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North Sea

North Sea
North Sea Min temperature References 6 °C (43 °F) safety at sea and [1]

Location Coordinates

Atlantic Ocean 56°N 3°E / 56°N 03°E / 56; 03 (North Sea)Coordinates: 56°N 3°E / 56°N 03°E / 56; 03 (North Sea) Forth, Ythan, Elbe, Weser, Ems, Rhine/Waal, Meuse, Scheldt, Spey, Tay, Thames, Humber, Tees, Wear, Tyne Norway, Denmark, Germany, Netherlands, Belgium, France and the United Kingdom (England, Scotland) 960 km (600 mi) 580 km (360 mi) 750,000 km2 (290,000 sq mi) 95 m (310 ft) 700 m (2,300 ft) 94,000 km3 (23,000 cu mi) 3.4 to 3.5 % 17 °C (63 °F)

Primary sources Basin countries Max length Max width Surface area Average depth Max depth Water volume Salinity Max temperature

The North Sea is a marginal, epeiric sea on the European continental shelf. The Dover Strait and the English Channel in the south and the Norwegian Sea in the north connect it to the Atlantic Ocean. It is more than 970 kilometres (600 mi) long and 580 kilometres (360 mi) wide, with an area of around 750,000 square kilometres (290,000 sq mi). A large part of the European drainage basin empties into the North Sea including water from the Baltic Sea. Much of the sea’s coastal features are the result of glacial movements. Deep fjords and sheer cliffs mark the Norwegian and parts of the Scottish coastline, whereas the southern coasts consist of sandy beaches and mudflats. These flatter areas are particularly susceptible to flooding, especially as a result of storm tides. Elaborate systems of dikes have been constructed to protect coastal areas. The development of European civilisation has been heavily affected by the maritime traffic on the North Sea. The Romans and the Vikings sought to extend their territory across the sea. The Hanseatic League, the Netherlands, and finally the British sought to dominate commerce on the North Sea and through it to access the markets and resources of the world. Commercial enterprises, growing populations, and limited resources gave the nations on the North Sea the desire to control or access it for their own commercial, military, and colonial ends. In recent decades, its importance has shifted from the military and geopolitical to the purely economic. While traditional activities such as fishing and shipping have continued to grow, newer resources such as fossil fuels and wind and wave energy have also been discovered or developed.

Geography
The North Sea is bounded by the Orkney Islands and east coasts of England and Scotland to the west[1] and the northern and central European mainland to the east and south, including Norway, Denmark, Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium, and France.[2] In the south-west, beyond the Straits of Dover, the North Sea becomes the English Channel connecting to the Atlantic Ocean.[1][2] In the east, it connects to the Baltic Sea via the Skagerrak

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Sk=Skagerrak Ka=Kattegat Eng Ch=English Channel

North Sea

North Sea Norwegian Sea Sk Ka Eng Ch

and Kattegat,[2] narrow straits that separate Denmark from Norway and Sweden respectively.[1] In the north it is bordered by the Shetland Islands, and connects with the Norwegian Sea, which lies in the very north-eastern part of the Atlantic.[1][3] It is more than 970 kilometres (600 mi) long and 580 kilometres (360 mi) wide, with an area of 750,000 square kilometres (290,000 sq mi).[4] and a volume of 94,000 cubic kilometres (23,000 cu mi).[5] Around the edges of the North Sea are sizeable islands and archipelagos, including Shetland, Orkney, and the Frisian Islands.[2] The North Sea receives freshwater from a number of European continental watersheds, as well as the British Isles island watersheds. A large part of the European drainage basin empties into the North Sea including water from the Baltic Sea. The largest and most important affecting the North Sea are the Elbe river and the Rhine - Meuse watershed. The Elbe watershed drains an area of 149,000 square kilometres (58,000 sq mi) which includes 18 cities and their effluence. The Rhine-Meuse delta receives water discharge from a land area of 199,000 square kilometres (77,000 sq mi), including its 68 cities.[6][7] Around 184 million people live in the catchment area of the rivers that flow into the North Sea. This area contains dense concentrations of industry.[8]

Major features
For the most part, the sea lies on the European continental shelf with a mean depth of 90 metres (300 ft).[1][9] The only exception is the Norwegian trench which extends parallel to the Norwegian shoreline from Oslo to an area north of Bergen.[1] It is between 20 and 30 kilometres (12 and 19 mi) wide[1] and has a maximum depth of 725 metres (2,380 ft).[9] The Dogger Bank, a vast moraine, or accumulation of unconsolidated glacial debris, rises 15 to 30 metres (50–100 ft) below the surface of the sea.[10][11] This feature has produced the finest fishing location of the North Sea.[1] The Silver Pit is a hollow or valley-like depression that has been recognised since about 1843 by fishermen.[12][13] Nearby is the Silverpit crater, a controversial structure initially proposed to be an impact crater, though another interpretation is that it may result from the dissolution of a thick bed of salt which permitted the upper strata to collapse.[14] Devil’s Hole is a group of trenches, around 120 metres (390 ft) deeper than the surrounding sea floor, about 200 kilometres (120 mi) east of Dundee, Scotland.[15] The Long Forties and the Broad Fourteens are areas which refer to the depth in fathoms, (forty fathoms and fourteen fathoms or 73 and 26 m deep respectively).

