Constitution itself. The "new legal order" did not depend on the Constitution, thus requiring a "reappointment" of the Head of State. "You will agree with me that this is the best way forward for our beloved Fiji", he said. Bainimarama was re-appointed as Interim Prime Minister; he, in turn, re-instated his previous Cabinet. On May 1, 2009, Fiji became the first nation to ever be suspended from the Pacific Islands Forum for its failure to hold democratic elections by that date.

Demographics
Ethnic groups
The population of Fiji is mostly made up of native Fijians, who are Melanesians (54.3%), although a few also have Polynesian ancestry, and Indo-Fijians (38.1%), descendants of Indian contract labourers brought to the islands by the British in the nineteenth century. Most of these Indo-Fijians are or are descendants of Bhojpurispeaking Biharis. The percentage of the population of Indian descent has declined significantly over the last two decades due to migration for various reasons. There is also a small but significant group of descendants of indentured labourers from Solomon Islands. About 1.2% are Rotuman — natives of Rotuma Island, whose culture has more in common with countries such

4

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Fiji

Demonym
Within Fiji, the term "Fijian" refers solely to indigenous Fijians; it denotes an ethnicity, not a nationality. Constitutionally, citizens of Fiji are referred to as "Fiji Islanders" though the term "Fiji Nationals" is used for official purposes. In August 2008, shortly before the proposed People’s Charter for Change, Peace and Progress was due to be released to the public, it was announced that it recommended a change in the name of Fiji’s citizens. If the proposal were adopted, all citizens of Fiji, whatever their ethnicity, would be called "Fijians". The proposal would change the English name of indigenous Fijians from "Fijians" to itaukei, the Fijian word for indigenous Fijians.[14] Deposed Prime Minister Laisenia Qarase reacted by stating that the name "Fijian" belonged exclusively to indigenous Fijians, and that he would oppose any change in legislation enabling non-indigenous Fijians to use it.[15] The Methodist Church, to which a large majority of indigenous Fijians belong, also reacted strongly to the proposal, stating that allowing any Fiji citizen to call themselves "Fijian" would be "daylight robbery" inflicted on the indigenous population.[16] In an address to the nation during the constitutional crisis of April 2009, military leader and interim Prime Minister Voreqe Bainimarama, who has been at the forefront of the attempt to change the definition of "Fijian", stated: "I know we all have our different ethnicities, our different cultures and we should, we must, celebrate our diversity and richness. However, at the same time we are all Fijians. We are all equal citizens. We must all be loyal to Fiji; we must be patriotic; we must put Fiji first."[17]

Native Fijian women, 1935 as Tonga or Samoa than with the rest of Fiji. There are also small, but economically significant, groups of Europeans, Chinese and other Pacific island minorities. The total membership of other ethnic groups of Pacific Islanders is about 7300. Tongans, who as traders and warriors have lived in Fiji for hundreds of years, form the largest part of this community. In the old days there was active commerce between Tonga and Fiji, and later in the history of this relationship the Fijians in the Lau Islands became vassals to the King of Tonga. One particular reason Tongans and Samoans came to Fiji was to build drua (large double-hulled canoes) which they couldn’t build on their own islands because of the lack of proper timber. Relationships between ethnic Fijians and Indo-Fijians at a political level have often been strained, and the tension between the two communities has dominated politics in the islands for the past generation. The level of tension varies between different regions of the country. There are also good indications of racial harmony with the recognition of cultural and religious holidays by all races in Fiji.

