1. according to the article, a successful translation can be judged by
      two criterias. Which ones? Explain.

The two criterias are:

   a) Faithfulness: can also be called fidelity. It is how the source text is
      translated as accurately as possible without adding to it or
      subtracting from it and without intensifying or weakening any part
      of the meaning.
   b) Transparency: it is accomplished when the native speaker of the
      target language can relate to the text as it is was originally written
      in his native language. The translation should conforms the
      grammatical, syntactic and idiomatic conventions of the language.

   2. List the 12 types of specialized translation mentioned in the article.

   The 12 types of specialized translations are:

      Administrative translation
      Commercial translation
      Computer translation
      General translation
      Legal translation
      Literary translation
      Medical translation
      Pedagogical translation
      Technical translation
      Scientific translation
      Scholarly translation
      Translation for dubbing and film subtitles

   3. What do we call “pedagogical translations”?

Pedagogical translation is used to enrich the student’s vocabulary in the
second language. The pedagogical translation takes place in the
student’s native or dominant language as well as the second language.
The student will be able to translate both to and from the second

   4. How can translations be considered as both a craft and an art?
The translation of a newspaper editorial, text of speech by a politician or
book require the craft of good language skills and the art of good writing,
cultural sensitivity and communication.

   5. Which translation is considered a craft and which translations are
      considered as an art?

Translations that can be considered as craft are the translations of
technical, business or legal documents. The translation of a product
brochure can be considered an art.

   6. How did religious text translation affect the world history? Give
      some examples.

The translation of religious text played an important role in world history
as it was sometimes adapted to fit the culture of the target language. An
example is the translation of the Indian sutras into Chinese language by
the Buddhist monks.

   7. What means “gisting”? when do we need gisting?

A gist is the central idea or the essence. A gisting translation is a rough
translation that gives the “gist” of the source text but is not otherwise

A gisting translation may be used, for example, in weather reports
because the of the simple sentence structure and limited ranges of

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