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These great banks and others make the North Sea particularly hazardous to navigate,[16] which has been alleviated by the implementation of satellite navigation systems.[17]

North Sea
deep water currents may move in different directions. Low salinity surface coastal waters move offshore, and deeper, denser high salinity waters move in shore.[22] The North Sea located on the continental shelf has different waves than those in deep ocean water. The wave speeds are diminished and the wave amplitudes are increased. In the North Sea there are two amphidromic systems and a third incomplete amphidromic system.[23][24] At an amphidromic point the rise and fall of tidal waves is zero due to cancelling of tidal waves, and the semidiurnal high and low tides rotate around these points twice in a tidal day.[25][26]
[27]

Hydrology
Temperature and salinity
The average temperature in summer is 17 °C (63 °F) and 6 °C (43 °F) in the winter.[5] Climate change has been attributed to a rise in the average temperature of the North Sea.[4][18] Air temperatures in January range on average between 0 to 4 °C (32 to 40 °F) and in July between 13 to 18 °C (55 to 64 °F). The winter months see frequent gales and storms.[1] The salinity averages between 34 to 35 grams of salt per litre of water.[5] The salinity has the highest variability where there is fresh water inflow, such as at the Rhine and Elbe estuaries, the Baltic Sea exit and along the coast of Norway.[19]

Water circulation and tides
The main pattern to the flow of water in the North Sea is an anti-clockwise rotation along the edges.[20]

Tidal currents through the Strait of Dover As a result, the tidal range in southern Norway is less than half a metre (1.5 ft), but increases the further any given coast lies from the amphidromic point.[28] Shallow coasts and the funnel effect of narrow straits increase the tidal range.[25] The tidal range is at its greatest at The Wash on the English coast, where it reaches 6.5 metres (21 ft).[29][30] In the North Sea the average tide difference in wave amplitude is between 0 to 8 metres (0 to 26 ft).[5] The Kelvin tide of the Atlantic ocean is a semidiurnal wave which travels northward. Some of the energy from this wave travels through the English Channel into the North Sea. The wave still travels northward in the Atlantic Ocean, and once past the British Isles, the Kelvin wave turns east and south and once again enters into the North Sea.[25]

Ocean currents mainly entering via the north entrance exiting along Norwegian coast. The North Sea is an arm of the Atlantic Ocean receiving the majority of ocean current from the northwest opening, and a lesser portion of warm current from the smaller opening at the English Channel. These tidal currents leave along the Norwegian coast.[21] Surface and

Coasts
The eastern and western coasts of the North Sea are jagged, as they were stripped by glaciers during the ice ages. The coastlines along the southernmost part are

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North Sea
vulnerable to storm tides, people settled behind elevated levees and on natural areas of high ground such as spits and Geestland.[36]:[302,303] As early as 500 BC, people were constructing artificial dwelling hills higher than the prevailing flood levels.[36]:[306,308][37] It was only around the beginning of the High Middle Ages, in 1200 AD, that inhabitants began to connect single ring dikes into a dike line along the entire coast, thereby turning amphibious regions between the land and the sea into permanent solid ground.[36] The modern form of the dikes supplemented by overflow and lateral diversion channels, began to appear in the 17th and 18th centuries, built in the Netherlands.[38] The North Sea Floods of 1953 and 1962 were impetus for further raising of the dikes as well as the shortening of the coast line so as to present as little surface area as possible to the punishment of the sea and the storms.[39] Currently, 27% of the Netherlands is below sea level protected by dikes, dunes, and beach flats.[40]

The German North Sea coast soft, covered with the remains of deposited glacial sediment, which was left directly by the ice or has been redeposited by the sea.[1] The Norwegian mountains plunge into the sea, giving birth, north of Stavanger, to deep fjords and archipelagos. South of Stavanger, the coast softens, the islands become fewer.[1] The eastern Scottish coast is similar, though less severe than Norway. Starting from Flamborough Head in the north east of England, the cliffs become lower and are composed of less resistant moraine, which erodes more easily, so that the coasts have more rounded contours.[31][32] In Holland, Belgium and in the east of England (East Anglia) the littoral is low and marshy.[1] The east coast and south-east of the North Sea (Wadden Sea) have coastlines that are mainly sandy and straight owing to longshore currents, particularly along Belgium and Denmark.[33][34][35]

Coastal management
For more details on this topic, see Afsluitdijk, Delta Works, Flood control in the Netherlands, Thames barrier, and Zuiderzee Works.

Oosterscheldekering, North Sea Protection Works or Delta Works. Coastal management today consists of several levels.[41] The dike slope reduces the energy of the incoming sea, so that the dike itself does not receive the full impact.[41] Dikes that lie directly on the sea are especially reinforced.[41] The dikes have, over the years, been repeatedly raised, sometimes up to 9 metres (30 ft) and have become flatter in order to better reduce the erosion of the waves.[42][43] Where the dunes are sufficient to protect the land behind them from the sea, these dunes are planted with beach grass to protect them from erosion by wind, water, and foot traffic.[44]

Storm tides
The Afsluitdijk (Closure-dike) is a major dam in the Netherlands. The southern coastal areas were originally amphibious flood plains and swampy land. In areas especially Storm tides threaten, in particular, the coasts of the Netherlands, Belgium, Germany, and Denmark.[35] Storm surges are caused by changes in barometric pressure combined with strong wind created wave action.[45] The first recorded storm tide flood was the

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North Sea

Tsunamis
The Storegga Slides were a series of underwater landslides, in which a piece of the Norwegian continental shelf slid into the Norwegian Sea. The immense landslips occurred between 8150 BC and 6000 BC, and caused a tsunami up to 20 metres (66 ft) high that swept through the North Sea, having the greatest effect on Scotland and the Faeroe Islands.[56][57] The Dover Straits earthquake of 1580 is among the first recorded earthquakes in the North Sea measuring between 5.3 and 5.9 on the Richter Scale. This event caused extensive damage in Calais both through its tremors and two tsunamis[58] The largest earthquake ever recorded in the United Kingdom was the 1931 Dogger Bank earthquake, which measured 6.1 on the Richter Scale and caused a tsunami that flooded parts of the British coast.[58][59]

Zuid-Beveland, North Sea flood of 1953 Julianenflut, on 17 February 1164.[46] In its wake the Jadebusen, (a bay on the coast of Germany), began to form.[47]

