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Greenhouse gas

Greenhouse gas
See also effects of global warming

Simple diagram of greenhouse effect Greenhouse gases are gases in an atmosphere that absorb and emit radiation within the thermal infrared range. This process is the fundamental cause of the greenhouse effect.[1] Common greenhouse gases in the Earth’s atmosphere include water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, ozone, and chlorofluorocarbons. In our solar system, the atmospheres of Venus, Mars and Titan also contain gases that cause greenhouse effects. Greenhouse gases, mainly water vapor, are essential to helping determine the temperature of the Earth; without them this planet would likely be so cold as to be uninhabitable. Although many factors such as the sun and the water cycle are responsible for the Earth’s weather and energy balance, if all else was held equal and stable, the planet’s average temperature should be considerably lower without greenhouse gases.[2][3][4] Human activities have an impact upon the levels of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, which has other effects upon the system, with their own possible repercussions. The 2007 assessment report compiled by the IPCC observed that "changes in atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases and aerosols, land cover and solar radiation alter the energy balance of the climate system", and concluded that "increases in anthropogenic greenhouse gas concentrations is very likely to have caused most of the increases in global average temperatures since the mid-20th century".[5] Modern global anthropogenic Carbon emissions. • water vapor • carbon dioxide • methane • nitrous oxide • ozone • CFCs When these gases are ranked by their contribution to the greenhouse effect, the most important are:[6] • water vapor, which contributes 36–72% • carbon dioxide, which contributes 9–26% • methane, which contributes 4–9% • ozone, which contributes 3–7% The major non-gas contributor to the Earth’s greenhouse effect, clouds, also absorb and emit infrared radiation and thus have an effect on radiative properties of the greenhouse gases.[7][8] The contribution to the greenhouse effect by a gas is affected by both the characteristics of the gas and its abundance. For example, on a molecule-for-molecule basis methane is a much stronger greenhouse gas than carbon dioxide, but it is present in much smaller concentrations so that its total contribution is smaller. It is not possible to state that a certain gas causes an exact percentage of the greenhouse effect, because the influences of the various gases are not additive. The higher ends of the ranges quoted are for the gas alone; the lower ends, for the gas counting overlaps.[8][7] Other greenhouse gases include sulfur hexafluoride, hydrofluorocarbons and perfluorocarbons. See IPCC list of greenhouse gases. Some greenhouse gases are not often listed. For example, nitrogen trifluoride has a high

Greenhouse gases in Earth’s atmosphere
In order, Earth’s most abundant greenhouse gases are:

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Gas Carbon dioxide Methane Nitrous oxide CFC-12 Preindustrial Level 280 ppm 700 ppb 270 ppb 0 Current Level 387ppm 1,745 ppb 314 ppb 533 ppt Increase since 1750 104 ppm 1,045 ppb 44 ppb 533 ppt

Greenhouse gas
Radiative forcing (W/m2) 1.46 0.48 0.15 0.17

global warming potential (GWP) but is only present in very small quantities.[9] Although contributing to many other physical and chemical reactions, the major atmospheric constituents, nitrogen (N2), oxygen (O2), and argon (Ar), are not greenhouse gases. This is because homonuclear diatomic molecules such as N2 and O2 and monatomic molecules such as Ar have no net change in their dipole moment when they vibrate and hence are almost totally unaffected by infrared light. Although heteronuclear diatomics such as carbon monoxide (CO) or hydrogen chloride (HCl) absorb IR, these molecules are short-lived in the atmosphere owing to their reactivity and solubility. As a consequence they do not contribute significantly to the greenhouse effect and are not often included when discussing greenhouse gases. Late 19th century scientists experimentally discovered that N2 and O2 did not absorb infrared radiation (called, at that time, "dark radiation") and that water as a vapour and in cloud form, CO2 and many other gases did absorb such radiation. It was recognized in the early 20th century that the greenhouse gases in the atmosphere caused the Earth’s overall temperature to be higher than it would be without them.

