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					   GROUP DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEMS

                                       Part 1
       A Review of Groupware Products




                           Dr. Ir. Sudaryanto, MSc.
                           Sudaryanto@staff.gunadarma.ac.id



Dr. Ir. Sudaryanto, MSc.                                      Decision Support System
                                 Introduction

Peter G.W. Keen:
• The fundamental model of DSS - a lonely decision maker
  to make a decision is true only in rare cases
• In real organization, decision taken only after extensive
  consultation

• History
•   1981 - 1983 : Initial papers describing GDSS
•   1982 - 1985 : Survey papers and research agenda
•   1982 - 1986 : Initial experimentation and initial results
•   1987 - 1990 : Building advances facilities in universities
•   Since 1988 : Commercial versions of Hardware (IBM and others)
•   Since 1990 : Commercial versions of software (Ventana, Lotus
                 Collabra, others)

      Dr. Ir. Sudaryanto, MSc.                        Decision Support System
                           Introduction


  • Commercialization became possible
  • How to use the system effectively
  • How to design systems so that users do not require
    significant training

  Although most business organization is hierarchical,
  decision making is usually a shared process
  • The group of executives may involve in a decision
    or decision related task



Dr. Ir. Sudaryanto, MSc.                   Decision Support System
                             The Nature of GD Meetings

Characteristics of group meetings
• The meetings are joint activity by group of people with equal status
• Typically involved 5 to 20 individuals
• The activity and its output is intellectual in nature
• The product depends on the knowledge, opinions and judgement
  of its participants
• Differences in opinions are settled by ranking, negotiation or arbitration

What group do
•   Retrieve or generate information
•   Share information among members
•   Draft policies and procedures
•   Use information to reach consensus or decision


      Dr. Ir. Sudaryanto, MSc.                            Decision Support System
                            Conventional Meeting


                             Manager: 30 -70 % of time for meeting



• Brainstorming
• 20 % participants do 80 % talking
• 1 hr meeting, 15 person, 4 min. airtime
• Many potentially valuable contribution
  remain silent (junior, shy, too polite)



 Dr. Ir. Sudaryanto, MSc.                            Decision Support System
                            Electronic Meeting



• Type the idea directly into a networked
  Personal Computer
• 1 hr E-meeting, 60 minutes “airtime”
• Increase productivity, reduce time
• Anonymous: remove barriers to contribute
• Participant can deal with more material
  in a given time
• Use a voting system to rate ideas



 Dr. Ir. Sudaryanto, MSc.                        Decision Support System
                             Electronic Meeting



Facilitated by Groupware
  •A computer software explicitly design to support
   collective works of team
•TeamFocus (IBM)
  •Standardized control system
•Increase productivity
  •Time reduction ( by Boeing : 91 %)
        •Conventional way (15 person, 1 year)
        •E-meeting (15 person, 35 days)

  Dr. Ir. Sudaryanto, MSc.                        Decision Support System
                           Electronic Meeting



•Linking department,person in different
location or even entire organization to improve
efficiency and speed of projects
•Major impact on companies willing to move
toward the new form of organization: flatter,
faster, team-focused
•Pioneers: Boeing, Dell Computer, GM
Europe, IBM, JP Morgan, Price Waterhouse



Dr. Ir. Sudaryanto, MSc.                        Decision Support System
                       Groupware Technology


• Moving toward Ad-hocracy:
  • individual decide what need to be done
    and form team to do it
• Democratization of data
  • The flow of knowledge to wherever it is needed
• Companies can more quickly find connection
  among disparate information and people
• A Groupware product:Lotus Notes (1989)
  • First used by Price Waterhouse to improve
    customer service
  • Increase productivity (reduce from 6 weeks
    into 2.5 days)
 Dr. Ir. Sudaryanto, MSc.                 Decision Support System
                           Groupware Technology


• Marriot
  • Increase quality and productivity of meeting
• Groupware : require networked computer
  “ interpersonal computer”
• Computer network not only connect the machine,
  but also make employees feel connected to the
  organization




     Dr. Ir. Sudaryanto, MSc.                 Decision Support System
                          Groupware Technology
                             VS Productivity

