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Ancient Macedonian language

Ancient Macedonian language
This article is about the language of Ancient Macedonians; for the unrelated South Slavic language, see Macedonian language.
Ancient Macedonian Spoken in Language extinction Language family Language codes ISO 639-1 ISO 639-2 ISO 639-3 None ine xmk Macedon (extinct language) absorbed by Attic Greek in the 4th century BC Indo-European Ancient Macedonian

Ancient Macedonian was the Indo-European language of the ancient Macedonians. It was spoken in Macedonia during the 1st millennium BC. From the 4th century BC, it was gradually replaced by the Attic-Koine Greek dialect.[1] Knowledge of the language is very limited because there are no surviving texts that are indisputably written in the language, though a body of words has been assembled from ancient sources, mainly from coin inscriptions, and from the 5th century lexicon of Hesychius of Alexandria, amounting to about 150 words and 200 proper names, though the number of considered words sometimes differs from scholar to scholar. Most of them are similar to standard Greek, while some have been interpreted as pointing to a separate lineage from IndoEuropean.

• various explicitly "Greek" scenarios: • a Greek dialect, part of the North-Western (Locrian, Aetolian, Phocidian, Epirote) variants of Doric Greek , suggested by N.G.L. Hammond (1989) and O. Masson (1996).[5][6] • a northern Greek dialect, related to Aeolic Greek and Thessalian, suggested among others by A.Fick (1874) and O.Hoffmann (1906).[5][7] • a Greek dialect with a non-Indo-European substratal influence, suggested by M. Sakellariou (1983). • a Hellenic language suggested by Brian Joseph [2] and other modern linguists [8] who consider that the Macedonian tongue was a sibling language to all the Ancient Greek dialects, perhaps not on par as other Greek dialects. If this view is correct, then Macedonian and Greek would be the two subbranches of a group within Indo-European, forming a Greco-Macedonian supergroup, "which could more properly be called Hellenic".[2] This terminology may lead to misunderstandings, since the "Hellenic branch of Indo-European" is also used synonymously with the Greek branch (which contains all ancient and modern Greek dialects) in a narrower sense.

Properties
From the few words that survive, only a little can be said about the language. A notable sound-law is that the Proto-Indo-European voiced aspirates (/bʰ, dʰ, gʰ/) appear as voiced stops /b, d, g/, (written β, δ, γ), in contrast to all known Greek dialects, which have unvoiced them to /pʰ, tʰ, kʰ/ (φ, θ, χ) with few exceptions[9]. • Macedonian dánοs (’death’, from PIE *dhenh2- ’to leave’), compare Attic θάνος thános • Macedonian abroûtes or ἀβροῦ?ες abroûwes as opposed to Attic ὀφρῦς ophrûs for ’eyebrows’ • Macedonian Bereníkē versus Attic Φερενίκη Phereníkē, ’bearing victory’ • Macedonian adraia (’bright weather’), compare Attic αἰθρία aithría, from PIE *h2aidh• Macedonian báskioi (’fasces’), Attic φάσκωλος pháskōlos ’leather sack’ , from PIE *bhasko • According to Herodotus 7.73 (ca. 440 BC), the Macedonians claimed that the Phryges were called Brygoi before they migrated from Thrace to Anatolia (around 1200 BC).

Classification
Due to the fragmentary attestation various interpretations are possible.[2] The discussion is closely related to the reconstruction of the Proto-Greek language. The suggested historical interpretations of Macedonian include:[3] • an Indo-European language which is a close cousin to Greek and also related to Thracian and Phrygian languages, suggested by A. Meillet (1913) and I. I. Russu (1938),[4] or part of a Sprachbund encompassing Thracian, Illyrian and Greek (Kretschmer 1896, E. Schwyzer 1959). • an "Illyrian" dialect mixed with Greek, suggested by K. O. Müller (1825) and by G. Bonfante (1987).

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• According to Plutarch, Moralia[10] Macedonians use ’b’ instead of ’ph’, while Delphians use ’b’ in the place of ’p’. • Macedonian mágeiros (’butcher’) was a loan from Doric into Attic. Vittore Pisani has suggested an ultimately Macedonian origin for the word, which could then be cognate to μάχαιρα mákhaira (’knife’, <PIE *magh-, ’to fight’) If γοτάν gotán (’pig’) is related to *gwou (’cattle’), this would indicate that the labiovelars were either intact, or merged with the velars, unlike the usual Greek treatment (Attic βοῦς boûs). Such deviations, however, are not unknown in Greek dialects; compare Doric (Spartan) γλεπ- glep- for common Greek βλεπ- blep-, as well as Doric γλάχων gláchōn and Ionic γλήχων glēchōn for common Greek βλήχων blēchōn.[11] A number of examples suggest that voiced velar stops were devoiced, especially word-initially: κάναδοι kánadoi, ’jaws’ (<PIE *genu-); κόμβους kómbous, ’molars’ (<PIE *gombh-); within words: ἀρκόν arkón (Attic ἀργός argós); the Macedonian toponym Akesamenai, from the Pierian name Akesamenos (if Akesa- is cognate to Greek agassomai, agamai, "to astonish"; cf. the Thracian name Agassamenos). In Aristophanes’ The Birds, the form κεβλήπυρις keblēpyris (’red-cap bird’) is found, showing a Macedonian-style voiced stop in place of a standard Greek unvoiced aspirate: κεβ(α)λή keb(a)lē versus κεφαλή kephalē (’head’). A number of the Macedonian words, particularly in Hesychius’ lexicon, are disputed (i.e., some do not consider them actual Macedonian words) and some may have been corrupted in the transmission. Thus abroutes, may be read as abrouwes (αβρου?ες), with tau (Τ) replacing a digamma.[12] If so, this word would perhaps be encompassable within a Greek dialect; however, others (e.g. A. Meillet) see the dental as authentic and think that this specific word would perhaps belong to an IndoEuropean language different from Greek. A. Panayotou summarizes some generally identified, through ancient texts and epigraphy, features[13]:

