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TRANSLATION 1. according to the article, a successful translation can be judged by two criterias. Which ones? Explain. The two criterias are: a) Faithfulness: can also be called fidelity. It is how the source text is translated as accurately as possible without adding to it or subtracting from it and without intensifying or weakening any part of the meaning. b) Transparency: it is accomplished when the native speaker of the target language can relate to the text as it is was originally written in his native language. The translation should conforms the grammatical, syntactic and idiomatic conventions of the language. 2. List the 12 types of specialized translation mentioned in the article. The 12 types of specialized translations are: Administrative translation Commercial translation Computer translation General translation Legal translation Literary translation Medical translation Pedagogical translation Technical translation Scientific translation Scholarly translation Translation for dubbing and film subtitles 3. What do we call “pedagogical translations”? Pedagogical translation is used to enrich the student’s vocabulary in the second language. The pedagogical translation takes place in the student’s native or dominant language as well as the second language. The student will be able to translate both to and from the second language. 4. How can translations be considered as both a craft and an art? The translation of a newspaper editorial, text of speech by a politician or book require the craft of good language skills and the art of good writing, cultural sensitivity and communication. 5. Which translation is considered a craft and which translations are considered as an art? Translations that can be considered as craft are the translations of technical, business or legal documents. The translation of a product brochure can be considered an art. 6. How did religious text translation affect the world history? Give some examples. The translation of religious text played an important role in world history as it was sometimes adapted to fit the culture of the target language. An example is the translation of the Indian sutras into Chinese language by the Buddhist monks. 7. What means “gisting”? when do we need gisting? A gist is the central idea or the essence. A gisting translation is a rough translation that gives the “gist” of the source text but is not otherwise usable. A gisting translation may be used, for example, in weather reports because the of the simple sentence structure and limited ranges of vocabulary.
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