Geology
Shallow epicontinental seas like the current North Sea have since long existed on the European continental shelf. The rifting that formed the northern part of the Atlantic Ocean during the Jurassic and Cretaceous periods, from about 150 million years ago, caused tectonic uplift in the British Isles.[60] Since then, a shallow sea has almost continuously existed between the highs of the Fennoscandian Shield and the British Isles.[61] This precursor of the current North Sea has grown and shrunk with the rise and fall of the eustatic sea level during geologic time. Sometimes it was connected with other shallow seas, such as the sea above the Paris Basin to the south-west, the Paratethys Sea to the south-east, or the Tethys Ocean to the south.[62] During the Late Cretaceous, about 85 million years ago, all of modern mainland Europe except for Scandinavia was a scattering of islands.[63] By the Early Oligocene, 34 to 28 million years ago, the emergence of Western and Central Europe had almost completely separated the North Sea from the Tethys Ocean, which gradually shrank to become the Mediterranean Sea as Southern Europe and South West Asia became dry land.[64] The North Sea was cut off from the English Channel by a narrow land bridge until that was breached by at least two catastrophic floods between 450,000 and 180,000 years ago.[65][66] Since the start of the Quarternary period about 2.6 million years ago, the eustatic sea level has fallen during each glacial period and then risen again. Every time the ice sheet reached its greatest extent, the North Sea became almost completely dry. The present-day North Sea coastline formed when, after the Last Glacial Maximum (the peak of the glaciation during the last ice age) 20,000 years ago, the sea began to flood the European continental shelf.[67] The North Sea coastline still undergoes changes following changes in the worldwide sea level, tectonic movements, storm surges,

North Sea flood of 1962 in Wilhelmsburg A storm tide in 1228 is recorded to have killed more than 100,000 people.[48] In 1362, the Second Marcellus Flood, also known as the Grote Manndränke, hit the entire southern coast of the North Sea. Chronicles of the time again record more than 100,000 deaths as large parts of the coast were lost permanently to the sea, including the now legendary lost city of Rungholt.[49] The coastline of the North Sea changed again following the flood of 1825; the Jutland Peninsula is now called the North Jutlandic Island.[50][51] In the twentieth century, the North Sea flood of 1953 flooded several nations’ coasts and cost more than 2,000 lives.[52] 315 citizens of Hamburg died in the North Sea flood of 1962.[53][54]:[79,86] The "Century Flood" of 1976 and the "North Frisian Flood" of 1981 brought the highest water levels measured to date on the North Sea coast, but because of sea defences such as improved warning systems and dikes built and modified after the flood of 1962, these led only to property damage.[54][55]

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North Sea
Copepods and other zooplankton are plentiful in the North Sea. These tiny organisms are crucial elements of the food chain supporting many species of fish.[68] Over 230 species of fish live in the North Sea. Cod, haddock, whiting, saithe, plaice, sole, mackerel, herring, pouting, sprat, and sandeel are all very common and are those which are fished commercially.[68][69] Due to the various depths of the North Sea trenches and differences in salinity, temperature, and water movement, some fish such as blue-mouth redfish and rabbitfish reside only in small areas of the North Sea.[70] Crustaceans are also commonly found throughout the sea. Norway lobster, deep-water prawns, and brown shrimp are all commercially fished, but other species of lobster, shrimp, oyster, mussels and clams all live in the North Sea.[68] Recently non-indigenous species have become established including the Pacific oyster and Atlantic jackknife clam.[69]

Birds
The coasts of the North Sea are home to nature reserves including the Ythan Estuary, Fowlsheugh Nature Preserve, and Farne Islands in the UK and The Wadden Sea National Parks in Germany.[68] These locations provide breeding habitat for dozens of bird species. Tens of millions of birds make use of the North Sea for breeding, feeding, or migratory stopovers every year. Populations of Black legged Kittiwakes, Atlantic Puffins, Northern fulmars, and species of petrels, gannets, seaducks, loons (divers), cormorants, gulls, auks, and terns, and many other seabirds make these coasts popular for birdwatching.[68][69]

The North Sea between 34 million years ago and 28 million years ago, as Central Europe became dry land erosion, the rise and fall of sea levels, shingle drifts as well as the deposition of sands and clastics in paralic environments.[31][62]

Natural history
Fish and shellfish

Marine mammals

A female bottlenose dolphin with her young in Moray Firth, Scotland The North Sea is also home to marine mammals. Common seals, and Harbour porpoises can be found along the coasts, at marine installations, and on islands. The very northern North Sea islands like the Shetlands are occasionally home to a larger variety of pinnipeds including bearded, harp, hooded and ringed seals, and

Pacific oysters, blue mussels and cockles in the Wadden Sea in the Netherlands.

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even walrus.[71] North Sea cetaceans include Harbour porpoises, common dolphins, bottlenose dolphins, Risso’s dolphins, long-finned pilot whales and whitebeaked dolphins, minke whales, killer whales, and sperm whales.[69][72]

North Sea
on wildlife in the North Sea, preserve endangered species, and provide environmental protection. [86][87] All North Sea border states are signatories of the MARPOL 73/78 Accords which preserves the marine environment by preventing pollution from ships.[88][89] Germany, Denmark, and the Netherlands also have a trilateral agreement for the protection of the Wadden Sea, or mudflats, which run along the coasts of the three countries on the southern edge of the North Sea.[90]

Flora
Plant species in the North Sea include species of wrack, among them bladder wrack, knotted wrack, and serrated wrack. Algae, macroalgal, and kelp, such as oarweed and laminaria hyperboria, and species of maerl are found as well.[69] Sea-mat encrusts seaweeds, particularly kelps and is found in the North Sea.[73][74][75] Nori, (P. umbilicalis) is found along the coast of the North Sea and is a widely marketed edible seaweed.[76] Eelgrass, formerly common in the entirety of the Wadden Sea, was nearly wiped out in the 20th century by a disease.[77] Similarly, sea grass used to coat huge tracts of ocean floor, but have been damaged by trawling and dredging have diminished its habitat and prevented its return.[78] Invasive Japanese seaweed has spread along the shores of the sea clogging harbours and inlets and has become a nuisance.[79]