Ancient Macedonian language
• Raising of /ɔ:/ to /u:/ in proximity to nasal (e.g. Κάνουν, Attic Κάνων) • Simplification of the sequence /ign/ to /i:n/ (γίνομαι, Attic γίγνομαι) • Loss of aspiration of the consonant cluster /sth/ (> /st/) (γενέσται, Attic γενέσθαι)

Morphology
• First-declension masculine and feminine in -ας and α respectively (e.g. Πεύκεστας, Λαομάγα) • First-declension masculine genitive singular in -α (e.g. Μαχάτα) • First-declension genitive plural in -ᾶν • First person personal pronoun dative singular ἐμίν • Temporal conjunction ὁπόκα • Possibly, a non-sigmatic nominative masculine singular in the first declension (ἱππότα, Attic ἱππότης)

Onomastics
Anthroponymy
M. Hatzopoulos summarizes the Macedonian anthroponymy (that is names borne by people from Macedonia before the expansion beyond the Axius or people undoubtedly hailing from this area after the expansion) as follows:[14] • Epichoric Greek names that either differ from the phonology of the introduced Attic or that remained almost confined to Macedonians throughout antiquity • Panhellenic Greek names • Identifiable non-Greek (Thracian, Illyrian and "native" -- that is names generally confined to Macedonian territory that aren’t identified with any language, Greek or not) names • Names without a clear Greek etymology that can’t however be ascribed to any identifiable non-Greek linguistic group. Common in the creation of ethnics is the use of -έστης, εστός especially when derived from sigmatic nouns (ὄρος > Ὀρέστης but also Δῖον > Διασταί).[15]

Phonology
• Occasional development of voiced aspirates (*bh, *dh, *gh) into voiced stops (b, d, g) (e.g. Βερενίκα, Attic Φερενίκη) • Retention of */a:/ (e.g. Μαχάτας) • [a:] as result of contraction [a:] + [ɔ:] • Apocope of short vowels in prepositions in synthesis (παρκαττίθεμαι, Attic παρακατατίθεμαι) • Syncope (hyphairesis) and diphthongization are used to avoid hiatus (e.g. Θετίμα, Attic Θεοτίμη) • Occasional retention of the pronunciation [u] οf /u(:)/ in local cult epithets or nicknames (Κουναγίδας = Κυναγίδας)

Toponymy
The toponyms of Macedonia proper are generally Greek, though some of them show a particular Macedonian phonology that might set them apart and a few others are non-Greek.

Calendar
About half or more of the Macedonian months have a clear and generally accepted Greek etymology (e.g. Dios, Apellaios, Artemisios, Loos, Daisios), though some of the

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remaining ones have sometimes been considered to be Greek but showing a particular Macedonian phonology (e.g. Audunaios has been connected to "Haides" *A-wid and Gorpiaios/Garpiaios to "karpos" fruit).

Ancient Macedonian language
• Aigai ca. 350 BC Berennô of Philistos Harpalos of Peucolaos Sillis(Epitaphs)(Berennô hapaxHarpalus Peukolaos Sillis ,firstly attested in Macedon) • Lete ca. 340 BC Orphic Derveni papyrus

Epigraphy
The below list includes only those regions and elements that may be related or have been written by Macedonians before 350 BC.Early evidence from coastal cities dates back to 600-550 BC in Central Macedonia (Sane[16],Therme[17]) ~ 550 BC East Macedonia (Neapolis)[18] and 5th c.BC West (Pydna)[19].There is also a Carian inscription found in Therme 6th c. BC[20]. • Elimeia ca. 500-475 BC Doric the temples of Athena in Megara • Aiane ca. 500-475 BC Apakos hapax with letter (?) qoppa • Aiane ca. 500-450 BC Kleiona hapax • Pella ca. 500-450 BC Pythagores of Aristokrates , Aristobole • Aiane c.a 450BC Arka poseria (Arka = lazy, slow - Att. Arga, poseria = cups - Att. Poteria) • Aigai early 5th c.BC Peperias hapax • Eordea early 5th BC of Machatas (never attested as Magatas) • Aiane early 5th BC ..I am -alios of Dolio-.. Doric ἐμὶ emi Attic εἰμί emi but Attic τῆς tês instead of Doric τᾶς tâs • Aiane ca. 450 BC wools of Arkaps (Arkapos) hapax • Aiane ca. 450-400 BC Attya hapax • Aiane 5th c. BC Themis (gen. Themidos) • Aigai ca. 430-420 BC Argive Doric I am the prize from Argive Hera (Royal tomb)[21] • Aigai late 5th c. BC He loves _ _ina • Pella ca. 400 BC Xanthos son of Demetrios and Amadika (attested also as Ammadika and Ammadikos only in Macedon) • Pella late 5th/early 4th c. BC Zôbia (epitaph) (oldest evidence of this rare name) • Pella late 5th/early 4th c. BC Eugeneia daughter of Xenon (epitaph) • Pella late 5th/early 4th c. BC Xenariste of Boula_ _ _ (epitaph) • Aigai late 5th/early 4th c. BC here Kallim- ..of wellpillared temples (eustyloi naoi) .. of esteemed father...art.. Callimachus (sculptor) ? • Pella late 5th/early 4th c. BC I lie here dead, my homeland is Corinth , servant of Enodia , with name Timarete • Dion late 5th/early 4th c. BC Aristotima , Sôsos • Dion late 5th c. BC Theotimos of Parmenon • Pella ca. 400-350 BC Dexios from Herakleion • Beroea ca. 400-350 BC Andreas of Andron from Osbe • Pella Katadesmos-ca. 380-350 BC Dagina hapax