Religion
Religion is one of the primary differences between indigenous Fijians and Indo-Fijians, with the former overwhelmingly Christian (97.2% at the 1996 census), and the latter mostly Hindu (70.7%) and Muslim (17.9%). The CIA world factbook states: Christian 64.5% (Methodist 34.6%, Roman Catholic 9.1%, Assembly of God 5.7%, Seventh Day Adventist 3.9%, Anglican 0.8%, other 10.4%), Hindu 27.9%, Muslim 6.3%, Sikh 0.3%, other or unspecified 0.3%, none 0.7% (2007 census). The largest Christian denomination is the Methodist Church of Fiji and Rotuma. With 36.2% of the total population (including almost two-thirds of ethnic Fijians), its share of the population is higher in Fiji than in any other nation. Roman Catholics (8.9%), the Assemblies of God (4%), the Seventh-day Adventists (2.9%) and The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormons) (2.2%), also are significant. The LDS Suva Temple is the 91st temple of the church in operation. Fiji also is the base for the Anglican Diocese of Polynesia (part of the Anglican Church in Aotearoa, New Zealand and Polynesia).

5

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
These and other denominations also have small numbers of Indo-Fijian members; Christians of all kinds comprise 6.1% of the Indo-Fijian population. Much major Roman Catholic missionary activity was conducted through the Vicariate Apostolic of Fiji, which has since been renamed the Metropolitan Archdiocese of Suva, which spans the whole of Fiji. Hindus belong mostly to the Sanatan sect (74.3% of all Hindus) or else are unspecified (22%). The small Arya Samaj sect claims the membership of some 3.7% of all Hindus in Fiji. Muslims are mostly Sunni (59.7%) and Shia (36.7%), with an Ahmadiyya minority (3.6%) regarded as heretical by more orthodox Muslims. The Sikh religion comprises 0.9% of the Indo-Fijian population, or 0.4% of the national population in Fiji. Their ancestors came from the Punjab region of India. The Bahá’í Faith has over 21 Local Spiritual Assemblies throughout Fiji and Baha’is live in more than 80 localities.[18] The first Baha’i in the islands was a New Zealander who arrived in 1924.[18] There is also a small Jewish population. Every year the Israeli Embassy organises a Passover celebration with approximately 100 people attending.

Fiji
• Namosi • Naitasiri • Ra • Rewa • Serua • Tailevu Fiji was also divided into 3 Confederacies or Governments during the reign of Cakobau, though these are not considered political divisions, they are still considered important in the social divisions of the indigenous Fijians: • The Burebasaga Confederacy • The Kubuna Confederacy • The Tovata Confederacy

Geography

Political divisions

Map of Fiji Map of the divisions of Fiji Fiji is divided into Four Major Divisions: • Central • Eastern • Northern • Western These divisions are further divided into 14 provinces. The Fourteen Provinces of Fiji: • Ba • Bua • Cakaudrove • Kadavu • Lau • Lomaiviti • Macuata • Nadroga-Navosa

Scenery on Monuriki

6

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Fiji covers a total area of some 194 000 square kilometres of which around 10% is land. Fiji is the hub of the South West Pacific, midway between Vanuatu and the Kingdom of Tonga. The archipelego is located between 176° 53′ east and 178° 12′ west. The 180° meridian runs through Taveuni but the International Dateline is bent convieniently to give uniform time to all of the Fiji group. With the exception of Rotuma, the Fiji group lies between 15° 42′ and 20° 02′ south. Rotuma is located 400 kilometres north of the group, 670 km from Suva, 12° 30′ south of the equator. Fiji consists of 322 islands (of which 106 are inhabited) and 522 smaller islets. The two most important islands are Viti Levu and Vanua Levu. The islands are mountainous, with peaks up to 1,300 metres (4,250 ft), and covered with thick tropical forests. Viti Levu hosts the capital city of Suva, and is home to nearly three quarters of the population. Other important towns include Nadi (the location of the international airport), and the second city -Lautoka (the location of a large sugar mill and a seaport). The main towns on Vanua Levu are Labasa and Savusavu. Other islands and island groups include Taveuni and Kadavu (the third and fourth largest islands respectively), the Mamanuca Group (just outside Nadi) and Yasawa Group, which are popular tourist destinations, the Lomaiviti Group, outside of Suva, and the remote Lau Group. Rotuma, some 500 kilometres (310 mi) north of the archipelago, has a special administrative status in Fiji. Fiji’s nearest neighbour is Tonga. The climate in Fiji is tropical and warm most of the year round.