History
Name
One of the earliest recorded names was Septentrionalis Oceanus, or "Northern Ocean" which was cited by Pliny.[91] However, the Celts who lived along its coast referred to it as the Morimaru, the "dead sea", which was also taken up by the Germanic peoples, giving Morimarusa.[92] This name refers to the "dead water" patches resulting from a layer of fresh water sitting on top of a layer of salt water making it quite still.[93] Names referring to the same phenomenon lasted into the Middle Ages, e.g., Old High German mere giliberōt and Middle Dutch lebermer or libersee.

Biodiversity and conservation
Flamingos, pelicans, and Great Auk were once found along the southern shores of the North Sea, but went extinct over the 2nd millennium.[80] Gray whale also resided in the North Sea but were driven to extinction in the Atlantic in the 1600s[81] Other species have seen dramatic declines in population, though they are still to be found; right whales, sturgeon, shad, rays, skates and salmon among other species were common in the North Sea into the 20th century, when numbers declined due to overfishing.[82][83][84][85] Other factors like the introduction of non-indigenous species, industrial and agricultural pollution, trawling and dredging, human-induced eutrophication, construction on coastal breeding and feeding grounds, sand and gravel extraction, offshore construction, and heavy shipping traffic have also contributed to the decline. [69]

A 1490 recreation of a map from Ptolomy’s Geography showing the "Oceanus Germanicus" Other common names in use for long periods were the Latin terms Mare Frisicum[94], Oceanum- or Mare Germanicum[95] as well as their English equivalents, "Frisian Sea"[96], "German Ocean"[97], "German Sea"[98] and "Germanic Sea" (from the Latin Mare Germanicum).[99][100]

Early history
The North Sea has provided waterway access for commerce and conquest. Many areas have access to the North Sea with its long coastline and European rivers which empty into it.[1] The first records of marine traffic on the North Sea come from the Roman Empire in 12 BC.[101] The British Isles had been protected from invasion by the North Sea waters.[1] Great Britain was

The underside and mouth of a sturgeon The OSPAR commission manages the OSPAR convention to counteract the harmful effects of human activity

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formally invaded in 43 AD and its southern areas incorporated into the Empire, establishing organised ports, an increase in shipping and the beginnings of sustained trade.[102] The Romans abandoned Britain in 410.[103] and in the power vacuum they left, the Germanic Angles, Saxons, and Jutes began the next great migration across the North Sea during the Migration Period invading England.[104][105] The Viking Age began in 793 with the attack on Lindisfarne and for the next quarter-millennium the Vikings ruled the North Sea. In their superior longships, they raided, traded, and established colonies and outposts on the Sea’s coasts. From the Middle Ages through the 15th century, the north European coastal ports exported domestic goods, dyes, linen, salt, metal goods and wine. The Scandinavian and Baltic areas shipped grain, fish, naval necessities, and timber. In turn the north Sea countries imported high grade cloths, spices, and fruits from the Mediterranean region[106] Commerce during this era was mainly undertaken by maritime trade due to underdeveloped roadways.[106]

North Sea

Painting of the Four Days Battle of 1666 by Willem van de Velde the Younger the Glorious Revolution the Dutch prince William ascended to the English throne. With both countries united, commercial, military, and political power shifted from Amsterdam to London.[114] The Great Northern War(1700-21) and the War of the Spanish Succession (1701-1714) were fought concurrently.[115] Russia became a major power in Eastern Europe entering western mercantilism [116] and England a rising power at sea and commercial supremacy.[117] Several conflicts involved disruption of North Sea maritime trade, none of which had a decisive effects on the war’s outcome: the French and British cut off Russia’s Baltic ports during the Crimean War[118] and Prussia’s coasts were blockaded in the First[119] and Second Schleswig Wars[120][121] as well as the Franco-Prussian War.[122] The British did not face a challenge to their dominance of the North Sea until the twentieth century.[123]

North Sea bordering countries 500 CE[107] In the 13th century the Hanseatic League, though centred on the Baltic Sea, started to control most of the trade through important members and outposts on the North Sea.[108] The League lost its dominance in the 16th century, as neighbouring states took control of former Hanseatic cities and outposts and internal conflict prevented effective cooperation and defence.[109] Furthermore, as the League lost control of its maritime cities new trade routes emerged which provided Europe with Asian, American, and African goods.[110][111]

Modern era

Age of sail
The 17th century Dutch Golden Age during which Dutch herring, cod and whale fisheries reached an all time high [106] saw Dutch power at its zenith.[112][113] Important overseas colonies, a vast merchant marine, powerful navy and large profits made the Dutch the main challengers to an ambitious and jealous England. This rivalry led to the first three Anglo-Dutch Wars between 1652 and 1673 which ended with Dutch victories.[113] After

German cruiser SMS Blücher sinks in the Battle of Dogger Bank on 25 January 1915. Tensions in the North Sea were again heightened in 1904 by the Dogger Bank incident, in which Russian naval