Macedonian words in epigraphy
• Macedonian onomasticon : the earliest massive epigraphical documents are, the second Athenian alliance decree with Perdiccas II (~417-413 BC), the decree of Kalindoia,~335-300 BC) and seven curse tablets of the 4th c.BC bearing mostly names[22][23]. • Macedonian sound-law : it is restricted to names and one epithet of Artemis. • Berenika priestess of Demetra ca. 350 BC is the oldest evidence.However it never turned into Pherenike in Macedon or Egypt.On the contrary Attic Pherenik- became Berenik- ; hence popular Athenian name Berenikides after 3rd c.BC[24]. • Bila Brateadou (Attic Phile , Doric Phila Prateadou or Phrateadou (Aigai ca. 350-300 BC[25]. • Phylomaga (Attic Phylomache) (Methone,Pieria ca. 350-300 BC)[26]. • Lamaga , Laomaga (Attic Laomache)[27]

Glossary
• ágēma, ’vanguard, guards’ ( 4 times only in Macedon ~ 200 BC )[28] (Attic ἄγω ágô lead,drive PIE *ag-) • archikerdemporos president of guild of merchants (hapax)[29](Kerdemporos epithet of Hermes Orph.H.28.6 . • Bloureitis epithet of Artemis. (Skydra 106 AD, hapax)[30].LSJ: Φιλωρεῖτις Philôreitês. Artemis Agrotera (Huntress[31]), Gazoreitis (from Gazoros, north of Kerkini lake), Bloureitis (fond of mountains). phil- + oros , ouros mountain. • Darrhôn minor god of healing • edeatros as archedeatros; ’taster’, (Attic thaliarchos) Ptolemy I Soter first edeatros appointed by Alexander (See Athenaeus)[32] (3 inscriptions, all related to late Ptolemies)[33] • hetairoi , companion cavalry after 350 BC[34] (Attic hetaîroi, comrades) PIE *swe-t-aro < suffixed form of *swe) • kotthubos non-metallic armour. (Amphipolis - ca.200 BC, hapax)[35]. (Cf.Attic kosumbos, fringe, hairnet) (Hesych. κοσύμβη kosumbe Cretan small shield, ἀνάδεσμα, anadesma, bandage, ἐγκόμβωμα, enkomboma, outward ornamental garment, Egyptian περίζωμα perizoma girdle. About the military decree of Amphipolis, see Phalanx, last paragraph. • Kynagidas epithet of Herakles. (Mycenaean Gk. Kynagitas attested in Linear B as ki-na-ke-ta, Attic kynegos, Doric kynagos Hunter) attested in 14 inscriptions of various places in Macedonia from 4th

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century BC to 2nd century AD. Κυναγὼ Kynago epithet of Artemis, attested twice. (Protectors of Hunters). Oldest inscription in Beroea — ca. 350-300 BC[36] (spelled in one inscription, Kounagidas) or κνίμα knima ( line 17 see trakylion below ). Macedonian months , of which Dystros and Gorpiaios have no apparent etymology. neuo pray (Thessalian nebeuo[37]) (Attic euchomai) (Attic neuo nod,wink). Attested as feminine past participles in Berenika’s archineusasai women and Alexandra Argaiou,Kala Thea neusasa[38]. papa, an expression like "ouch" (Attic papae, Locrian papa, Greek demotic apapa) [39] peligânes Macedonian senators, (wiki peliganes) pyrokausis ( 9 times in 2 inscriptions ~200 BC )[40] (additional draft,military recruitment per family. Each family provided one soldier. sárissa (σάρισα sarisa attested hapax with one s in the military decree of Amphipolis[41]), a long pike used by the Macedonian phalanx (Theophrastus, Polybius; etymology unknown – Blumenthal[42] reconstructs *skwrvi-entia- to a root for ’cut’, but this is speculative; perhaps (Attic σαίρω sairô to show the teeth, grin like a dog, esp. in scorn or malice), (σαρόω-ῶ saroô sweep clean, wipe out, sarôsis sweeping away, sarôtron broom), (sarônis an old hollow oak) skoidos administrator,secretary,quaestor (Elimeialate 4th-mid. 3rd c. BC)[43] PIE *skei- ’to cut, split’ cf. Greek schizo ’to split’, schedos ’riddle’,schediazo improvise Lithuanian skedzu ’make thin, separate, divide’,Latin scindere ’to split’, Gothic skaidan, O.E. sceadan ’to divide, separate’[44].LSJ skoidion ’hat’ dialectical for skiadion. synoplânes co-fighters (2nd/3rd c.AD)[45] (singular: συνοπλὰν synoplan or σύνοπλας synoplas) (Attic synoploi,synoplos) syn- + hoplon hoplites trakylion ((..the pathway between the two trakylia...rivers..mountains..))[46] hypaspistai (the ones under shield , hypo- + aspis) (wiki Hypaspists) (6 times in Macedon) [47] Pseudanôr epithet of Dionysus, (wiki Pseudanor)

Ancient Macedonian language

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The Pella curse tablet (Greek katadesmos): from Prof. Radcliffe G. Edmonds III, Bryn Mawr College.