Fiji
processing makes up one-third of industrial activity. Long-term problems include low investment and uncertain property rights. The political turmoil in Fiji has had a severe impact on the economy, which shrank by 2.8% in 2000 and grew by only 1% in 2001. The tourism sector recovered quickly, however, with visitor arrivals reaching pre-coup levels again during 2002, which has since resulted in a modest economic recovery. This recovery continued into 2003 and 2004 but grew by 1.7% in 2005 and grew by 2.0% in 2006. Although inflation is low, the policy indicator rate of the Reserve Bank of Fiji was raised by 1% to 3.25% in February 2006 due to fears of excessive consumption financed by debt. Lower interest rates have so far not produced greater investment for exports. However, there has been a housing boom from declining commercial mortgage rates. The tallest building in Fiji is the fourteen-storey Reserve Bank of Fiji Building in Suva, which was inaugurated in 1984. The Suva Central Commercial Centre, which opened in November 2005, was planned to outrank the Reserve Bank building at seventeen stories, but last-minute design changes made sure that the Reserve Bank building remains the tallest. Trade with Fiji has been criticized due to the country’s military dictatorship. In 2008, Fiji’s interim Prime Minister and coup leader Frank Bainimarama announced election delays and that it would pull out of the Pacific Island Forum in Niue, where Bainimarama would have met with Australian Prime Minister Kevin Rudd and New Zealand Prime Minister Helen Clark.[20]

Economy
Fiji, endowed with forest, mineral, and fish resources, is one of the more developed of the Pacific island economies, though still with a large subsistence sector. Natural resources include timber, fish, gold, copper, offshore oil potential, hydropower. Fiji experienced a period of rapid growth in the 1960s and 1970s but stagnated in the 1980s. The coup of 1987 caused further contraction. Economic liberalization in the years following the coup created a boom in the garment industry and a steady growth rate despite growing uncertainty of land tenure in the sugar industry. The expiration of leases for sugar cane farmers (along with reduced farm and factory efficiency) has led to a decline in sugar production despite a subsidized price. Subsidies for sugar have been provided by the EU and Fiji has been the second largest beneficiary after Mauritius. Urbanization and expansion in the service sector have contributed to recent GDP growth. Sugar exports and a rapidly growing tourist industry — with 430,800 tourists in 2003[19] and increasing in the subsequent years — are the major sources of foreign exchange. Fiji is highly dependent on tourism for revenue. Sugar

Culture

Huts in the Nausori Highlands Fiji’s culture is a rich mosaic of indigenous, Indian, Chinese and European traditions, comprising social polity, language, food (based mainly from the sea, casava, dalo & other vegetables), costume, belief systems, architecture, arts, craft, music, dance and sports. The indigenous culture is very much active and living, and is a part of everyday life for the majority of the population. However, it has evolved with the

7

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
introduction of old cultures like the Indian and Chinese ones, as well as a large influence from Europe, and from various Pacific neighbors of Fiji, mainly the Tongan and Rotuman. The culture of Fiji has created a unique communal and national identity.

Fiji

Sport
The national sport of Fiji is considered to be rugby union (see rugby union in Fiji), however rugby league is also widely played. The national team is very successful given the size of the population of the country, and has competed at four Rugby World Cups, the first being in 1987, where they reached the quarter-finals. The Fiji national side did not match that feat again until the 2007 Rugby World Cup when they upset Wales 38-34 to progress to the quarter-finals. Fiji also competes in the Pacific Tri-Nations and the Pacific Nations Cup. The sport is governed by the Fiji Rugby Union which is a member of the Pacific Islands Rugby Alliance, and contributes to the Pacific Islanders rugby union team. At the club level there are the Colonial Cup and Pacific Rugby Cup. The Fiji sevens team is one of the most successful rugby sevens teams in the world, having won the two world cup titles and the 2006 IRB Series. Fiji’s other main sport is soccer and is enjoyed and played by all ethnic groups. It is easily the second most popular sport in Fiji. Fiji participates in the Soccer World Cup in the Oceania Group. They have defeated both Australia and New Zealand in recent years. Fiji’s most famous individual sportsmen are probably the golfer Vijay Singh and sailor Tony Philp who have both been ranked number one in the world at one time. In team sports, rugby seven’s player Waisale Serevi is widely regarded as one of the greatest players of all time.