12,000 years of human population

Natural and anthropogenic

Top: Increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide levels as measured in the atmosphere and reflected in ice cores. Bottom: The amount of net carbon increase in the atmosphere, compared to carbon emissions from burning fossil fuel. human activities have added greenhouse gases to the atmosphere, mainly through the burning of fossil fuels and clearing of forests.[10][11] Ice cores provide evidence for variation in greenhouse gas concentrations over the past 800,000 years. Both CO2 and CH4 vary between glacial and interglacial phases, and concentrations of these gases correlate strongly with temperature. Before the ice core record, direct data does not exist. However, various proxies and modelling

400,000 years of ice core data Aside from purely human-produced synthetic halocarbons, most greenhouse gases have sources from both the ecosystem in general (natural) and from human activities specifically (anthropogenic). During the pre-industrial holocene, concentrations of existing gases were roughly constant. In the more populated industrial era,

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suggests large variations; 500 million years ago CO2 levels were likely 10 times higher than now.[12] Indeed higher CO2 concentrations are thought to have prevailed throughout most of the Phanerozoic eon, with concentrations four to six times current concentrations during the Mesozoic era, and ten to fifteen times current concentrations during the early Palaeozoic era until the middle of the Devonian period, about 400 Ma.[13][14][15] The spread of land plants is thought to have reduced CO2 concentrations during the late Devonian, and plant activities as both sources and sinks of CO2 have since been important in providing stabilising feedbacks.[16] Earlier still, a 200-million year period of intermittent, widespread glaciation extending close to the equator (Snowball Earth) appears to have been ended suddenly, about 550 Ma, by a colossal volcanic outgassing which raised the CO2 concentration of the atmosphere abruptly to 12%, about 350 times modern levels, causing extreme greenhouse conditions and carbonate deposition as limestone at the rate of about 1 mm per day.[17] This episode marked the close of the Precambrian eon, and was succeeded by the generally warmer conditions of the Phanerozoic, during which multicellular animal and plant life evolved. No volcanic carbon dioxide emission of comparable scale has occurred since. In the modern era, emissions to the atmosphere from volcanoes are only about 1% of emissions from human sources.[17][18]

Greenhouse gas

The projected temperature increase for a range of greenhouse gas stabilization scenarios (the coloured bands). The black line in middle of the shaded area indicates ’best estimates’; the red and the blue lines the likely limits. From the work of IPCC AR4, 2007.

Per capita anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions by country for the year 2000 including land-use change. currently 100 ppmv higher than pre-industrial levels.[19] Natural sources of carbon dioxide are more than 20 times greater than sources due to human activity,[20] but over periods longer than a few years natural sources are closely balanced by natural sinks such as weathering of continental rocks and photosynthesis of carbon compounds by plants and marine plankton. As a result of this balance, the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide had remained between 260 and 280 parts per million for the 10,000 years between the end of the last glacial maximum and the start of the industrial era. [21] It is likely anthropogenic warming, such as that due to elevated greenhouse gas levels, has had a discernible influence on many physical and biological systems. Projected changes in several climate factors, including atmospheric carbon dixoide, are projected to impact various issues such as freshwater resources, industry, food and health.[22] The main sources of greenhouse gases due to human activity are: • burning of fossil fuels and deforestation leading to higher carbon dioxide concentrations. Land use change (mainly deforestation in the tropics) account for up to one third of total anthropogenic CO2 emissions.[21] • livestock enteric fermentation and manure management,[23] paddy rice farming, land use and wetland changes, pipeline losses, and covered vented

Anthropogenic greenhouse gases

Global anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions broken down into 8 different sectors for the year 2000. Besides other changes to the environment, since about 1750 human activity has increased the concentration of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases. Measured atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide are