Hesychius Glossary
The below words of unknown date, out of the single Hesychius manuscript, are marked as Macedonian.For the words of Macedonian Amerias, see Glossary of Amerias. Terms that occur in epigraphy are transferred above. • abagna ’roses amaranta (unwithered)’ (Attic ῥόδα rhoda , Aeolic βρόδα broda roses).(LSJ: amarantos unfading.Amaranth flower. (Aeolic ἄβα aba ’youthful prime’ + ἁγνός hagnos ’pure, chaste, unsullied) or epithet aphagna from aphagnizo ’purify’[50].If abagnon is the proper name for rhodon rose, then it is cognate to Persian bāġ , ’garden’ , Gothic bagms ’tree’ and Greek bakanon ’cabbage-seed’.Finally, a Phrygian borrowing is highly possible if we think of the famous Gardens of Midas , where roses grow of themselves (see Herodotus 8.138.2 , Athenaeus 15.683) • abarknai κομᾷ † τὲ Μακεδόνες Text Corrupted (komai ? , ἄβαρκνα abarkna hunger, famine. • abarú ’oregano’ (Hes. ὀρίγανον origanon) (LSJ: βαρύ barú perfume used in incense, Attic βαρύ barú ’heavy’) (LSJ amarakon sweet Origanum Majorana)(Hes. for origanon ἀγριβρόξ agribrox, ἄβρομον abromon , ἄρτιφος artiphos, κεβλήνη keblênê) • , ἀλογεῖ abloē , alogei Text Corrupted †<ἀβλόη>· σπένδε Μακεδόνες [<ἀλογεῖ>· σπεῖσον Μακεδόνες] spendô) • or ἀβροῦ?ες abroûtes or abroûwes ’eyebrows’ (Hes. Attic ὀφρῦς ophrûs acc. pl., ὀφρύες ophrúes nom., PIE *bhru-) (Lithuanian bruvis , Persian abru) (Koine Greek ophrudia , Modern Greek φρύδια frydia) • ankalis Attic ’weight, burden, load’ Macedonian ’sickle’ (Hes. Attic ἄχθος ákhthos , δρέπανον drépanon, LSJ Attic ἀγκαλίς ankalís ’bundle’, or in pl. ἀγκάλαι ankálai ’arms’ (body parts), ἄγκαλος ánkalos ’armful, bundle’, ἀγκάλη ankálē ’the bent arm’ or ’anything closely enfolding’, as the arms of the sea, PIE *ank ’to bend’) ( ἀγκυλίς ankylis ’barb’ Oppianus.C.1.155.) • addai poles of a chariot or car,logs (Attic ῥυμοὶ rhumoi) (Aeolic usdoi ,Attic ozoi ,branches,twigs) PIE *H₂ó-sd-o- , branch • adē ’clear sky’ or ’the upper air’ (Hes. οὐρανός ouranós ’sky’, LSJ and Pokorny Attic αἰθήρ aithēr ’ether, the upper, purer air’, hence ’clear sky, heaven’) • adiskon potion,cocktail ( Attic kykeôn )

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The Pella curse tablet
The Pella curse tablet, a text written in a distinct Doric Greek idiom, found in 1986, dated to between mid to early 4th century BC, has been forwarded as an argument that the ancient Macedonian language was a dialect of North-Western Greek, part of the Doric dialects.[48] Before the discovery it was proposed that the Macedonian dialect was an early form of Greek, spoken alongside Doric proper at that time.[49]

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• adraia ’fine weather, open sky’ (Hes. Attic αἰθρία aithría, PIE *aidh-) • Aeropes tribe (wind-faced) (aero- +opsis(aerops opos, Boeotian name for the bird merops) • akontion spine or backbone,anything ridged like the backbone:ridge of a hill or mountain (Attic rhachis) (Attic akontion spear,javelin) (Aeolic akontion part of troops) • akrea girl ( Attic κόρη korê , Ionic kourê ,Doric/Aeolic kora ,Arcadian korwa , Laconian kyrsanis ( Ἀκρέα , epithet of Aphrodite in Cyprus,instead of Akraia , on the heights ). • akrounoi ’boundary stones’ nom. pl. (Hes. ὃροι hóroi, LSJ Attic ἄκρος ákros ’at the end or extremity’, from ἀκή akē ’point, edge’, PIE *ak ’summit, point’ or ’sharp’) • alíē ’boar or boarfish’ (Attic kapros) (PIE *ol-/*el"red, brown" (in animal and tree names)[51](Homeric ellos fawn , Attic elaphos deer ,alkê elk) • aliza (also alixa) ’White Poplar’ (Attic λεύκη leúkē , Thessalian alphinia, LSJ:ἄλυζα , aluza globularia alypum) (Pokorny Attic ἐλάτη elátē ’fir, spruce’, PIE *ol-, *el- , P.Gmc. and Span. aliso ’alder’) • axos ’timber’ (Hes. Attic ὓληhulê) (Cretan Doric ausos Attic alsos grove little forest. (PIE *os- ash tree(OE.æsc ash tree),(Greek.οξυά oxya,Albanian ah,beech),(Armenian. haci ash tree) • aortês, ’swordsman’ (Hes. ξιφιστής; Homer ἄορ áor ’sword’; Attic ἀορτήρ aortēr ’swordstrap’, modern Greek αορτήρ aortír ’riflestrap’; hence aorta) (According to Suidas: Many now say the knapsack ἀβερτὴ abertê instead of aortê . Both the object and the word [are] Macedonian. • Αrantides Erinyes ( in dative ἀράντισιν ἐρινύσι)(Arae[52] name for Erinyes,arasimos accursed , araomai invoke,curse,pray or rhantizô sprinkle,purify. • argella ’bathing hut’. Cimmerian ἄργιλλα or argila ’subterranean dwelling’ (Ephorus in Strb. 5.4.5) PIE *areg-; borrowed into Balkan Latin and gave Romanian argea (pl. argele), "wooden hut", dialectal (Banat) arghela "stud farm") ; cf. Sanskrit argalā ’latch, bolt’, Old English reced "building, house", Albanian argësh "harrow, crude bridge of crossbars, crude raft supported by skin bladders" • argiopous ’eagle’ (LSJ Attic ἀργίπους argípous ’swift- or white-footed’, PIE *hrg’i-pods < PIE *arg + PIE *ped) • Arētos epithet or alternative of Herakles (Ares-like) • arkon ’leisure, idleness’ (LSJ Attic ἀργός argós ’lazy, idle’ nom. sing., ἀργόν acc.) • arhphys (Attic ἱμάς himas strap,rope),(ἁρπεδών harpedôn cord, yarn; ἁρπεδόνα Rhodes, Lindos II 2.37). • aspilos ’torrent’ (Hes. χείμαῤῥος kheímarrhos, Attic ἄσπιλος áspilos ’without stain, spotless, pure’)