Holidays
This is a list of holidays in Fiji: • New Year’s Day • Mawlid • Good Friday • Easter Saturday • Easter Monday • National Youth Day • Ratu Sir Lala Sukuna Day • Queen’s Birthday • Fiji Day • Diwali • Christmas Day • Boxing Day The exact dates of public holidays vary from year to year, but the dates for this year and recent years can be found here: http://www.fiji.gov.fj/publish/public_holidays.shtml

Language
Fijian is an Austronesian language of the Malayo-Polynesian family spoken in Fiji. It has 350,000 first-language speakers, which is less than half the population of Fiji, but another 200,000 speak it as a second language. The 1997 Constitution established Fijian as an official language of Fiji, along with English and Hindustani, and there is discussion about establishing it as the "national language", though English and Hindustani would remain official. Fijian is a VOS language. The Fiji Islands developed many languages, some similar and some very different. Missionaries in the 1840s chose the language of one island off the southeast of the main island of Viti Levu, to be the official language of Fiji. This island, Bau, was home to Cakobau, the chief that eventually became the self forged "King" of Fiji. Missionaries were interested in documenting a language and in standardizing all of Fiji on one official language to make their job of translating and teaching in Fiji a bit easier. Standard Fijian is based on the language of Bau, which is an East Fijian language. There are many other dialects that make up the West Fijian Language including dialects spoken in the Nadroga/Navosa which are unique and those of the western island groups and provinces.

See also
• • • • • • • Fiji Meteorological Service Foreign relations of Fiji Index of Fiji-related articles List of Fijians Military of Fiji Telecommunications in Fiji Transport in Fiji

Footnotes
[1]

[2]

[3] [4]

Dr. A. Tschentscher, LL.M.. "Section 4 of Fiji Constitution". Servat.unibe.ch. http://www.servat.unibe.ch/law/icl/fj00000_.html. Retrieved on 2009-05-03. ^ "Fiji". International Monetary Fund. http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2009/01/ weodata/ weorept.aspx?sy=2006&ey=2009&scsm=1&ssd=1&sort=country&ds=.&br=1 Retrieved on 2009-04-22. PDF article from Fiji Government on Line, section on Europeans in Fiji Pacific Peoples, Melanesia/Micronesia/Polynesia, Central Queensland University

8

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
[5] [6] [7] Abel Janszoon Tasman Biography, Answers.com Oceania - A Short History of Fiji, Jane Resture’s Oceania Page Phil Taylor (2006-12-06). "Fiji – alone under the gun". NZ Herald. http://www.nzherald.co.nz/section/ story.cfm?c_id=2&ObjectID=10414033. Retrieved on 2007-09-30. Phil Mercer (2006-12-09). "Ads for Fiji’s post-coup cabinet". BBC News. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/ asia-pacific/6164265.stm. Retrieved on 2007-09-30. "Commander hands back Executive Authority to Ratu Iloilo". Fijivillage. 2007-01-04. Archived from the original on 2007-09-30. http://web.archive.org/web/ 20070107051230/http://www.fijivillage.com/artman/ publish/article_34881.shtml. "I support army takeover: Iloilo". Fijilive. 2007-01-04. Archived from the original on 2007-09-30. http://web.archive.org/web/20070125100134/ http://www.fijilive.com/news/show/news/2007/01/04/ 04fijilive09.html. "President swears in interim PM". Fijilive. 2007-01-05. Archived from the original on 2007-09-30. http://web.archive.org/web/20070125100307/ http://www.fijilive.com/news/show/news/2007/01/05/ 05fijilive08.html. "Emergency rule declared in Fiji". BBC News. 2007-09-07. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/asia-pacific/ 6981381.stm. Retrieved on 2007-09-30. "President’s Address to the Nation", April 10, 2009 (Fiji government website) "Charter proposes common Fijian name", August 4, 2008 "The Name “Fijian” Belongs to Indigenous Qarase", FijiVillage, August 8, 2008 "Communalism is ‘to love thy neighbour’", Fiji Times, August 29, 2008 "PM Bainimarama - Address to the nation following appointment of Cabinet - 11 April 2009", Fiji government website ^ "Graceful trees mark anniversary". Baha’i World News Service. 2005-04-12. http://news.bahai.org/ story.cfm?storyid=366. Retrieved on 2006-12-09. Fiji Economy and Politics,Economy and Politics in Fiji,Economy and Politics at Fiji. Retrieved 10 May 2008. Zealand, New (2008-08-19). "Democracy hopes dashed after Fiji pulls out of Pacific Forum". Abc.net.au. http://www.abc.net.au/news/stories/2008/08/19/ 2339510.htm?section=world. Retrieved on 2009-05-03.