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vessels mistook British fishing boats for Japanese ships and fired on them, and then upon each other. During the First World War, Great Britain’s Grand Fleet and Germany’s Kaiserliche Marine faced each other on the North Sea,[124] which became the main theatre of the war for surface action.[124] Britain’s larger fleet was able to establish an effective blockade for most of the war that restricted the Central Powers’ access to many crucial resources.[125] Major battles included the Battle of Heligoland Bight[126], the Battle of the Dogger Bank,[127] and the Battle of Jutland.[127] World War One was also the first in which submarine warfare was used extensively and a number of submarine actions occurred in the North Sea.[128] The Second World War also saw action in the North Sea,[129] though it was restricted more to aircraft reconnaissances, aircraft fighter/bombers, submarines and smaller vessels such as minesweepers, and torpedo boats and similar vessels.[130] In the last years of the war and the first years thereafter, hundreds of thousands of tons of weapons were disposed of by being sunk in the North Sea.[131] After the war, the North Sea lost much of its military significance because it is bordered only by NATO member-states.[132] However, it gained significant economic importance in the 1960s as the states on the North Sea began full-scale exploitation of its oil and gas resources.[133] The North Sea continues to be an active trade route.[134]

North Sea

The Exclusive Economic Zones in the North Sea

Oil and gas
For more details on this topic, see North Sea oil and List of oil and gas fields of the North Sea. As early as 1859, oil was discovered in onshore areas around the North Sea and natural gas as early as 1910.[63]

Economy
Political status
The countries bordering the North Sea all claim the 12 nautical miles (22 km; 14 mi) of territorial waters within which they have exclusive fishing rights.[135] The Common Fisheries Policy of the European Union (EU) exists to coordinate fishing rights and assist with disputes between EU states and the EU border state of Norway.[136] After the discovery of mineral resources in the North Sea, Convention on the Continental Shelf established country rights which are largely divided along the median line. The median line is defined as the line "every point of which is equidistant from the nearest points of the baselines from which the breadth of the territorial sea of each State is measured.[137]" The ocean floor border between Germany, the Netherlands, and Denmark was only reapportioned after protracted negotiations and a judgement of the International Court of Justice.[135][138]

Oil platform Statfjord A with the flotel Polymarine In 1959, geologists discovered a natural gas field in Slochteren in the Dutch province of Groningen. However, at this point, the rights to natural resource exploitation on the high seas were still under dispute. [139] Test drilling began in 1966 and then, in 1969, Phillips Petroleum Company discovered the Ekofisk oil field[140][141] distinguished by valuable, low-sulphur oil.[142][143] Commercial exploitation began in 1971 with tankers and, after 1975, by a pipeline, first to Teesside,

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England and then, after 1977, also to Emden, Germany.[144][145] The exploitation of the North Sea oil reserves began just before the 1973 oil crisis, and the climb of international oil prices made the large investments needed for extraction much more attractive.[146] Although the production costs are relatively high, the quality of the oil, the political stability of the region, and the nearness of important markets in western Europe has made the North Sea an important oil producing region.[143] The largest single humanitarian catastrophe in the North Sea oil industry was the destruction of the offshore oil platform Piper Alpha in 1988 in which 167 people lost their lives.[147]

North Sea
southern part of the coastal waters. The main method of fishing is trawling.[154][155]

A trawler in Nordstrand, Germany In 1995, the total volume of fish and shellfish caught in the North Sea was approximately 3.5 million tonnes.[156] Besides fish, it is estimated that one million tonnes (907 thousand long tons or 1.15 million short tons) of unmarketable by-catch and Cetacean bycatch is caught and discarded each year, including 250,000 sea turtles and 7,000 harbour porpoises.[157][158][159] In recent decades, overfishing has left many fisheries unproductive, disturbing marine food chain dynamics and costing jobs in the fishing industry.[160] Herring, cod and plaice fisheries may soon face the same plight as mackerel fishing which ceased in the 1970s due to overfishing.[161] The objective of the European Union Common Fisheries Policy is to minimize the environmental impact associated with resource use by reducing fish discards, increasing productivity of fisheries, stabilising markets of fisheries and fish processing, and supplying fish at reasonable prices for the consumer.[162]

Semi-submersible drilling rig in North Sea The fires on the Piper Alpha burned off most of the hydrocarbons on board and released from the disrupted wells. However, a major blowout in 1977 in the Ekofisk field resulted in oil flowing unimpeded into the sea for a week before it was capped; estimates of the amount of oil released to the environment vary between 86,000 and 126,000 barrels (between 10,000 to 19,000 tonnes, depending on the density of the oil).[148] Besides the Ekofisk oil field, the Statfjord oil field is also notable as it was the cause of the first pipeline to span the Norwegian trench.[149] The largest natural gas field in the North Sea, Troll Field[150], lies in the Norwegian trench dropping over 300 metres (980 ft) requiring the construction of the enormous Troll A platform to access it.[151] The price of Brent Crude, one of the first types of oil extracted from the North Sea, is used today as a standard price for comparison for crude oil from the rest of the world.[152] The North Sea contains western Europe’s largest oil and natural gas reserves and is one of the world’s key non-OPEC producing regions.[153]

Mineral resources
In addition to oil, gas, and fish, the states along the North Sea also take millions of cubic metres per year of sand and gravel from the ocean floor. These are used for beach nourishment, land reclamation and construction.[163] The largest extractor of sand and gravel in 2003 was the Netherlands (around 30 million cubic metres or 322 million cubic feet}) from the North Sea).[163][164] Rolled pieces of amber, usually small but occasionally of very large size, may be picked up on the east coast of England. Amber appears mainly along the northern seashores of Norfolk and Suffolk, and seaside resorts in Aldeburgh, Cromer, Felixstowe, Great Yarmouth, Lowestoft, and Southwold which specialize in amber products.[165][166] Along the North Sea, amber is also found at various localities along the amber belt of the Danish, Swedish and Frisian Island shorelines.[165]:[147,151][167] Amber districts of the Baltic

Fishing
The North Sea is Europe’s main fishery accounting for over five percent of international commercial fish caught.[1] Fishing in the North Sea is concentrated in the

