Cultural Competency in Evaluatio

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					Cultural Competency in
Evaluation for Hispanics

   AIA Web Conference on Culturally
         Competent Evaluation
           October 13, 2009
      Richard C. Cervantes, Ph.D.
      Behavioral Assessment, Inc.
Hispanic or Latino?
   What is an “ethnic identification”?*
   Ethnic identifiers are widely used in
   Ethnic identifiers have significant meaning
    within cultural groups
   Knowledge of the meaning and symbolism of
    ethnic identifiers can influence participation in
    evaluation studies and in the interpretation of
*see definition worksheet
Hispanic or Latino?
   Commonly used ethnic identifiers for this cultural group include:

What about Race
   How is race different from ethnicity?
   Hispanics are considered by the US
    census to be “white” in terms of race
   Hispanics from most Latin American
    countries also have high proportion of
    racially black populations
   Mixed race also prominent among
    Hispanic populations
There are commonalities among many Hispanic

   Language
   Religion
   Customs and Practices
   Family and other cultural values
   Ties to country of origin, especially among
    immigrant groups
   Despite immigration status, Hispanic groups
    vary in terms of the degree to which
    traditional cultural values are retained AND
    the degree to which current cultural values
    and practices are assumed
   Acculturation is not uni-directional, but can
    vary along culture of origin AND host culture
    at the same time
   Within group and within family variation in
    acculturation is common, yet not well
    understood in terms of risk/protective factors
How should we operationalize
race and culture?
   Local community context and definitions first
    need to be understood before designing
    measurement tools
   Immigration policy and enforcement needs to
    be considered in data collection methods
    (e.g. emphasis on anonymity, law
    enforcement presence)
   Focus groups, key informant interviews can
    provide valuable information
   How do community participants describe
Demographic Assessment
   Key demographic ethnic and racial identifiers must be
    included in evaluation protocols
   Specific detailed data on participant ethnic and racial
    identity will assist in interpretation of findings
   Identifiers need to be understood and sometime
    explained by evaluators
   Ethnic identifiers need to be broad and should relate
    to country of origin, as well as, US Census categories.
   Specific categories can later be collapsed or
    aggregated, while identifiers that are too general
    may not be useful in data analysis phase
Demographic Assessment
   Country of origin item and length of residence will
    allow for richer description of participants
   Primary language(s) spoken at home also provide
    information on family acculturation
   “Other” response categories for both race and ethnic
    identifiers is highly recommended
   “Other” write in identifiers can later be aggregated by
    qualified evaluator/researches if necessary
   Spanish language forms should always be available
Analysis and reporting
   Aggregate findings using simple racial or ethic
    identifiers may not be appropriate
   Reliability checks on outcome measures for
    use with distinct ethnic groups should always
    be conducted
   Sub-group analysis should be conducted
    wherever sample size allow
   Data needs to be reported out in terms of
    program effects for distinct racial, ethnic and
    gender groups
Fact Sheet
   Ethnicity
   “Identity with or membership in a particular racial, national, or cultural group and
    observance of that group's customs, beliefs, and language.”
   Use of the word ethnicity for Hispanicity only is considerably more restricted than its
    conventional meaning, which covers other distinctions, some of which are covered by the
    "race" and "ancestry" questions. The distinct questions accommodate the possibility of
    Hispanic and Latino Americans' also declaring various racial identities (see also White
    Hispanic and Latino Americans, Asian Latinos, and Black Hispanic and Latino Americans).
   Race
   In the United States since its early history, Native Americans, African-Americans and
    European-Americans were classified as belonging to different races. For nearly three
    centuries, the criteria for membership in these groups were similar, comprising a person’s
    appearance, his fraction of known non-White ancestry, and his social circle.
   But the difference between how Native American and Black identities are defined today
    (blood quantum versus one-drop) has demanded explanation. According to anthropologists
    such as Gerald Sider, the goal of such racial designations was to concentrate power,
    wealth, privilege and land in the hands of Whites in a society of White hegemony and
    privilege (Sider 1996; see also Fields 1990). The differences have little to do with biology
    and far more to do with the history of racism and specific forms of White supremacy (the
    social, geopolitical and economic agendas of dominant Whites vis-à-vis subordinate Blacks
    and Native Americans) especially the different roles Blacks and Amerindians occupied in
    White-dominated 19th century America.
Race Fact Sheet
   Racial Definitions:
   The following definitions apply to the 2000 census only.[9]
   "White. A person having origins in any of the original peoples of Europe, the Middle East, or North Africa.
    It includes people who indicate their race as 'White' or report entries such as Irish, German, Italian,
    Lebanese, Near Easterner, Arab, or Polish."[9]
   "Black or African American. A person having origins in any of the Black racial groups of Africa. It includes
    people who indicate their race as 'Black, African Am., or Negro,' or provide written entries such as African
    American, Afro American, Kenyan, Nigerian, or Haitian."[9]
   "American Indian and Alaska Native. A person having origins in any of the original peoples of North and
    South America (including Central America) and who maintain tribal affiliation or community
   "Asian. A person having origins in any of the original peoples of the Far East, Southeast Asia, or the Indian
    subcontinent including, for example, Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, India, Japan, Korea, Malaysia,
    Pakistan, the Philippine Islands, Sri Lanka, Thailand, and Vietnam. It includes 'Asian Indian,' 'Chinese,'
    'Filipino,' 'Korean,' 'Japanese,' 'Vietnamese,' and 'Other Asian.'"[9]
   'Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander. A person having origins in any of the original peoples of
    Hawaii, Guam, Samoa, or other Pacific Islands. It includes people who indicate their race as 'Native
    Hawaiian', 'Guamanian or Chamorro', 'Samoan', and 'Other Pacific Islander'."[9]
   "Some other race. Includes all other responses not included in the 'White', 'Black or African American',
    'American Indian and Alaska Native', 'Asian' and 'Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander' race
    categories described above. Respondents providing write-in entries such as multiracial, mixed, interracial,
    or a Hispanic/Latino group (for example, Mexican, Puerto Rican, or Cuban) in the 'Some other race'
    category are included here."[9]
   "Two or more races. People may have chosen to provide two or more races either by checking two or
    more race response check boxes, by providing multiple write-in responses, or by some combination of
    check boxes and write-in responses."[9]

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