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landfill emissions leading to higher methane atmospheric concentrations. Many of the newer style fully vented septic systems that enhance and target the fermentation process also are sources of atmospheric methane. • use of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) in refrigeration systems, and use of CFCs and halons in fire suppression systems and manufacturing processes. • agricultural activities, including the use of fertilizers, that lead to higher nitrous oxide (N2O) concentrations. The seven sources of CO2 from fossil fuel combustion are (with percentage contributions for 2000–2004):[24] 1. Solid fuels (e.g. coal): 35% 2. Liquid fuels (e.g. gasoline): 36% 3. Gaseous fuels (e.g. natural gas): 20% 4. Flaring gas industrially and at wells: <1% 5. Cement production: 3% 6. Non-fuel hydrocarbons: <1% 7. The "international bunkers" of shipping and air transport not included in national inventories: 4% The U.S. EPA ranks the major greenhouse gas contributing end-user sectors in the following order: industrial, transportation, residential, commercial and agricultural.[25] Major sources of an individual’s GHG include home heating and cooling, electricity consumption, and transportation. Corresponding conservation measures are improving home building insulation, installing geothermal heat pumps and compact fluorescent lamps, and choosing energy-efficient vehicles. Carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide and three groups of fluorinated gases (sulfur hexafluoride, HFCs, and PFCs) are the major greenhouse gases and the subject of the Kyoto Protocol, which came into force in 2005.[26] Although CFCs are greenhouse gases, they are regulated by the Montreal Protocol, which was motivated by CFCs’ contribution to ozone depletion rather than by their contribution to global warming. Note that ozone depletion has only a minor role in greenhouse warming though the two processes often are confused in the media. Nitrogen trifluoride (NF3) is used in the manufacture of microelectronics. It is a strong greenhouse gas, but presently its concentration is very low and it is not subject to greenhouse gas treaties.

Greenhouse gas

Increasing water vapor in the stratosphere at Boulder, Colorado. The Clausius-Clapeyron relation establishes that air can hold more water vapor per unit volume when it warms. This and other basic principles indicate that any warming associated with the increased concentration of the other greenhouse gases also increases the concentration of water vapor as well. In climate matters, when a warming trend results in effects that induce further warming, the process is referred to as a "positive feedback"; when the effects induce cooling, the process is referred to as a "negative feedback". Because water vapor is the primary greenhouse gas and because warm air can hold more water vapor than cooler air, the primary positive feedback involves water vapor. This positive feedback does not result in runaway global warming because it is offset by negative feedback, which stabilizes average global temperatures. One primary negative feedback is the effect of temperature on emission of infrared radiation: as the temperature of a body increases, the emitted radiation increases with the fourth power of its absolute temperature.[27] Other important considerations involve water vapor being the only greenhouse gas whose concentration is highly variable in space and time in the atmosphere and the only one that also exists in both liquid and solid phases, frequently changing to and from each of the three phases or existing in mixes. Such considerations include clouds themselves, air and water vapor density interactions when they are the same or different temperatures, the absorption and release of kinetic energy as water evaporates and condenses to and from vapor, and behaviors related to vapor partial pressure. For example, the release of latent heat by rain in the ITCZ drives atmospheric circulation, clouds vary atmospheric albedo levels, and the oceans provide evaporative cooling that modulates the greenhouse effect down from estimated 67 °C surface temperature.[4][28] See also water, water (molecule).

Role of water vapor
Water vapor accounts for the largest percentage of the greenhouse effect, between 36% and 66% for water vapor alone, and between 66% and 85% when factoring in clouds.[8] Water vapor concentrations fluctuate regionally, but human activity does not significantly affect water vapor concentrations except at local scales, such as near irrigated fields.

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Relevant to radiative forcing Gas Carbon dioxide Methane Nitrous oxide Current (1998) Amount by volume 365 ppm {383 ppm(2007.01)} 1,745 ppb 314 ppb Increase over pre-industrial (1750) 87 ppm {105 ppm(2007.01)} 1,045 ppb 44 ppb Percentage increase 31% {37.77%(2007.01)} 150% 16%

Greenhouse gas

Radiative forcing (W/m²) 1.46 {~1.532 (2007.01)} 0.48 0.15

Relevant to both radiative forcing and ozone depletion; all of the following have no natural sources and hence zero amounts pre-industrial Gas CFC-11 CFC-12 CFC-113 Carbon tetrachloride HCFC-22 Current (1998) Amount by volume 268 ppt 533 ppt 84 ppt 102 ppt 69 ppt Radiative forcing (W/m²) 0.07 0.17 0.03 0.01 0.03