Fiji
067080634X. Traces the colonization of the Fiji Islands, explains how the Fijians have managed to keep their language and culture intact, and describes modern Fiji society. Derrick, Ronald Albert (1951). The Fiji Islands: A Geographical Handbook. Govt. Print. Dept Fiji, 334 pages, Original from the University of Michigan, Digitized 11 Jul 2006. Details on Fiji its history and Geography. Lal, Brij V. (1992). Broken Waves: A History of the Fiji Islands in the Twentieth Century. University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 0824814185. Details of Fiji’s History, Geography, Economy. Back to the Chessboard: The Coup and the Re-Emergence of Pre-colonial Rivalries in Fiji. In: Kolig/Mückler (eds.) (2002). Politics of Indigeneity in the South Pacific. LIT Verlag, Hamburg. pp. 143–158. ISBN 3825859150. Miller, Korina; Jones, Robyn; Pinheiro, Leonardo (2003). Fiji. Lonely Planet. ISBN 1740591348. Travel guide.

•

[8]

•

[9]

•

[10]

•

[11]

Bibliography
• Derrick, Ronald Albert (1957). A History of Fiji. Suva, Fiji: Government Printer. • Scarr, Deryck (1984). Fiji: A Short History. Sydney, Australia: Allen & Unwin. ISBN 0868613193. • Waterhouse, Joseph (1998). The King and People of Fiji. University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 0824819209.

[12]

[13] [14] [15] [16] [17]

External links
Government • Official Website of the Government of Fiji • Official Website of the Parliament of Fiji • Chief of State and Cabinet Members General information • Fiji entry at The World Factbook • Fiji at UCB Libraries GovPubs • Fiji at the Open Directory Project • Wikimedia Atlas of Fiji Travel • Fiji travel guide from Wikitravel • Bulafiji.com Official Fiji Visitors Bureau website • Fijiguide.com Travel and Culture Guide to Fiji Other • The Fiji Times News, Sport and Weather from Fiji’s leading newspaper • Documents relating to Fiji at the Diplomacy Monitor • Fiji Projects at Seacology Coordinates: 18°S 179°E / 18°S 179°E / -18; 179

[18]

[19]

[20]

References
• Wright, Ronald (1986). On Fiji Islands. Original from the University of Michigan, Digitized 5 Dec 2006. ISBN Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fiji"

9

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Fiji

Categories: Fiji, English-speaking countries and territories, Island countries, Melanesia, States and territories established in 1970 This page was last modified on 17 May 2009, at 10:50 (UTC). All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License. (See Copyrights for details.) Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a U.S. registered 501(c)(3) tax-deductible nonprofit charity. Privacy policy About Wikipedia Disclaimers

10


				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Tags:
Stats:
views:159
posted:5/18/2009
language:English
pages:10