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North Sea
Scroby Sands.[172] However, the usage of offshore wind farms has met some resistance. Concerns include shipping collisions,[173] reliability,[174] environmental effects on ocean ecology and wildlife such as fish and migratory birds,[175][176] and the rising costs of constructing wind farms.[177] Nonetheless, development of North Sea wind power is continuing, with plans for additional wind farms off the coasts of Germany, the Netherlands, and the UK.[178][179][180] There have also been proposals for a transnational power grid in the North Sea to connect new offshore wind farms.[181][182] Energy production from tidal power is still in a precommercial stage. The European Marine Energy Centre has installed a wave testing system at Billia Croo on the Orkney mainland[183] and a tidal power testing station on the nearby island of Eday.[184] Since 2003, a prototype Wave Dragon energy converter has been in operation at Nissum Bredning fjord of northern Denmark.[185]

Unpolished amber stones, in varying hues and North Sea were known in prehistoric times, and led to early trade along the Amber Road.[168][169]

Renewable energy
Further information: Renewable energy in the European Union

Tourism

The beach in Scheveningen, Netherlands in c. 1900 The beaches and coastal waters of the North Sea are popular destinations for tourists. The Belgian[186], Dutch[187], German[188], and Danish coasts[189] are especially developed for tourism. While many of the busiest British beach resorts are on the south coast, the British east coast also has important beach resorts.[190] The North Sea Trail is a long-distance trail linking seven countries around the North Sea.[191] Windsurfing and sailing[192] are popular sports because of the strong winds. Mudflat hiking[193], recreational fishing[194] and birdwatching[189] are among other popular activities. The climatic conditions on the North Sea coast are often claimed to be especially healthful. As early as the 19th century, travellers used their stays on the North Sea coast as curative and restorative vacations. The sea air, temperature, wind, water, and sunshine are counted among the beneficial conditions that are said to activate the body’s defences, improve circulation, strengthen the

Horns Rev offshore wind farm. Due to the strong prevailing winds, countries on the North Sea, particularly Germany and Denmark, have used the areas near the coast for wind power since the 1990s.[170] Other wind farms have been commissioned, including Windpark Egmond aan Zee (OWEZ)[171] and

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immune system, and have healing effects on the skin and the respiratory system.[195]

North Sea

Marine traffic
See also: List of North Sea ports The North Sea is important for marine traffic and its shipping lanes are among the busiest in the world.[135] Major ports are located along its coasts: Rotterdam, the third busiest port in the world, Antwerp and Hamburg, both in the top 25, Bremen/Bremerhaven and Felixstowe, both in the top 30 busiest container seaports,[196] as well as the Port of Bruges-Zeebrugge, Europe’s leading RoRo port.[197] Thames Barrier, London

References
[1]

[2]

Rotterdam, Netherlands Traffic in the North Sea can be difficult in high density traffic zones so ports regulate traffic and monitor vessels in the North Sea lanes.[198] Fishing boats, oil and gas platforms as well as merchant traffic from Baltic ports share routes on the North Sea. The Dover Strait sees more than 400 vessels a day[199]. The North Sea coasts are home to numerous canals and canal systems to facilitate traffic between and among rivers, artificial harbours, and the sea. The Kiel Canal, connecting the North Sea with the Baltic Sea, is the most heavily used artificial seaway in the world.[200] It saves an average of 250 nautical miles (460 km; 290 mi), instead of the voyage around the Jutland Peninsula.[201] The North Sea Canal connects Amsterdam with the North Sea.[202] [3]

[4]

[5]

[6]

See also
• • • • • • • Doggerland List of languages of the North Sea North Sea Commission Principality of Sealand Geography Portal Nautical Portal Norway Portal [7]

^ L.M.A. (1985). "Europe". in University of Chicago. Encyclopaedia Britannica Macropaeida. 18 (Fifteenth ed.). U.S.A.: Encyclopadia Britannica Inc.. pp. 832-835. ISBN 0-85229-423-9. ^ Ripley, George; Charles Anderson Dana (1883) (Digitized 2007-10-11 by Google Books online). The American Cyclopaedia: A Popular Dictionary of General Knowledge. D. Appleton and company. p. 499. http://books.google.com/ books?id=GEpMAAAAMAAJ&pg=PA499&dq=Norway,+Denmark,+Germany Retrieved on 2008-12-26. Helland-Hansen, Bjørn (1909). "IV. The Basin of the Norwegian Sea.". Report on Norwegian Fishery and Marine-Investigations Vol. 11 No. 2. Geofysisk Institutt. http://web.gfi.uib.no/The%20Norwegian%20Sea/ TNS-002.htm. Retrieved on 2009-01-09. ^ Management Unit of the North Sea Mathematical Models (2002–2008). "North Sea facts". Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences. http://www.mumm.ac.be/ EN/NorthSea/facts.php. Retrieved on 2007-07-19. ^ "About the North Sea: Key facts". Safety at Sea project: Norwegian Coastal Administration. 2008. http://www.safetyatsea.se/index.php?section=northsea. Retrieved on 2008-11-02. Ray, Alan; G. Carleton , Jerry McCormick-Ray (2004) (in English) (Digitized by Google Books online). Coastalmarine Conservation: Science and Policy (illustrated ed.). Blackwell Publishing. pp. 262. ISBN 0632055375, 9780632055371. http://books.google.com/ books?id=E7xLaYVGEF4C&pg=PA262&dq=%22North+Sea%22+watershed& Retrieved on 2009-01-21. Hinrichsen, Don (1999) (in English) (Digitized by Google Books online). Coastal Waters of the World: Trends, Threats, and Strategies (illustrated ed.). Island Press. pp. 56–58. ISBN 1559633832, 9781559633833. http://books.google.com/ books?id=70NsJkGMPiwC&pg=PA58&dq=%22North+Sea%22+watershed&lr Retrieved on 2009-01-21.