Greenhouse gas emissions
Measurements from Antarctic ice cores show that before industrial emissions started, atmospheric CO2 levels were about 280 parts per million by volume (ppmv), and it appears that concentrations stayed between 260 and 280 during the preceding ten thousand years.[29] One study using evidence from stomata of fossilized leaves suggests greater variability, with carbon dioxide levels above 300 ppm during the period seven to ten thousand years ago[30], though others have argued that these findings more likely reflect calibration or contamination problems rather than actual CO2 variability.[31][32] Because of the way air is trapped in ice (pores in the ice close off slowly to form bubbles deep within the firn) and the time period represented in each ice sample analyzed, these figures represent averages of atmospheric concentrations of up to a few centuries rather than annual or decadal levels. Since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution, the concentrations of most of the greenhouse gases have increased. For example, the concentration of carbon dixode has increased by about 36% to 380 ppmv, or 100 ppmv over modern pre-industrial levels. The first 50 ppmv increase took place in about 200 years, from the start of the Industrial Revolution to around 1973; however the next 50 ppmv increase took place in about 33 years, from 1973 to 2006.[33] Recent data also shows the concentration is increasing at a higher rate. In the 1960s, the average annual increase was only 37% of what it was in 2000 through 2007.[34]

Recent year-to-year increase of atmospheric CO2 The other greenhouse gases produced from human activity show similar increases in both amount and rate of increase. Many observations are available online in a variety of Atmospheric Chemistry Observational Databases. (Source: IPCC radiative forcing report 1994 updated (to 1998) by IPCC TAR table 6.1[35][36] ).

Recent rates of change and emission
The sharp acceleration in CO2 emissions since 2000 to more than a 3% increase per year (more than 2 ppm per year) from 1.1% per year during the 1990s is attributable to the lapse of formerly declining trends in carbon intensity of both developing and developed nations.

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Greenhouse gas
electricity, emissions from industry in Europe are roughly stabilized since 1994.[38]

Asia
Atmospheric levels of CO2 continue to rise, partly a sign of the industrial rise of Asian economies led by China.[39] Over the 2000-2010 interval China is expected to increase its carbon dioxide emissions by 600 Mt, largely because of the rapid construction of old-fashioned power plants in poorer internal provinces.[40] See also: Asian brown cloud

Greenhouse gas intensity in 2000 including land-use change

United Kingdom
The UK set itself a target of reducing carbon dioxide emissions by 20% from 1990 levels by 2010, but according to its own figures it will fall short of this target by almost 4%.[41]

United States
The United States emitted 16.3% more GHG in 2005 than it did in 1990.[42] According to a preliminary estimate by the Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency, the largest national producer of CO2 emissions since 2006 has been China with an estimated annual production of about 6200 megatonnes. China is followed by the United States with about 5,800 megatonnes. However the per capita emission figures of China are still about one quarter of those of the US population. Relative to 2005, China’s fossil CO2 emissions increased in 2006 by 8.7%, while in the USA, comparable CO2 emissions decreased in 2006 by 1.4%. The agency notes that its estimates do not include some CO2 sources of uncertain magnitude.[43] These figures rely on national CO2 data that do not include aviation. Although these tonnages are small compared to the CO2 in the Earth’s atmosphere, they are significantly larger than pre-industrial levels. See also: Climate change in the United States

Per capita responsibility for current anthropogenic atmospheric CO2

Major greenhouse gas trends Although over 3/4 of cumulative anthropogenic CO2 is still attributable to the developed world, China was responsible for most of global growth in emissions during this period. Localised plummeting emissions associated with the collapse of the Soviet Union have been followed by slow emissions growth in this region due to more efficient energy use, made necessary by the increasing proportion of it that is exported.[24] In comparison, methane has not increased appreciably, and N2O by 0.25% y−1.[37] The direct emissions from industry have declined due to a constant improvement in energy efficiency, but also to a high penetration of electricity. If one includes indirect emissions, related to the production of

Relative CO2 emission from various fuels
Pounds of Carbon dioxide emitted per million British thermal units of energy for various fuels:

Removal from the atmosphere and global warming potential
This section deals with natural processes. For projects to deliberately remove greenhouses gases from the atmosphere, see geoengineering, carbon dioxide scrubbing and greenhouse gas remediation Aside from water vapor, which has a residence time of about nine days, major greenhouse gases are wellmixed, and take many years to leave the atmosphere.[44] Although it is not easy to know with precision how long

