Chapter 16, Section 3 Antiwar Poster “The Vietnam War Ends” A Growing Antiwar Movement 1 – as the war escalated in the mid-1960’s antiwar feelings grew 2 – college students made up a large and vocal group that opposed the war 3 – middle and upper class youths avoided the draft 270 walked out of graduation ceremonies at New York University (NYU) to protest by going to college or the presentation of an honorary degree to getting released for Robert McNamara, then the Secretary of medical or religious Defense and responsible for U.S. forces beliefs waging war in Vietnam. University of Wisconsin Protests Protests were not uncommon on the UW-Madison campus well before the first violent one in October of 1967. Here, a May 1966 rally drew 6,000 students to Bascom Hall to hear the university chancellor promise a review of the university's cooperation with the Selective Service draft. The Selective Service had announced that draft deferments would be based on academic performance. Anti-war demonstrators jam a corridor in Bascom Hall at UW- Madison in February 1967, the first protest against Dow Chemical Co.'s recruiting efforts. When UW-Madison students tried to prevent Dow Chemical, manufacturer of napalm, from recruiting on campus in October of 1967 the Madison police were called in. They used tear gas and billy clubs to break up the protests. Bascom Hall, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1968, with crosses placed by students protesting the Vietnam war, and a sign saying: "BASCOM MEMORIAL CEMETERY, CLASS OF 1968" In 1970, radicals bombed Sterling Hall on the Madison campus, which housed the Army Math Research Center, killing a student and, as a result, hastening an end to anti-war protests on campus. A Growing Antiwar Movement 4 – an unproportionately high numbers of African Americans fought in the war 5 – antiwar movement linked to the civil rights movement (leaders like Martin Luther King, Jr. spoke out against the war) 6A – doves – those who opposed the war 6B – hawks – those who were in favor of the war Nation's top Negro athletes gather to hear Muhammad Ali (formerly Cassius Clay) give his reasons for rejecting the draft, June 4, 1967 (Bill Russell, Muhammad Ali, Jim Brown, Kareem Abdul-Jabbar) "No, I am not going 10,000 miles to help murder, kill, and burn other people to simply help continue the domination of white slave-masters over dark people the world over. This is the day and age when such evil injustice must come to an end." —Muhammad Ali The “Television War” The Vietnam War was the first U.S. war that was televised. Americans could watch events in Vietnam, and they were shocked by what they saw. The coverage of the Tet Offensive in particular turned many against the war, as they saw it as un-winnable. When news anchor Walter Cronkite came out against the war President Johnson said ―If I’ve lost Cronkite, I have lost middle America.‖ (1968) 1968 – A Turning Point 1 – TV news anchor Walter Cronkite visited Vietnam and reported on his return that the U.S. was not winning the war 2 – Robert Kennedy, the favorite to be the Democratic Party candidate for president was assassinated after winning the California primary election 3A – Hubert Humphrey (Johnson’s Vice-President) won the Democratic nomination for President while war protesters outside the convention hall in Chicago were clubbed by police Richard 3B – Richard Nixon – Nixon on the campaign He vowed to end trail in 1968 the chaos here in the U.S. and the war in Vietnam, and won the Republican nomination for president and then won the election over Humphrey Nixon’s Vietnam Strategy 1A – Vietnamization – Nixon’s strategy in 1969 calling for gradual withdrawal of U.S. troops and turning the fighting over to the South Vietnamese 1B – Nixon expanded the war into Cambodia to stop N. Vietnam from moving troops and supplies President Nixon explains to the nation why on the Ho Chi Minh we need to expand the war into Cambodia Trail there One American’s Story Kent State shootings – on May 1-4, 1970 at Kent State University in Ohio antiwar demonstrations were held (the first was held in response to Nixon’s widening the war into Cambodia) The Ohio Governor called in National Guard troops, who used tear gas on the crowds and on May 4th they opened fire on students killing 4 (1) On Friday, May 1st an antiwar protest began in response to Pres. Nixon’s bombing of Cambodia, and that night there were several incidents involving violence and the police (2) On May 2nd another antiwar protest led to the burning down of the ROTC building on campus (which was very old and scheduled to be demolished anyway) (3) On Sunday, May 3, approximately 1,000 National Guard soldiers were on campus. Some students helped clean up damage from the previous night's activities, but other students continued to hold protests. The soldiers continued to break up these demonstrations, including threatening students with bayonets. (4) On Monday, May 4th classes resumed and another antiwar protest was scheduled for noon; National Guardsmen above prepare to march on campus toward the protest (5) the soldiers move in toward students (6) Tear gas is used on the students, and some of the protestors threw the tear gas canisters, along with rocks back at the soldiers (7) Students run for cover as the National Guardsmen start firing, and four students are killed Nixon’s Vietnam Strategy (continued) 2 – Pentagon Papers – documents released in 1971 to the New York Times that showed that presidents prior to Nixon were not honest about U.S. involvement and goals in Vietnam (made Americans question their govt. and leaders even more) Withdrawal from Vietnam 1A – promising peace was at hand, Nixon won reelection in 1972 in a landslide 1B – U.S. and S. Vietnam signed a peace agreement with N. Vietnam and the Viet Cong that ended the war in January, 1973 U.S. National Security Advisor, 2 – in 1975 N. Vietnam Henry Kissinger (right) shaking invaded and hands with North Vietnam’s Le Duc conquered S. Vietnam Tho in Paris after their agreement on the cease-fire terms of the unifying the nation Vietnam War, 1973. under communism Legacy of the 1A – the war destroyed Vietnam’s landscape and Vietnam War economy, and over 1.2 million Vietnamese died 1B – after Vietnam reunited under communism many Vietnamese from the south fled to the U.S. 2A – 58,000 U.S. soldiers died; over 300,000 were wounded Most soldiers who returned 2B – returning soldiers often from the war were not suffered from delayed welcomed home like soldiers stress disorder which had from previous wars, and many symptoms like recurring took part in antiwar protests nightmares, depression, fatigue, and flashbacks 3A – 26th Amendment – lowered the voting age from 21 to 18 Vietnam 3B – govt. ended the draft in 1973 Veterans Memorial as so many people were unveiled in opposed to it Washington 4 – War Powers Act – limits the , DC in president’s war-making powers 1982 - President must report to Congress in 48 hours if troops are used - President needs Congress’ approval to use troops for more than 90 days 5 – war made many Americans mistrust their govt.