• Is computerized system really increase productivity ?
    • There do exist, but difficult to measure
    • Computer is not the problem, but the management
• E-meeting can reduce 56% meeting time (IBM research-
  Big Blue project)
• Boeing: benefits of e-meeting using TeamFocus
    • 64 meeting, 1000 participants
    • What managers did compared with what they said
       without software
    • Finding: $ 6,700 saving per meeting, due time reduction
    • Increase business processes:cheaper, faster, better

    Dr. Ir. Sudaryanto, MSc.                   Decision Support System
                       Cost and Applications

•Groupware:
 •TeamFocus (IBM), $ 50,000
 •GroupSystem (Ventana), $ 25,000
 •VisionQuest (Collaborative Technology), $ 29,000

Marriots used VisionQuest
 •Enter this room ONLY if you believe the ideas and
   opinions of others have value
 •Improve guest satisfaction
 •In 25 Minutes, 139 ideas have been generated
 •Rating the ideas to get consensus on guest satisfaction
  and cost
 •Enhance cultural diversity: Room of nondiscrimination:
  man-women, majority-minority, senior - junior

    Dr. Ir. Sudaryanto, MSc.                           Decision Support System
                             Groupware Technology
                                The Applications

Team Focus:
Southern New England Telecommunication
• Develop a new customer strategy in seven weeks
• It takes almost 1 year using focus group or
  surveys of employee

JP Morgan
  • Constant meeting for strategic planning,
    organizational changes, auditing
  • Work best for a meeting more than one hour
    to achieve group decision
  • Not beneficial for status check meeting

  Dr. Ir. Sudaryanto, MSc.                          Decision Support System
                               The Applications

•Dell Computer
  • For strategic planning meetings: product planing,
     marketing strategies
  • Computer industry : faster technological changes,
     brutal price cutting
  • Example: to name a product,
        • 2 hours, 75 names, 5 finalists
        • It is need 2 moths with old way
•The Advantages
  • To enable people to meet without being in the same
     location
  • It design to work among distance participants
  • Virtual meeting
  • Increase productivity in the long terms
    Dr. Ir. Sudaryanto, MSc.                      Decision Support System
                            The Drawbacks



• Repressive boss or dysfunctional groups may still exist
• The technology doesn’t make people equal in term of
   power, but in terms being heard
• It still need stimuli for generate decision
• Upset organizational hierarchies
• Notes as electronic filing cabinets, everybody have
  access on it




 Dr. Ir. Sudaryanto, MSc.                   Decision Support System
   GROUP DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEMS

                    Part2
        Group Decision Support System


                           Dr. Ir. Sudaryanto, MSc.
                           Sudaryanto@staff.gunadarma.ac.id




Dr. Ir. Sudaryanto, MSc.                                      Decision Support System
                    GDSS : The Definition


      •Huber (1982)
       •A GDSS consist of a set of software, hardware and language
        components and procedures that support a group of people
        engage in decision related meeting
      •DeSantis and Gallupe(1985)
       •An interactive, computer based system which facilitates the
        solution of unstructured problems by a set of decision
        makers working together as a group
      •The group using GDSS may not make the ultimate decision
      •Group support system (GSS) is often used rather than GDSS




Dr. Ir. Sudaryanto, MSc.                           Decision Support System
                           GDSS Technology
                           Forms of E-Meeting System

            Same Time                          Different times


Example : Decision room                 Example : Team Room
• Need: face to face meeting            • Need: administration, filing,filtering
   • Private displays                      • Private workstation
   • Public displays                       • Shift work
   • Networks                              • Kiosks
   • Copyboards                            • Group displays


                                        Example : Computer conference
Example : Video conference              •Need: ongoing coordination
•Need: Cross distance meeting              • Group conversations
   • Conference calls                      • Group writing
   • Screen sharing                        • Group voice mail
   • Video


Dr. Ir. Sudaryanto, MSc.                                         Decision Support System
                    Electronic Decision Room

                             Face to face
   Executive                   meeting
                                                   server
     feels




  Printer, OHP                                 Networked
                               Decision
  audio-visual                  Room
                                                Personal
  e-blackboard                                 computer




   Individual                               Keyboard, mouse,
    displays                Private work      touchscreen,


Dr. Ir. Sudaryanto, MSc.                      Decision Support System
                                  GDSS Software
•Provide support to individual and group
•   Private work, text and file creation, graphics, etc.
•   Information retrieval and displays, summary of opinions
•   Cumulative list of suggestion
•   Allow anonymity in voting
•   Reduce redundancy, not contribute the same conversation
•   Complete record
•   Communication links : e-mail, remote access,
     sent information to the public