Ancient Macedonian language
• babrên lees of olive-oil ( LSJ: βάβρηκες babrêkes gums, or food in the teeth, βαβύας babuas mud ) • bathara pukliê (Macedonian), purlos (Athamanian) (unattested; maybe food, atharê porridge , pyros wheat) • birrhox dense,thick ( LSJ:βειρόν beiron ) • garka rod ( Attic charax ) ( EM: garkon axle-pin ) ( LSJ: garrha rod ) • gola or goda bowels,intestines ( Homeric cholades ) PIE: ghel-ond-, ghol-n•d- stomach; bowels[53] • gotan ’pig’ acc. sing. ( PIE *gwou- ’cattle’, ( Attic βοτόν botón ’ beast’, in plural βοτά botá ’grazing animals’ ) ( Laconian grôna sow female pig, and pl. grônades ) ( LSJ:goi , goi, to imitate the sound of pigs ) ( goitasheep or pig ) • gyllas kind of glass (gyalas a Megarian cup) • gôps pl. gopes macherel ( Attic koloios ) ( LSJ: skôps a fish ) (Modern Greek gopa bogue fish pl. gopes) • daitas caterer waiter ( Attic daitros • danos ’death’, (Hes. Attic thánatos θάνατος ’death’, from root θαν- than-) ,PIE *dhenh2- ’to leave, δανoτής danotês (disaster,pain) Sophocles Lacaenae fr.338[54] • danōn ’murderer’ (Attic θανών thanōn dead ,past participle) • darullos ’oak’ (Hes. Attic δρῦς drûs, PIE *doru-) • drêes or δρῆγες drêges small birds ( Attic strouthoi ) (Elean δειρήτης deirêtês , strouthos, Nicander.Fr.123.)( LSJ: διγῆρες digêres strouthoi , δρίξ drix strouthos) • dôrax spleen , splên (Attic θώραξ thôrax chest,corslet • epideipnis Macedonian dessert • Zeirênis epithet or alternative for Aphrodite (Seirênis Siren-like) • Êmathia ex-name of Macedonia,region of Emathia from mythological Emathus (Homeric amathos êmathoessa, river-sandy land , PIE *samadh[55]. Generally the coastal Lower Macedonia in contrast to mountainous Upper Macedonia.For meadow land (mē-2, m-e-t- to reap) ,see Pokorny[56]. • Thaulos epithet or alternative of Ares ( Θαύλια Thaulia ’festival in Doric Tarentum , θαυλίζειν thaulizein ’to celebrate like Dorians’ , Thessalian Ζεὺς Θαύλιος Zeus Thaulios, the only attested in epigraphy 10 times, Athenian Ζεὺς Θαύλων Zeus Thaulôn, Athenian family Θαυλωνίδαι Thaulônidai • Thourides Nymphs Muses (Homeric thouros rushing, impetuous. • izela wish, good luck (Attic agathêi tychêi) (Doric bale , abale,Arcadian zele ) ( Cretan delton agathon )[57] or Thracian zelas wine. • ílax ’the holm-oak, evergreen or scarlet oak’ (Hes. Attic πρῖνος prînos, Latin ilex) • in dea midday ( Attic endia , mesêmbria) (Arcadian also in instead of Attic en)

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• kancharmon having the lance up τὸ τὴν λόγχην ἄνω ἔχον (Hes. ἄγχαρμον ancharmon ἀνωφερῆ τὴν αἰχμήν <ἔχων> Ibyc? Stes?) having upwards the point of a spear) (κἄ , Crasis) kai and,together,simultaneously + anô up (anôchmon hortatory password) • karabos • Macedonian ’gate, door’ (Cf. karphos any small dry body,piece of wood (Hes. Attic ’meat roasted over coals’; Attic karabos ’stag-beetle’; ’crayfish’; ’light ship’; hence modern Greek καράβι karávi) • ’the worms in dry wood’ (Attic ’stag-beetle, horned beetle; crayfish’) • ’a sea creature’ (Attic ’crayfish, prickly crustacean; stag-beetle’) • karpaia Thessalo-Macedonian mimic military dance (see also Carpaea) Homeric karpalimos swift (for foot) eager,ravenous. • kí[k]erroi ’pale ones (?)’ (Hes. Attic ὦχροι ōkhroi, PIE *k̂ik̂er- ’pea’) (LSJ:kikeros land crocodile) • kommarai or komarai crawfishes (Attic karides)(LSJ:kammaros a kind of lobster, Epicharmus.60, Sophron.26, Rhinthon.18:-- also kammaris , idos Galen.6.735.) (komaris a fish Epicharmus.47.) • komboi ’molars’ (Attic γομφίοι gomphioi, dim. of γόμφος gomphos ’a large, wedge-shaped bolt or nail; any bond or fastening’, PIE *gombh-) • kynoupes or kynoutos bear (Hesychius kynoupeus, knoupeus ,knôpeus)(kunôpês dog-faced) (knôps beast esp. serpent instead of kinôpeton , blind acc. Zonar (from knephas dark)(if kynoutos (knôdês knôdalon beast) • lakedáma ὕδωρ ἁλμυρὸν ἄλικι ἐπικεχυμένον salty water withalix , rice-wheat or fishsauce.(Cf.skorodalmê ’sauce or pickle composed of brine and garlic’). According to Albrecht von Blumenthal,[42] -ama corresponds to Attic ἁλμυρός halmurós ’salty’; Cretan Doric hauma for Attic halmē; laked- is cognate to Proto-Germanic *lauka[58] leek ,possibly related is Λακεδαίμων Laked-aímōn, the name of the Spartan land. • leíbēthron ’stream’ (Hes. Attic ῥεῖθρον rheîthron, also λιβάδιον libádion, ’a small stream’, dim. of λιβάς libás; PIE *lei, ’to flow’); typical Greek productive suffix θρον (-thron) (Macedonian toponym , Pierian Leibethra place/tomb of Orpheus) • mattuês kind of bird ( ματτύη mattuê a meat-dessert of Macedonian or Thessalian origin) (verb mattuazo to prepare the mattue) (Athenaeus)[59] • paraos eagle or kind of eagle (Attic aetos , Pamphylian aibetos) (PIE *por- ’going, passage’ + *awi- ’bird’) (Greek para- ’beside’ + Hes. aos wind) (It may exist as food in Lopado...pterygon) • peripeteia or περίτια peritia Macedonian festival in month Peritios. (Hesychius text περί[πε]τ[ε]ια )