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Fuel name Natural gas Liquefied petroleum gas Propane Aviation gasoline Automobile gasoline Kerosene Fuel oil Tires/tire derived fuel Wood and wood waste Coal (bituminous) Coal (subbituminous) Coal (lignite) Petroleum coke Coal (anthracite) it takes greenhouse gases to leave the atmosphere, there are estimates for the principal greenhouse gases. Greenhouse gases can be removed from the atmosphere by various processes: • as a consequence of a physical change (condensation and precipitation remove water vapor from the atmosphere). • as a consequence of chemical reactions within the atmosphere. This is the case for methane. It is oxidized by reaction with naturally occurring hydroxyl radical, OH· and degraded to CO2 and water vapor at the end of a chain of reactions (the contribution of the CO2 from the oxidation of methane is not included in the methane Global warming potential). This also includes solution and solid phase chemistry occurring in atmospheric aerosols. • as a consequence of a physical interchange at the interface between the atmosphere and the other compartments of the planet. An example is the mixing of atmospheric gases into the oceans at the boundary layer. • as a consequence of a chemical change at the interface between the atmosphere and the other compartments of the planet. This is the case for CO2, which is reduced by photosynthesis of plants, and which, after dissolving in the oceans, reacts to form carbonic acid and bicarbonate and carbonate ions (see ocean acidification). • as a consequence of a photochemical change. Halocarbons are dissociated by UV light releasing Cl· and F· as free radicals in the stratosphere with harmful effects on ozone (halocarbons are generally CO2 emitted (lbs/106 Btu) 117 139 139 153 156 159 161 189 195 205 213 215 225 227

Greenhouse gas

too stable to disappear by chemical reaction in the atmosphere).

Atmospheric lifetime
Jacob (1999)[45] defines the lifetime τ of an atmospheric species X in a one-box model as the average time that a molecule of X remains in the box. Mathematically τ can be defined as the ratio of the mass m (in kg) of X in the box to its removal rate, which is the sum of the flow of X out of the box (Fout), chemical loss of X (L), and deposition of X (D) (all in kg/sec):
[45]

The atmospheric lifetime of a species therefore measures the time required to restore equilibrium following an increase in its concentration in the atmosphere. Individual atoms or molecules may be lost or deposited to sinks such as the soil, the oceans and other waters, or vegetation and other biological systems, reducing the excess to background concentrations. The average time taken to achieve this is the mean lifetime. The atmospheric lifetime of CO2 is often incorrectly stated to be only a few years because that is the average time for any CO2 molecule to stay in the atmosphere before being removed by mixing into the ocean, photosynthesis, or other processes. However, this ignores the balancing fluxes of CO2 into the atmosphere from the other reservoirs. It is the net concentration changes of the various greenhouse gases by all sources and sinks that determines atmospheric lifetime, not just the removal processes.

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Greenhouse gas
2000 to 2006, the AF was 0.45. For CO2 the AF over the last 50 years (1956-2006) has been increasing at 0.25±0.21%/year.[51]

Global warming potential
The global warming potential (GWP) depends on both the efficiency of the molecule as a greenhouse gas and its atmospheric lifetime. GWP is measured relative to the same mass of CO2 and evaluated for a specific timescale. Thus, if a molecule has a high GWP on a short time scale (say 20 years) but has only a short lifetime, it will have a large GWP on a 20 year scale but a small one on a 100 year scale. Conversely, if a molecule has a longer atmospheric lifetime than CO2 its GWP will increase with time. Examples of the atmospheric lifetime and GWP for several greenhouse gases include: • has a variable atmospheric lifetime, and cannot be specified precisely.[46] Recent work indicates that recovery from a large input of atmospheric CO2 from burning fossil fuels will result in an effective lifetime of tens of thousands of years.[47][48] Carbon dioxide is defined to have a GWP of 1 over all time periods. • has an atmospheric lifetime of 12 ± 3 years and a GWP of 72 over 20 years, 25 over 100 years and 7.6 over 500 years. The decrease in GWP at longer times is because methane is degraded to water and CO2 through chemical reactions in the atmosphere. • has an atmospheric lifetime of 114 years and a GWP of 289 over 20 years, 298 over 100 years and 153 over 500 years. • has an atmospheric lifetime of 100 years and a GWP of 11000 over 20 years, 10900 over 100 years and 5200 over 500 years. • has an atmospheric lifetime of 12 years and a GWP of 5160 over 20 years, 1810 over 100 years and 549 over 500 years. • has an atmospheric lifetime of 50,000 years and a GWP of 5210 over 20 years, 7390 over 100 years and 11200 over 500 years. • has an atmospheric lifetime of 3,200 years and a GWP of 16300 over 20 years, 22800 over 100 years and 32600 over 500 years. • has an atmospheric lifetime of 740 years and a GWP of 12300 over 20 years, 17200 over 100 years and 20700 over 500 years. Source: IPCC Fourth Assessment Report, Table 2.14. The use of CFC-12 (except some essential uses) has been phased out due to its ozone depleting properties.[49] The phasing-out of less active HCFC-compounds will be completed in 2030.[50]