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[8]

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Dogger Bank, Maptech Online MapServer, 1989-2008, 2006-11-28. http://www.metoffice.gov.uk/education/ http://mapserver.maptech.com/homepage/ secondary/students/flood.html. Retrieved on 2008-11-02. index.cfm?lat=54.74456315454079&lon=2.3527509224287115&scale=1500000&zoom=50&type=0&icon=0&width=498&height=498&searchscope=do [21] "Safety At Sea". Currents in the North Sea. 2009. homepage/index.cfm&latlontype=DMS, retrieved on http://www.safetyatsea.se/ 2007-07-20 index.php?art=2041&group=400. Retrieved on 2009-01-09. Holdsworth, Edmund William Hunt (1883) (in English) [22] Freestone, David; Ton Ijlstra (1990). "Physical Properties (Digitized 2007-11-30 by Google Books online). The Sea of Sea Water and their Distribution Annual: Variation in Fisheries of Great Britain and Ireland: An Account of the Surface Salinity" (Digitized by Google Books online). The Practical Working of the Various Fisheries Around the North Sea: Perspectives on Regional Environmental CoBritish Islands. Bath, UK: E. Stanford. pp. 43–46. ISBN operation. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. 114. ISBN 0898622727, 9780898622720. http://books.google.com/ 1853334138, 9781853334139. http://books.google.com/ books?id=_CZIAAAAIAAJ&pg=PA43&dq=%22silver+pit%22&lr=&as_brr=3#PPA43,M1. books?id=sGSMw7gCOLYC&pg=PA67&vq=current+velocity&dq=The+North Retrieved on 2009-01-10. operation&source=gbs_search_s&cad=0. Retrieved on Straw, Allan; Keith Martin Clayton (1979) (in English) 2008-12-03. (Digitized 2007-11-30 by Google Books online). Eastern [23] Dyke, Phil (1974) (Digitized by Google Books online) and Central England. Bath, UK: Taylor & Francis. pp. 110. Modeling Coastal and Offshore ProcessesImperial College ISBN 041684670X, 9780416846706. Press323-365ISBN 1860946747, 9781860946745 http://books.google.com/ http://books.google.ca/ books?id=kssOAAAAQAAJ&pg=PA110&dq=%22silver+pit%22&lr=&as_brr=3. books?id=c3MOQKCru6sC&pg=PA328&vq=North+Sea&dq=Modeling+Coast Retrieved on 2009-01-10. 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(2004) (Digitized by Google Books online) 9780521311915. http://books.google.com/ Changing Sea Levels: Effects of Tides, Weather, and books?id=EMMBAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA420&dq=%22north+forties%22++%22broad+fourteens%22++fathoms&lr=&as_brr=3&as_pt=ALLTYPES. ClimateCambridge University Press93ISBN 0521532183, Retrieved on 2009-01-10. 9780521532181 http://books.google.ca/ Bradford, Thomas Gamaliel (1838) (Digitized Oct 11, 2007 books?id=Ysa4ymmEotYC&pg=PA93&lpg=PA93&dq=%22north+sea%22+%2 by Google Books online). Encyclopædia Americana: A Retrieved on 2008-12-04 Page 94 shows the Popular Dictionary of Arts, Sciences, Literature, History, amphidromic points of the North Sea Politics, and Biography, Brought Down to the Present