Ancient Macedonian language
• rhamata bunch of grapes (Ionic rhagmata,rhages Koine rhôgmata,rhôges , rhax rhôx) • rhouto this (neut.) (Attic τοῦτο touto) • tagonaga Macedonian institution,administration ( Thessalian ταγὸς tagos commander +ἄγωagô lead)

Other Sources
• aigipops eagle (EM 28.19) ( goat-eater aix ,aigos + pepsis digestion) (Cf.eagle chelônophagos turtleeater) • anakrotalizô lift up and strike together,applaud vehemently (Attic ἀνακροτέω anakroteô) Hippolochus’ letter. Athenaeus.4.129c ἀνεκροταλίσαμεν τὸν νυμφίον[60] we applauded the bridegroom • argyraspides (wiki Argyraspides) chrysaspides and chalkaspides (golden and bronze-shielded) • asthetairoi (wiki Asthetairoi) (ast- of the towns,of quality) • asthippoi elite cavalry • bazô speak, say ( Attic in poetic use only ) (Cf. phaskô phô) Eustathius citing Heracleides Od. pp.375–376,1654,19-20 (Poetic baxis oracular saying , voice) • buktas wind (EM 179,3 by Didymus s.v. Aphrodite) ,comparing phusaô blow) (Attic anemos wind) (Homeric βύκτης buktês swelling, blustering, for wind , buktaôn anemôn Od.10.20 ) (buktês hurricane, Lycophron.738,756) • dramis a Macedonian bread (Thessalian bread daratos)(Athamanian bread dramix.(Athenaeus)[61]. • kausia felt hat used by Macedonians, forming part of the regalia of the kings. • kissybion wooden cup Marsyas(Aeolic kissybion skyphos) Athenaeus XI 477a • klinótrokhon, according to Theophrastus a sort of maple in Stageira, Pokorny Attic γλεῖνον gleînon), LSJ: γλῖνος glînos or γλεῖνος gleînos, Cretan maple, Acer creticum’, Thphr.HP3.3.1, 3.11.2. • koios number (Athenaeus[62] when talking about Koios, the Titan of intelligence; and the Macedonians use koios as synonymous with arithmos (LSJ: koeô mark, perceive, hear koiazô pledge , Hes. compose s.v. κοίασον , σύνθες) (Laocoön, thyoskoos observer of sacrifices, akouô hear) (All from PIE root *keu[63] to notice, observe, feel; to hear. • korinaios bastard (Attic nothos ,skotios) Marsyas.24J.(κύρνος kyrnos by Photius) (Laconian parthenios) • pezetairoi (wiki Pezhetairoi) (Attic πεζοί,πεζομάχοι) (Aeolic πέσδοι) • Púdna,Pydna toponym (Pokorny[64] Attic πυθμήν puthmēn ’bottom, sole, base of a vessel’; PIE *bhudhnā; Attic πύνδαξ pýndax ’bottom of vessel’) (Cretan,Pytna[65]Hierapytna,Sacred Pytna[66].

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
• sigynos spear ( Cypriotic sigynon ) ( Illyrian sibyne ) ( Origin : Illyrian acc. to Fest.p.453 L., citing Ennius) ( Cyprian acc. to Herodotus and Aristotle[67] Il. cc., Scythian acc. to Sch.Par.A.R.4.320 (cf. 111) • sphuraina, hammer-fish sphyraena (Strattis,Makedones (fr. 28)[44] -(Attic.κέστρα,kestra) (cestra, needle-fish (modern Greek fish σφυρίδα,sfyrida) • uetês of the same year Marsyas ( Attic autoetês , Poetic oietês ) • charôn lion (Attic/Poetic fierce, for lion,eagle instead of charopos , charops bright-eyed) (Charon (mythology))

Ancient Macedonian language
Greek dialect. His language contains expressions such as ὕμμες ὡττικοί for ὑμείς αττικοί "you Athenians", ὕμμες being also attested in Homer, Sappho (Lesbian) and Theocritus (Doric), while ὡττικοί appears only in "funny country bumpkin" contexts of Attic comedy.[69] Another text that has been quoted as evidence is a passage from Livy (lived 59 BC-14 AD) in his Ab urbe condita (31.29). Describing political negotiations between Macedonians and Aetolians in the late 3rd century BC, Livy has a Macedonian ambassador argue that Aetolians, Acarnanians and Macedonians were "men of the same language".[70] This has been interpreted as referring to a shared North-West Greek speech (as opposed to Attic Koiné).[71] Quintus Curtius Rufus, Philotas’s trial[72]. Over time, "Macedonian" (μακεδονικός), when referring to language (and related expressions such as μακεδονίζειν; to speak in the Macedonian fashion) acquired the meaning of Koine Greek.[73]

Proposed
A number of Hesychius words are listed orphan; some of them have been proposed as Macedonian[68] • agerda wild pear-tree ( Attic ἄχερδος acherdos. • adalos charcoal dust (Attic αἴθαλος aithalos , ἄσβολος asbolos) • addee imp. hurry up ἐπείγου ( Attic thee of theô run ) • adis ’hearth’ (Hes. ἐσχάρα eskhára, LSJ Attic αἶθος aîthos ’fire, burning heat’) • aidôssa ( Attic aithousa portico, corridor ,verandah, a loggia leading from aulê yard to prodomos) • baskioi ’fasces’ (Hes. Attic δεσμοὶ φρῡγάνων desmoì phrūgánōn, Pokorny βασκευταί baskeutaí, Attic φασκίδες phaskídes, Attic φάσκωλος pháskōlos ’leather sack’, PIE *bhasko-) • bix sphinx (Boeotian phix) , (Attic sphinx) • dalancha sea (Attic thalatta) (Ionic thalassa) • dedalai package, bundle (Attic dethla, desmai) • eskorodos tenon ( Attic tormos σκόρθος skorthos tornos slice,lathe) • Eudalagines Graces Χάριτες (Attic Εὐθαλγῖνες Euthalgines) • kanadoi ’jaws’ nom. pl. (Attic γνάθοι gnathoi, PIE *genu, ’jaw’) (Laconian καναδόκα kanadoka notch (V) of an arrow χηλὴ ὀϊστοῦ) • laiba shield ( Doric λαία laia , λαῖφα laipha ) ( Attic aspis ) • lalabis storm (Attic lailaps) • homodalion isoetes plant (θάλλω thallô bloom) • rhoubotos potion ( Attic rhophema ) rhopheo suck,absorb rhoibdeô suck with noise.