•The software:
• GroupSystem (Arizona Univ.) marketed by Ventana
• Lotus Notes (Lotus)
• Collabra

       Dr. Ir. Sudaryanto, MSc.                   Decision Support System
                                GDSS Meeting Styles

   Chauffeured                                      interactive
• One person enters                        • All group members can enter
  group information                          comments
• Public screen can                        • Group memory accessible
  provide group memory                       via workstation
• Verbal communication                     • Electronic communication
  predominates                               predominates


                                   Supported
               • All group members can enter comments
               • Public screen can provide group memory
               • Both verbal and electronic communication

     Dr. Ir. Sudaryanto, MSc.                             Decision Support System
                                     GDSS Facilities

Permanent installation at the user’s site
• Conference room equipped with networked PCs
  dedicated to GDSS use, expensive
• To be successful must be used frequently


                                  Portable installations brought to the user’s site on an
                                  on-call basis
                                  •Equipment and service of support staff rented from vendor

Permanent installation at the vendor’s site
•Group travel to vendor’s site to hold its meeting
•Hardware, software and support staff supplied by vendor
•Support staff usually acts as chauffeur

                                   Facilities designed and sold by commercial firms
                                   • IBM installed over 50 Decision support centers and sold
                                   • ICL(computer manuf) and Metapraxis (consultant) designed
                                     and developed permanent GDSS facilities installed at
                                     company location
       Dr. Ir. Sudaryanto, MSc.                                             Decision Support System
                           Relation of GDSS to DSS

    DSS

•“Standard” DDM paradigm                         GDSS
•Group size shrink to one



                          •Addition of communication capabilities
                          •Enhancement of the model base to provide
                          voting, rating and facilitating consensus
                          •Greater system reliability
                          •Enhanced physical facilities, investment
                          •Increased setup before use the system

    Dr. Ir. Sudaryanto, MSc.                          Decision Support System
                              Applications



• Standard tasks involving idea generation, planning,
   competitive analysis, consensus building
• Typical tasks : mission statement, strategy formulation
  evaluation of the management, information system planning
• Additional applications:
    • Gaming for risk assessment and crisis management
      • To improve intuition and skill in facing real life situation
  • Supporting negotiations
      • International situation, different language, different
        culture



   Dr. Ir. Sudaryanto, MSc.                            Decision Support System
                           Applications




• Supporting visual decision
   • Packaging selection, three-dimensional displays,
   • Facility location by using map from GIS
• Determining senior manager’s requirement for
• information tobe included in EIS.
   • Time reduction from six months to two weeks



Dr. Ir. Sudaryanto, MSc.                  Decision Support System
                                 Lessons Learned

Experimentation of GDSS has been done since mid-1980s

• Enables all participants to work simultaneously (human
  parallel processing)
    • Promoting broader inputs into the meeting process and reducing
      dominance by few people
• Provides equal opportunity for participation through anonymity
• Triggers additional points to be made
• Enable larger group meetings
    • Can effectively bring more information, knowledge and skills
• To help focus the group on key issues, discourages nonproductive
  behaviors
• Support the development of an organizational memory from meeting to
  meeting


      Dr. Ir. Sudaryanto, MSc.                     Decision Support System
                     Group Size, Composition


Group Size
• The size of group between 3 and 30
• Individual satisfaction increases with the size of group
    •Human parallel processing
    •More potential individual contribution
    •Jimmy Carter used e-meeting with 30 participant to
    •improve economic
     condition in Atlanta
• Electronic brainstorming do not work effectively for a group
• less than four
• More effective for group of eight or more persons


    Dr. Ir. Sudaryanto, MSc.                    Decision Support System
                                Anonymity


Anonymity
• Positive factor in encouraging broad-based participation
• Important when sensitive issues being discussed
• Provides sense of equality “ room of nondiscrimination”
• Minimize pressure for conformity, dominance by strong
  personalities
• Potential to increase conflicts within the group,
  face-to face more polite
   •Written comments become more polite with age & rank
   •Written comments can lead to misunderstanding


     Dr. Ir. Sudaryanto, MSc.                Decision Support System
                     Distributed Group, Voting


