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Chapter 16_ Section 3

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					                 Chapter 16, Section 3
Antiwar Poster
                 “The Vietnam War Ends”
   A Growing Antiwar Movement
1 – as the war escalated in
   the mid-1960’s antiwar
   feelings grew
2 – college students made
   up a large and vocal
   group that opposed the
   war
3 – middle and upper class
   youths avoided the draft   270 walked out of graduation ceremonies
                              at New York University (NYU) to protest
   by going to college or
                              the presentation of an honorary degree to
   getting released for       Robert McNamara, then the Secretary of
   medical or religious       Defense and responsible for U.S. forces
   beliefs                    waging war in Vietnam.
University of Wisconsin Protests




 Protests were not uncommon on the UW-Madison campus well
 before the first violent one in October of 1967. Here, a May 1966
 rally drew 6,000 students to Bascom Hall to hear the university
 chancellor promise a review of the university's cooperation with the
 Selective Service draft. The Selective Service had announced that
 draft deferments would be based on academic performance.
Anti-war demonstrators jam a corridor in Bascom Hall at UW-
Madison in February 1967, the first protest against Dow
Chemical Co.'s recruiting efforts.
When UW-Madison students tried
to prevent Dow Chemical,
manufacturer of napalm, from
recruiting on campus in October
of 1967 the Madison police were
called in. They used tear gas
and billy clubs to break up the
protests.
Bascom Hall, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1968, with
crosses placed by students protesting the Vietnam war,
and a sign saying:
"BASCOM MEMORIAL CEMETERY, CLASS OF 1968"
In 1970, radicals
bombed Sterling Hall
on the Madison
campus, which
housed the Army
Math Research
Center, killing a
student and, as a
result, hastening an
end to anti-war
protests on campus.
 A Growing Antiwar Movement
4 – an unproportionately
  high numbers of African
  Americans fought in the
  war
5 – antiwar movement linked
  to the civil rights
  movement (leaders like
  Martin Luther King, Jr.
  spoke out against the war)
6A – doves – those who
  opposed the war
6B – hawks – those who
  were in favor of the war
Nation's top Negro athletes gather to hear Muhammad Ali (formerly
Cassius Clay) give his reasons for rejecting the draft, June 4, 1967
(Bill Russell, Muhammad Ali, Jim Brown, Kareem Abdul-Jabbar)




"No, I am not going 10,000 miles to help murder, kill,
and burn other people to simply help continue the
domination of white slave-masters over dark people
the world over. This is the day and age when such
evil injustice must come to an end."
—Muhammad Ali
               The “Television War”
                                 The Vietnam War was the first U.S.
                                 war that was televised. Americans
                                 could watch events in Vietnam, and
                                 they were shocked by what they
                                 saw. The coverage of the Tet
                                 Offensive in particular turned many
                                 against the war, as they saw it as
                                 un-winnable.




When news anchor Walter
Cronkite came out against the
war President Johnson said
―If I’ve lost Cronkite, I have
lost middle America.‖ (1968)
         1968 – A Turning Point
1 – TV news anchor Walter
   Cronkite visited Vietnam and
   reported on his return that the
   U.S. was not winning the war
2 – Robert Kennedy, the favorite
   to be the Democratic Party
   candidate for president was
   assassinated after winning the
   California primary election
3A – Hubert Humphrey
   (Johnson’s Vice-President)
   won the Democratic
   nomination for President while
   war protesters outside the
   convention hall in Chicago
   were clubbed by police
Richard         3B – Richard Nixon –
Nixon on the
campaign         He vowed to end
trail in 1968     the chaos here in
                  the U.S. and the
                  war in Vietnam,
                  and won the
                  Republican
                  nomination for
                  president and then
                  won the election
                  over Humphrey
        Nixon’s Vietnam Strategy
1A – Vietnamization –
  Nixon’s strategy in
  1969 calling for
  gradual withdrawal of
  U.S. troops and
  turning the fighting
  over to the South
  Vietnamese
1B – Nixon expanded
  the war into
  Cambodia to stop N.
  Vietnam from moving
  troops and supplies President Nixon explains to the nation why
  on the Ho Chi Minh we need to expand the war into Cambodia
  Trail there
One American’s Story
 Kent State shootings – on
May 1-4, 1970 at Kent State
University in Ohio antiwar
demonstrations were held
(the first was held in response
to Nixon’s widening the war
into Cambodia)
The Ohio Governor called in
National Guard troops, who
used tear gas on the crowds
and on May 4th they opened
fire on students killing 4
(1) On Friday, May 1st an antiwar protest began in
response to Pres. Nixon’s bombing of Cambodia,
    and that night there were several incidents
         involving violence and the police
  (2) On May 2nd another antiwar protest led to the
burning down of the ROTC building on campus (which
was very old and scheduled to be demolished anyway)
  (3) On Sunday, May 3, approximately 1,000 National
Guard soldiers were on campus. Some students helped
clean up damage from the previous night's activities, but
 other students continued to hold protests. The soldiers
 continued to break up these demonstrations, including
           threatening students with bayonets.
(4) On Monday, May 4th classes resumed and
  another antiwar protest was scheduled for
 noon; National Guardsmen above prepare to
     march on campus toward the protest
(5) the soldiers move in toward students
(6) Tear gas is used on the students, and some
 of the protestors threw the tear gas canisters,
      along with rocks back at the soldiers
(7) Students run for cover as the National Guardsmen
        start firing, and four students are killed
     Nixon’s Vietnam Strategy
                       (continued)

2 – Pentagon Papers –
  documents released in
  1971 to the New York
  Times that showed that
  presidents prior to Nixon
  were not honest about
  U.S. involvement and
  goals in Vietnam

(made Americans question
their govt. and leaders even
more)
        Withdrawal from Vietnam
1A – promising peace
  was at hand, Nixon
  won reelection in
  1972 in a landslide
1B – U.S. and S.
  Vietnam signed a
  peace agreement with
  N. Vietnam and the
  Viet Cong that ended
  the war in January,
  1973                   U.S. National Security Advisor,
2 – in 1975 N. Vietnam   Henry Kissinger (right) shaking
  invaded and            hands with North Vietnam’s Le Duc
  conquered S. Vietnam   Tho in Paris after their agreement
                         on the cease-fire terms of the
  unifying the nation    Vietnam War, 1973.
  under communism
  Legacy of the               1A – the war destroyed
                                Vietnam’s landscape and
  Vietnam War                   economy, and over 1.2
                                million Vietnamese died
                              1B – after Vietnam reunited
                                under communism many
                                Vietnamese from the
                                south fled to the U.S.
                              2A – 58,000 U.S. soldiers
                                died; over 300,000 were
                                wounded
Most soldiers who returned 2B – returning soldiers often
from the war were not           suffered from delayed
welcomed home like soldiers     stress disorder which had
from previous wars, and many symptoms like recurring
took part in antiwar protests
                                nightmares, depression,
                                fatigue, and flashbacks
3A – 26th Amendment – lowered
   the voting age from 21 to 18      Vietnam
3B – govt. ended the draft in 1973   Veterans
                                     Memorial
   as so many people were            unveiled in
   opposed to it                     Washington
4 – War Powers Act – limits the      , DC in
   president’s war-making powers     1982

   - President must report to
   Congress in 48 hours if troops
   are used
   - President needs Congress’
   approval to use troops for
   more than 90 days
5 – war made many Americans
   mistrust their govt.

				
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