Contributions to the Koine
Despite the Macedonians’ important role in the formation of the Koine, Macedonian itself contributed few elements to the dialect, such as military terminology (διμοιριτης, ταξιαρχος, υπασπισται etc.) and, possibly, the suffix "-issa" which became productive in Medieval Greek.

See also
• • • • • • • • • Ancient Greek Ancient Greek dialects Proto-Greek language Amerias Alexarchus Macedon Ancient Greece Phrygian language Thracian language

Notes
1. ^ The Oxford English Dictionary (1989), Macedonian, Simpson J. A. & Weiner E. S. C. (eds), Oxford: Oxford University Press, Vol. IX, ISBN 0-19-861186-2 (set) ISBN 0-19-861221-4 (vol. IX) p. 153 2. ^ Webster’s Third New International Dictionary of the English Language Unabridged (1976), Macedonian, USA:Merriam-Webster, G. & C. Merriam Co., vol. II (H - R) ISBN 0-87779-101-5

Macedonian in Classical sources
Among the references that have been discussed as possibly bearing some witness to the linguistic situation in Macedonia, there is a sentence from a fragmentary dialogue, apparently between an Athenian and a Macedonian, in an extant fragment of the 5th century BC comedy ’Macedonians’ by the Athenian poet Strattis (fr. 28), where a stranger is portrayed as speaking in a rural

References
[1] In the Shadow of Olympus: The Emergence of Macedon - Eugene N. Borza, p.94 (citing

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Hammond); G. Horrocks, Greek: A History of the Language and its Speakers (1993), ch.4.1. [2] ^ B. Joseph (2001): "Ancient Greek". In: J. Garry et al. (eds.) Facts about the world’s major languages: an encyclopedia of the world’s major languages, past and present. Online paper [3] Mallory, J.P. (1997). Mallory, J.P. and Adams, D.Q. (eds.). ed. Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture. ChicagoLondon: Fitzroy Dearborn. pp. p. 361. ISBN 1-884964-98-2. [4] A. Meillet [1913] 1965, Apeçu d’une histoire de la langue grecque, 7th ed., Paris, p. 61. I. Russu 1938, in Ephemeris Dacoromana 8, 105-232. Quoted after Brixhe/Panayotou 1994: 209. [5] ^ Masson, Olivier (2003) [1996]. "[Ancient] Macedonian language". in Hornblower, S. and Spawforth A. (eds.). The Oxford Classical Dictionary (revised 3rd ed. ed.). USA: Oxford University Press. pp. pp. 905-906. ISBN 0-19-860641-9. [6] Hammond, N.G.L (1993) [1989]. The Macedonian State. Origins, Institutions and History (reprint ed. ed.). USA: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-814927-1. [7] Ahrens, F. H. L. (1843), De Graecae linguae dialectis, Göttingen, 1839-1843 ; Hoffmann, O. Die Makedonen. Ihre Sprache und ihr Volkstum, Göttingen, 1906. [8] The Linguist List is classifying ancient Macedonian with Greek (all known ancient and modern dialects) under a Hellenic supertree. [9] Exceptions to the rule: [1] arhphys Macedonian (Attic ἁρπεδών harpedôn cord, yarn) [2] bagaron (Attic χλιαρόν chliaron ’warm’) (Cf. Attic phôgô ’roast’) (Laconian) [3] bônêma speech (Homeric,Ionic eirêma eireo) (Cf.Attic phônêma sound , speech) (Laconian) [4] keblê Callimachus Fr.140 Macedonian κεβ(α)λή keb(a)lē versus Attic κεφαλή kephalē (’head’) [5] keblēpyris (’red-cap bird’) , (Aristophanes Birds) [6] keblêgonos born from the head, Euphorion 108 for Athena , with its seed in its head Nicander Alexipharmaca 433. [7] pechari deer (Laconian berkios) Amerias [8] Hyperberetos Cretan month June , Macedonian September Hyperberetaios (Hellenic Calendars)(Attic hyperpheretês supreme,hyperpherô transfer,excel [10] Greek Questions 292e - Question 9 - Why do Delphians call one of their months Bysios[1]. [11] Albrecht von Blumenthal, Hesychstudien, Stuttgart, 1930, 21. [12] Olivier Masson, "Sur la notation occasionnelle du digamma grec par d’autres consonnes et la glose macédonienne abroutes", Bulletin de la Société de linguistique de Paris, 90 (1995) 231-239. Also proposed by O. Hoffmann and J. Kalleris.