Related effects

MOPITT 2000 global carbon monoxide Carbon monoxide has an indirect radiative effect by elevating concentrations of methane and tropospheric ozone through scavenging of atmospheric constituents (e.g., the hydroxyl radical, OH) that would otherwise destroy them. Carbon monoxide is created when carboncontaining fuels are burned incompletely. Through natural processes in the atmosphere, it is eventually oxidized to carbon dioxide. Carbon monoxide has an atmospheric lifetime of only a few months[52] and as a consequence is spatially more variable than longer-lived gases. Another potentially important indirect effect comes from methane, which in addition to its direct radiative impact also contributes to ozone formation. Shindell et al. (2005)[53] argue that the contribution to climate change from methane is at least double previous estimates as a result of this effect.[54]

Airborne fraction
Airborne fraction (AF) is the proportion of a emission (e.g. CO2) remaining in the atmosphere after a specified time. Canadell (2007)[51] define the annual AF as the ratio of the atmospheric CO2 increase in a given year to that year’s total emissions, and calculate that of the average 9.1 PgC y-1 of total anthropogenic emissions from

See also
• Atmospheric Chemistry Observational Databases for links to freely available data. • Atmospheric window • Attribution of recent climate change • Biochar • List of countries by electricity production from renewable source

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• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Carbon emissions by country Carbon cycle Carbon dioxide sink Carbon Disclosure Project Carbon emissions reporting Carbon neutral Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center Clean Air Act Climate Group List of CO2 emitted per million Btu of energy from various fuels Earth’s atmosphere Emission standard Environmental accounting Environmental agreements European Climate Change Programme External cost Global warming Greenhouse debt Greenhouse effect Greenhouse gas emissions in the USA Global Atmosphere Watch Hydrogen economy List of countries by greenhouse gas emissions per capita Low-carbon fuel standard Massachusetts v. Environmental Protection Agency North American Carbon Program Norwegian Polar Institute Ocean acidification Radiative forcing Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Virgin Earth Challenge Western Regional Climate Action Initiative World energy resources and consumption Zero carbon economy Zero emission vehicle

Greenhouse gas
• International Energy Annual 2003: Carbon Dioxide Emissions • International Energy Annual 2003: Notes and Sources for Table H.1co2 (Metric tons of carbon dioxide can be converted to metric tons of carbon equivalent by multiplying by 12/44) • DOE — EIA — Alternatives to Traditional Transportation Fuels 1994 — Volume 2, Greenhouse Gas Emissions (includes "Greenhouse Gas Spectral Overlaps and Their Significance") • NOAA Paleoclimatology Program — Vostok Ice Core • NOAA CMDL CCGG — Interactive Atmospheric Data Visualization NOAA CO2 data • Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Centre FAQ Includes links to Carbon Dioxide statistics • Little Green Data Book 2007, World Bank. Lists C02 statistics by country, including per capita and by country income class. • Flight Carbon Emission Calculator • Database of carbon emissions of power plants • NASA’s Orbiting Carbon Observatory Methane emissions • BBC News — Thawing Siberian bogs are releasing more methane • METHANE-EATING BUG HOLDS PROMISE FOR CUTTING GREENHOUSE GAS. Media Release, GNS Science, New Zealand Policy and advocacy • Australian Greenhouse Gas Initiative • Global Green Plan, a not-for profit organisation based in Melbourne, Australia, developing school curriculum to teach youth how to reduce emissions • Carbon Dioxide is Good for the Environment 2001 paper by the National Center for Public Policy Research • Environmental Effects of Increased Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide paper by the Oregon Institute of Science and Medicine • EU page about reducing CO2 emissions from lightduty vehicles : the EU’s aim is to reach — by 2010 at the latest — an average CO2 emission figure of 120 g/km for all new passenger cars marketed in the Union.