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[92] Akin to Welsh môr "sea" and marw "dead"; the -sa Amalchium Mare, Britannie ef Frisie mare, Fresonicus Ocecnus, Magnum Mare, Occidentale suffix is a Proto-Germanic form akin to English sea. Mare, Occidentalis Oceanus [93] Oskar Bandle, Kurt Braunmuller, Lennart Elmevik, [101] Wells, Peter S. (2001) (Digitized by Google Books online). and Gun Widmark, The Nordic Languages: An The Barbarians Speak: How the Conquered Peoples International Handbook of the History of the Northern Shaped Roman Europe. Princeton University Press. p. 89. Germanic Languages (Leiden, Netherlands: Walter de ISBN 0691089787, 9780691089782. Gruyter, 2002), 596. http://books.google.com/ [94] Thernstrom, Stephan; Ann Orlov, Oscar Handlin (1980) books?id=vru5XzGXkuAC&pg=PA89&dq=romans+%2212+BC%22+%22north (Digitized online by Google books). Harvard Encyclopedia Retrieved on 2008-12-27. of American Ethnic Groups. Harvard University Press. [102] Cuyvers, Luc (1986) (Digitized by Google Books online). 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[171] Kouwenhoven, Henk (2007-02-22). "Offshore Windpark [183] "Billia Croo Test Site". EMEC. http://www.emec.org.uk/ Egmond aan Zee" (PDF). EU Policy Workshop on offshore wave_site.asp. Retrieved on 2008-11-01. wind power deployment. Federal Environment Ministry [184] "Fall of Warness Test Site". EMEC. of Germany. http://www.bundesumweltministerium.de/ http://www.emec.org.uk/tidal_site.asp. Retrieved on files/pdfs/allgemein/application/pdf/ 2008-11-01. eupol_w4_04_kouwenhoven.pdf. Retrieved on [185] "Prototype testing in Denmark". Wave Dragon. 2005. 2009-01-12. http://www.wavedragon.net/ [172] Wind farm begins power production, BBC News, index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=12&Itemid=14. 2004-07-20, http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/ Retrieved on 2008-11-01. england/norfolk/3909629.stm, retrieved on 2009-01-16 [186] Dunford, Martin (2002) (Digitized by Google Books [173] "New Research Focus for Renewable Energies" (PDF). online). Belgium & Luxembourg. Rough Guides. p. 131. 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Lonely Planet. p. 680. ISBN 1740594711. http://www.auburn.edu/~johnspm/gloss/ http://books.google.com/ absolute_advantage. Retrieved on 2008 -01-23. books?id=38pxvHefrL0C&pg=PA661&dq=isbn=1740594711#PPA680,M1. • "NORTH SEA FACTS". Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Retrieved on 2008-12-27. Sciences. Management Unit of North Sea Mathematical [194] Netherlands Ministerie van Verkeer en Waterstaat, Models. http://www.mumm.ac.be/EN/NorthSea/facts.php. Netherlands, Ministerie van Verkeer en Waterstaat; Retrieved on 2009-02-15. Charles Greet, Michelle Metro-Roland, Anne Soper (1994) (Digitized by Google Books online). Design Plan Oosterschelde Storm-Surge Barrier: Overall Design and • Starkey, David J.; Morten Hahn-Pedersen (2005). Bridging Design Philosophy. Taylor & Francis. p. 190. ISBN troubled waters: Conflict and co-operation in the North Sea 9054101075, 9789054101079. http://books.google.com/ Region since 1550. Esbjerg [Denmark]: Fiskeri-og books?id=j4I0ou0vzOoC&pg=PA190&dq=%22recreational+fishing%22+%22north+sea%22&lr=&as_brr=3&as_pt=ALLTYPES. Søfartsmuseets. ISBN 8790982304. Retrieved on 2008-12-27. • Ilyina, Tatjana P (2007). The fate of persistent organic [195] Büsum: The natural healing power of the sea, German pollutants in the North Sea multiple year model National Tourist Board, http://www.germanysimulations of [gamma]-HCH, [alpha]-HCH and PCB tourism.de/ENG/destination_germany/master_tlkur153Tatjana P Ilyina;. Berlin ; New York: Springer. ISBN id1252.htm?cc_lang=, retrieved on 2008-11-02 9783540681632. [196] "World Port Rankings" (XLS). American Association of • Karlsdóttir, Hrefna M. (2005). Fishing on common grounds : Port Authorities. 2006. http://aapa.files.cms-plus.com/ the consequences of unregulated fisheries of North Sea Statistics/worldportrankings%5F2006.xls. Retrieved on Herring in the postwar period. Göteborg: Ekonomisk2008-11-01. Historiska Inst., Göteborg Univ.. ISBN 9185196622. [197] "Port Authority Bruges-Zeebrugge" (html). MarineTalk a • Tiedeke, Thorsten; Werner Weiler (2007). North Sea coast : Division of Scientia Technologies Corporation. 1998-2008. landscape panoramas. Nelson: NZ Visitor ; Lancaster: http://www.marinetalk.com/articles-marineGazelle Drake Academic. ISBN 9781877339653. companies/com/Port-Authority-Bruges-Zeebrugge• ed. by Erik Thoen ... (2007). Rural history in the North Sea POR069.html. Retrieved on 2008-12-28. area : a state of the art (Middle Ages - beginning 20th [198] Freestone, David (1990). Ton. ed (Digitized online by century). Turnhout: Brepols. ISBN 9782503510057. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers). The North Sea: • Waddington, Clive; Kristian Pedersen (2007). Mesolithic Perspectives on Regional Environmental Co-operation. studies in the North Sea Basin and beyond : proceedings of Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. pp. 186–190. ISBN a conference held at Newcastle in 2003. Oxford: Oxbow 1853334138, 9781853334139. http://books.google.ca/ Books. ISBN 1842172247. books?id=sGSMw7gCOLYC&pg=PA167&lpg=PA167&dq=traffic+in+the+north+sea+can+be+difficult&source=bl&ots=G1ufbXHlT_&sig=JNDd9A7e • Zeelenberg, Sjoerd (2005). Offshore wind energy in the Retrieved on 2009-01-12. North Sea Region : the state of affairs of offshore wind [199] "The Dover Strait". Maritime and Coastguard Agency. energy projects, national policies and economic, 2007. http://www.mcga.gov.uk/c4mca/mcga07-home/ environmental and technological conditions in Denmark, emergencyresponse/mcga-searchandrescue/mcgaGermany, The Netherlands, Belgium and the United hmcgsar-sarsystem/ Kingdom. Groningen: University of Groningen. OCLC channel_navigation_information_service__cnis_/ 71640714. the_dover_strait.htm. Retrieved on 2008-10-08. [200] "Kiel Canal". Kiel Canal official website. http://www.kielcanal.org/english.htm. Retrieved on 2008-11-02. [201] "23390-Country Info Booklets Hebridean Spirit The Baltic • The North Sea in brief East". Hebridean Island Cruises. • See Interactive Map over Oil and Gas Resources in http://www.hebridean.co.uk/_pdf/Hebridean-Spiritthe North Sea The-Baltic-East.pdf. Retrieved on 2009-01-18. • Etymology and History of Names [202] (Digitized 2007-07-03 by Google Books online) The Journal • North Sea Commission Environment Group Member of Science. John Churchill and Sons. 1877. p. 41. Profiles 2006PDF (910 KB) http://books.google.com/ • Old map : Manuscript chart of the North Sea, VOC, books?id=h00EAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA41&dq=The+North+Sea+Canal+connects+Amsterdam++%22north+sea%22&lr=&as_brr=3&as_pt=ALLTYPES. ca.1690 (high resolution zoomable scan) Retrieved on 2008-12-26. • Overview of geography, hydrography and climate of the North SeaPDF (2.9 MB) • Atlas of Palaeogeography and Lithofacies Hydrodynamic Environment page 150 • "North Sea". Country Analysis Briefs. Energy Information • Silver Pit chart Administration (EIA). January 2007.

Further reading

External links

Citations

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
• The Jurassic-Cretaceous North Sea Rift Dome and associated Basin EvolutionPDF (2.5 MB) • OSPAR Commission Homepage an international commission designed to protect and conserve the North-East Atlantic and its resources

North Sea
• The Physical Geography of Western Europe By Eduard A. Koster • North Sea Region Programme 2007-2013 a transnational cooperation programme under the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF) • Sea temperature and salinity trends

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