Ancient Macedonian language
[13] A history of ancient Greek: from the beginnings to late antiquity, Maria Chritē, Maria Arapopoulou, Cambridge University Press (2007), p. 439-441 [14] Greek Personal Names: Their Value as Evidence, Elaine Matthews, Simon Hornblower, Peter Marshall Fraser, British Academy, Oxford University Press (2000), p. 103 [15] A history of ancient Greek: from the beginnings to late antiquity, Maria Chritē, Maria Arapopoulou, Cambridge University Press (2007), p. 439-441 [16] Epigraphical Database: SEG 42:624,1 [17] Epigraphical Database: SEG 50:636 [18] Epigraphical Database: SEG 24:622 [19] Epigraphical Database: SEG 46:801 [20] Epigraphical Database: SEG 48:847 [21] Thucydides and Pindar: Historical Narrative and the World of Epinikian Poetry [2] by Simon Hornblower [22] Athens,bottom-IG I³ 89 -- Kalindoia-Meletemata 11 K31 -- Pydna-SEG 52:617,I (6) till SEG 52:617,VI Mygdonia-SEG 49:750 [23] Greek Personal Names: Their Value as Evidence [3] by Simon Hornblower, Elaine Matthews [24] Google [4] -http://epigraphy.packhum.org Βερενικ- Athens:190 Egypt:155 Northern Greece:5 Syria: 1 [25] Bila Brateadou[5] [26] Phylomaga [6] [27] Beroia — ca. 150-100 BC Laomaga[7] - Pydna early 2nd c. BC Lamaga[8] [28] Amphipolis SEG 49:855 B (2.8.)[9] -- Kassandreia SEG 49:722 (17.20.)[10] cf. Polybius, Histories, 5.65.2 [29] A Thessalonian in Thasos Aliki — ca. 2nd c.AD[11] [30] Skydra Epigraphical Database [31] Smith, Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology > v. 1, page 83[12] [32] The Learned Banqueters III.106e-V III.106e-V [33] Delos[13]-Cyprus [14]-Alexandria[15] [34] Lete— ca. 350-300 BC[16] -- Amphipolis late 3rd/ early 2nd c. BC B, 26 -- Amphipolis — ca. 300-275 BCAntigonos of Kallas [35] Amphipolis Epigraphical Database frg B.col I,2 [36] Beroia Kynagidas Epigraphical Database [37] Thessalian νεβεύσασα[17] [38] Lete ca. 150 BC[18] [39] William Nickerson Bates, American Journal of Archaeology, Vol. 34, pp. 44-46 [40] late 3rd/early 2nd c. BC Amphipolis SEG 49:855 (A.11.17.23.27)[19] -- Kassandreia SEG 49:722 (12.37.50.54)[20] [41] Amphipolis Epigraphical Database frg B.col I,3 [42] ^ Blumenthal, Hesychstudien, Stuttgart, 1930. [43] Elimeia,skoidou [21] [22] -- Skoidia Roman-era Naxian fem.name hapax[23] [44] Online Etymology Dictionary

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
[45] Beroia and a Thessalonian in Philippopolis — 2nd/ 3rd century AD[24]-[25] [46] line 4 Mygdonia — ca. 357-350 BC Meletemata 22, Epig. App. 4[26] -- Mt. Cholomon — 294-287 BC SEG 46:738 [27] [47] Eordea ~180 BC [28],12 Amphipolis-SEG 49:855 B,6 Meletemata 22, Epig. App. 12 ,col II 3,8[29])(Kassandreia-SEG 49:722 ,18) [48] O. Masson (1996). [49] Rhomiopoulou (1980). [50] Les anciens Macedoniens. Etude linguistique et historique by J. N. Kalleris [51] Online Etymology Dictionary [52] ARAE : Greek goddesses or spirits of curses ; mythology : ARAI [53] Pokorny[30] [54] Poetae scenici graeci, accedunt perditarum fabularum fragmenta[31] [55] Pokorny Query madh[32] [56] Pokorny’s dictionary [33] [57] (Izela) Die Makedonen, Ihre Sprache und Ihr Volkstum[34] by Otto Hoffmann [58] Online Etymology Dictionary [59] Deipnosophists 14.663-4 (pp.1059-1062) [35] [60] Alexandre le Grand dans Athénée de Naucratis (livre IV)[36] [61] Athenaeus Deipnosophists 3.114b. [62] Deipnosophists 10.455e. [63] Pokorny[37],Gerhard Köbler[38] [64] Pokorny,Pudna[39] [65] Zeitschrift der Deutschen morgenländischen Gesellschaft[40] [66] The Dorians in Archaeology by Theodore Cressy Skeat[41] [67] Poetics (Aristotle)-XXI [42] [68] Otto Hoffmann ,Page 270 (bottom)[43] [69] Steven Colvin, Dialect in Aristophanes and the politics of language in Ancient Greek, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999. 279. [70] Livy 31.29.15 (in Latin). [71] A. Panayotou: The position of the Macedonian dialect. In: Maria Arapopoulou, Maria Chritē, Anastasios-Phoivos Christides (eds.), A History of Ancient Greek: From the Beginnings to Late Antiquity, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 2007. 433-458 (Google Books).

Ancient Macedonian language
[72] E. Kapetanopoulos, "Alexander’s patrius sermo in the Philotas affair", The ancient world 30 (1999) 117-128. PdforHtm [73] C. Brixhe, A. Panayotou, 1994, «Le Macédonien» in Langues indo-européennes, p. 208

Further reading
• Brixhe C., Panayotou A. (1994) Le Macédonien in Bader, F. (ed.) Langues indo-européennes, Paris:CNRS éditions, 1994, pp 205–220. ISBN 227105043-X • Chadwick, J. The Prehistory of the Greek Language. Cambridge, 1963. • Crossland, R. A., "The Language of the Macedonians", CAH III.1, Cambridge 1982 • Hammond, Nicholas G.L. "Literary Evidence for Macedonian Speech", Historia: Zeitschrift für Alte Geschichte, Vol. 43, No. 2. (1994), pp. 131–142. • Hatzopoulos, M. B. Le Macedonien Nouvelles Donnees et Theories Nouvelles in Ancient Macedonia, Sixth International Symposium, Volume 1, Institute for Balkan Studies (1999) • Kalleris, Jean. Les Anciens Macédoniens, étude linguistique et historique. Institut Francais d’Athénes, 1988 • Katičić, Radoslav. Ancient Languages of the Balkans. The Hague; Paris: Mouton, 1976. • Neroznak, V. Paleo-Balkan languages. Moscow, 1978. • Rhomiopoulou, Katerina. An Outline of Macedonian History and Art. Greek Ministry of Culture and Science, 1980. • Die Makedonen: Ihre Sprache und ihr Volkstum by Otto Hoffmann

External links
• The Linguist List: Family tree of Hellenic languages • Jona Lendering, Ancient Macedonia web page on livius.org • Greek Inscriptions from ancient Macedonia (Epigraphical Database) • Heinrich Tischner on Hesychius’ words • www.sil.org: ISO639-3, entry for Ancient Macedonian (XMK)

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