Distributed Group
• Groups that are not located in the same place at the same time
• Require special attention
    • Lower involvement by remote participants, no visual and
      non verbal cues, low accountability
    • Tend to lose momentum, while face-to- face groups use
      peer to keep people moving
Voting
• Formal voting is a rare event, used to decide matter once and for all
• Increase relying on team needs to create and measure consensus
• Use e-voting to settled unresolved issues, clarifies communication



     Dr. Ir. Sudaryanto, MSc.                         Decision Support System
                      Leadership, Satisfaction


Leadership
• Technology does not replace leadership style, but
  help to support it
• Needed to coordinate communication
• GDSS enhances

Satisfaction
• Individual satisfaction in reflected in user reports
  on the positive aspects of GDSS
• Increase confidence



    Dr. Ir. Sudaryanto, MSc.                  Decision Support System
                     Benefits, Implementation

Bottom-Line Benefits
• Significant cost savings (IBM and Boeing)
    •Shorter project elapsed time, reduction of labor cost
    •Improved decision quality, improve buy-in to
     the decision

Implementation
• Careful planning is needed to ensure implementation
  success
• Powerful stakeholders must participate in the early
  session
• E-meeting is neutral with respect to power shift

    Dr. Ir. Sudaryanto, MSc.                 Decision Support System
             Hardware and Software Design
                   Considerations


Facility design
• Has aesthetic appeal, comfort and familiar setting for
  executives
• Seating configuration should map expected group
  activities an size
• Lighting control for individual and public workstation
• Adequate works surface for each participant
Multiple Public Screen
• Multiple public screen increase productivity
• Windowing, different displays
• Multiple set of data, current and reference information


 Dr. Ir. Sudaryanto, MSc.                    Decision Support System
           Hardware and Software Design
                 Considerations


Knowledge Bases and Data Bases
• File servers handle the knowledge bases and data bases
  • Facilitate coordination and management of inputs
  • Serve as organizational memory
  • Provide access to organizational data
Fixed Versus Customized Tools
• The stages: idea generation, development of alternatives,
• Conclusion (forming consensus)
• Two modes
  • Create a customized methodology from the available tools
  • Follow a standard sequence for using the tools



 Dr. Ir. Sudaryanto, MSc.                     Decision Support System
                 Hardware and Software Design
                  Considerations (continued)


Communication Network Speed
•Fast response time : sub-second response for all activities
•Wide bandwidth LAN is needed to maintain high level
  of response
Software Design
•Ease of use and user friendly
 • Minimum explanation required for using the software tools
 • Difficulty in using the software can reduce productivity
 • Consistency in dialog interface permits dialog management
 • Screen sharing across and among participants
 • Group support tools must integrate with individual desktop
   applications


     Dr. Ir. Sudaryanto, MSc.                        Decision Support System
             Meeting Environments of The Future


•Permit to work any time, any place, any style
•Virtual, simultaneously meeting
•Experimental environment (University of Arizona)
  • To facilitate integration of technologies supporting
     group work
•Multimedia Collaboration Center
  • Current State of the art
  • Combine audio and video teleconferencing technology
  • Support for 29 users, 21 inch screens and 10 feet
     public display
  • Integrated with two other environment

     Dr. Ir. Sudaryanto, MSc.               Decision Support System
               Meeting Environments of The Future


• TeamRoom 2000
   • Extends the capabilities of existing group support
     facilities
   • To create any place, any time meeting environment
   • Combine pen, voice, wireless network technology
       • Focus on the interface between the individual
         and the group
• Mirror Projects
   • Extends the concept of single group to
     group-to-group interactions
   • Creating the illusion of presence that it lost
      in teleconferencing

    Dr. Ir. Sudaryanto, MSc.               Decision Support System
                           The Future of GDSS


• GDSS is an emerging technology that will become pervasive
• Commercialization of GDSS Software is indicator for the success
• The technology will make more user friendly, easier to use
• It may overpromise and underperform in the early stage
  of application
• GDSS provide enhance environment for performing existing tasks
• Potential new direction:
     • Changes in the workplace: dezentralized, telecommute
       to meeting as telecommute to work
• Expert-based system realm
     • Retrieve information, synthesis new alternatives,
       helping to resolve conflicts


    Dr. Ir. Sudaryanto, MSc.                      Decision Support System
                           END



Dr. Ir. Sudaryanto, MSc.         Decision Support System

				
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