External links
• Greenhouse gas at the Open Directory Project • The NOAA Annual Greenhouse Gas Index (AGGI) • Greenhouse Gases Sources, Levels, Study results — University of Michigan; eia.doe.gov findings • How Much Greenhouse Gas Does the United States Emit? • Greenhouse-gas reduction technologies for coalfired power generation. • Grist article on convenient summary from various sources incl IPCC of GHG emissions Convenient summary of Greenhouse gas emissions Carbon dioxide emissions • World’s Most Accurate Carbon Emissions Calculator • International Energy Annual: Reserves

References
[1] [2] "IPCC AR4 SYR Appendix Glossary" (PDF). http://www.ipcc.ch/pdf/assessment-report/ar4/syr/ ar4_syr_appendix.pdf. Retrieved on 2008-12-14. Karl TR, Trenberth KE (2003). "Modern Global Climate Change". Science 302 (5651): 1719–1723. doi:10.1126/ science.1090228. http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/ content/abstract/302/5651/1719. Le Treut H, Somerville R, Cubasch U, Ding Y, Mauritzen C, Mokssit A, Peterson T and Prather M (2007) (PDF). Historical Overview of Climate Change Science In:

[3]

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Solomon S, Qin D, Manning M, Chen Z, Marquis M, Averyt KB, Tignor M and Miller HL, editors). Cambridge University Press. http://ipcc-wg1.ucar.edu/ wg1/Report/AR4WG1_Print_Ch01.pdf. Retrieved on 2008-12-14. ^ NASA Science Mission Directorate article on the water cycle http://www.ipcc.ch/pdf/assessment-report/ar4/ syr/ar4_syr_spm.pdf AR4 SYR SPM page 5 Kiehl, J. T.; Kevin E. Trenberth (February 1997). "Earth’s Annual Global Mean Energy Budget" (PDF). Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 78 (2): 197–208. doi:10.1175/1520-0477(1997)078<0197:EAGMEB>2.0.CO;2. http://www.atmo.arizona.edu/students/courselinks/ spring04/atmo451b/pdf/RadiationBudget.pdf. Retrieved on 2006-05-01. ^ Kiehl, J. T.; Kevin E. Trenberth (February 1997). "Earth’s Annual Global Mean Energy Budget" (PDF). Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 78 (2): 197–208. doi:10.1175/ 1520-0477(1997)078<0197:EAGMEB>2.0.CO;2. http://www.atmo.arizona.edu/students/courselinks/ spring04/atmo451b/pdf/RadiationBudget.pdf. Retrieved on 2006-05-01. ^ "Water vapour: feedback or forcing?". RealClimate. 6 April 2005. http://www.realclimate.org/index.php?p=142. Retrieved on 2006-05-01. Prather, Michael J.; J Hsu (2008-06-26). "NF3, the greenhouse gas missing from Kyoto". Geophysical Research Letters (American Geophysical Union) 35 (L12810): L12810. doi:10.1029/2008GL034542. http://www.agu.org/pubs/crossref/2008/ 2008GL034542.shtml. "Chapter 1 Historical Overview of Climate Change Science" (PDF). Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. 2007-02-05. http://www.ipcc.ch/pdf/ assessment-report/ar4/wg1/ar4-wg1-chapter1.pdf. Retrieved on 2008-04-25. Chapter 3, IPCC Special Report on Emissions Scenarios, 2000 Image:Phanerozoic Carbon Dioxide.png Berner, Robert A. (1994). "GEOCARB II: a revised model of atmospheric CO2 over Phanerozoic time". American Journal of Science 294: 56–91. ISSN 0002-9599. http://earth.geology.yale.edu/~ajs/1994/ 01.1994.02Berner.pdf. Royer, DL; RA Berner and DJ Beerling (2001). "Phanerozoic atmospheric CO2 change: evaluating geochemical and paleobiological approaches". Earth-

Greenhouse gas

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[18]

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[9]

[22]

[23]

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Greenhouse gas

Categories: Climate change feedbacks and causes, Climate forcing agents, Greenhouse gases, Carbon finance This page was last modified on 16 May 2009, at 15:23 (UTC). All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License. (See Copyrights for details.) Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a U.S. registered 501(c)(3) tax-deductible nonprofit charity. Privacy policy About Wikipedia Disclaimers

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