garibaldi by ulissi1

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									Benemeriti Campioni dell'Indipendenza Italiana
(Italian & English)

Del Magg. Leonardo Andervolti
Background/Precedenti
From the fall of the Roman Empire until the mid 1800’s the nation state of Italy did not exist. Following the defeat of Napoleon at Waterloo in 1815, under the "Restoration" the Italian peninsula was completely fragmented and controlled predominantly by the Austrians. There soon arose a strong sentiment and various uprisings favoring the unification of Italy. In 1848 this nationalistic fervor exploded throughout Europe. In Italy it took the name of the "Risorgimento" (Revival) and one of its leaders was Giuseppe Garibaldi (1807-1882) a native of Nice (which was then part of Italian city-state but is now France). For the second time in his life, Garibaldi had to flee Italy due to his subversive activities. He emigrated to the United States where he lived for six years on Staten Island, worked as a candle maker and eventually became an American citizen. Garibaldi returned to Italy in 1854 and soon took up arms against the Austrians (and at times his fellow countrymen). Distinctively clad, his soldiers were called by the color of their uniforms, "Red Shirts." At first, Garibaldi believed the best hope to unite Italy lay with establishing a monarchy under King Victor Emmanuel II. After many struggles, in March, 1861 Victor Emmanuel was recognized King of Italy "by the grace of God and the will of the people." Two lingering problems were that Rome was still under the Papal Rule and Venice remained under Austrian domination. In 1862, differences over the best method of incorporating Rome into the Italian State led the King to wound and to defeat Garibaldi in battle. Fortunately, they reconciled and worked together towards their common goal. Following the Franco-Prussian war, Venice was added to Italy in 1866. Rome would not join the Kingdom until 1871 although questions regarding the sovereignty of Rome were not resolved until 1929 under the rule of Mussolini. The political treatise below, was written by Leonardo Andervolti, a military officer second in command at a fort in Osoppo (just north of Venice) who played an important role in the Italian resistance against the Austrians. In this speech, Leonardo praises the heroism of a mythical figure, Enrico Ulissi, who died fighting for Garibaldi and the Risorgimento. He urges his fellow citizens to rise up against the Austrians in the name of Italian unification, to expel them from the Veneto region, and to incorporate Venice into the newly formed Italian State.

ITALIAN VERSION:
A doloroso ed arrischiato ufficio mi spinge quel grande amore, obligo e desiderio di dare l'ultimo addio alla salma di questo valoroso estinto. E voi generosi compagni d'armi, che miro egualmente contristati intorno a questo feretro, a me vorrete consentire e scusare questo sfogo dell'anima commossa, alla perdita di tanto mio concittadino, nè mi farete carico se oso tessere l'elogio di questo prode Capitano, senza conoscere le antecedenti sue gesta militari, le sue virtù cittadine, i suoi sacrifici fatti alla patria. Ma vi è forse bisogno di rintracciare altre imprese per trasmettere riverito il suo nome ai posteri oltre a quest'ultima che gli costò la vita?… vi è bisogno di ricorrere ad altri vanti oltre a quello di potere dirsi seguace Garibaldi, Capitano dei suoi Bersaglieri, e d'essere stato mortalmente ferito nell'assalto di questo castello! Si, il Capitano Enrico Ulissi veneziano fu il primo che nel 20 luglio passato, nullastante lo ferite riportate al piano, ardiva avanzarsi fin sotto le seconde porte di questa rocca, quantunque la sapesse inaccessibile, difficilmente espugnabile, e resa allora più irta da migliaia di baionette; pure nulla le scariche incoriate delle migliaia di fucili nemici vilmente nascosti dietro scogli, dietro anguste iertoie, dietro parapetti impenetrabili, il Capitano Ulissi primo intrepido saliva per incoraggiare I suoi compagni nella pericolosa impresa; e mentre brandiva la spada e, teneva alto il braccio per insegnare la via, una palla nemica da destra a sinistra gli perforava il torace, ed esso cadeva. Pero

quantunque caduto non cessò di gridare "avanti, avanti," ed li suoi compagni che l'intesero, che il videro, si slanciarono sopra quei scogli come tigri desiose di sangue e di vendetta, e tanto ne sparsero, tanta ne ottennero, e tanto fu lo spavento che incolse il nemico che venne pocostante agli accordi - Ed il prode Ulissi dà nostri raccolto per ben 22 giorni seppe sopportare rassegnato la crudele agonia prodottagli dalla micidiale ferita, accresciuta a dismisura dalla lontananza della sua amata e desiata famiglia, ne altro farmaco trovè potente a lenire cotanto strazio delle sue belle membra della sua bell'anima, che il sapere questo rocca monumento nefando del saracinesco dominio già presa, che i nemici dell'italica indipendenza andarono in fuga, che la sua ardita impresa fu encomiata dall'invitto nostro Condottiero; però in onta a tanta robustezza di che natura avealo fornito, e della prepotenza dei suoi 27 anni ieri 11 agosto ore 10 a.m. tanta vita si spense benedicendo a Garibaldi!… Oh! da natura sovrumana deriva certo il fascino che esercita su' suoi compagni il nostro sommo Duce; poicchè in tal modo sa alleviare i nostri più' atroci tormenti, sa mantenerci in vita in concordia, sa renderci sempre a certa vittoria, o farci morire superbi e contenti; e le poderose, le innumerabili, le ordinate falangi nemiche o fa addormentare sul nostro passaggio, o ce le fa disperdere come improvviso uragano la polve abieta. Contemplino svergognati i re perversi, i re indolenti, I ministri i ciarlatani, i nemici dell'affrancamento ed Unità italiana, come si vive, come si vince, come si muore per Lui, e sappiano che ciò' proviene perché' una impresa più leale e santa no fu mai più' degnamente Capitanata, e dovea di necessità essere susseguita da si inauditi trionfi. Si, le imprese di Garibaldi superarono già quelle di tutti i condottieri antichi, come quelle dei moderni svergogna, poicchè' ripetiamolo, la prodigiosa sua forza e le risorse inesauribili del suo genio sono emanazioni della giusta causa che vuole propugnare, e da quella lealtà' e costanza di principi, e coraggio di farli prevalere, che altri ancora non seppe dimostrare. Oh! avventurosi noi che ci è concesso di seguire il Sommo Condottiero, e più' avventuroso il Capitano Ulissi che morì meritevole di si illustre compianto… Dio degli eserciti che sempre volesti il trionfo della giusta causa per liberare i popoli dalla schiavitù, conserva al prodigioso Condottiero il tuo favore e vita onde compia la santa impresa, e tanta in premio poi ne aggiungi che lungamente in pace se ne compiaccia - E persuadi ai re malvaggi, agli usurpatori, che nulla sono loro compre o stolte falangi di fronte a queste, che fidenti seguono il tuo nuovo Mosè. E tu Divo ed umile figlio di Nazaret che ti compiacesti morire per essere di redenzione a noi Maestro e Dono, pendente da quella tua croce e mortalmente ferito contempla come i tuoi esempi si imitano con devozione e costanza in Italia. Oh! gli innumerabili e magnifici templi che ti innalzarono ti abbellirono in questa terra, inefabile per gioie e dolori, la fede ed al genio che non han pari altrove -- e le purissime preci delle nostre belle vergini; ed il pianto inesauribile delle eroiche madri deserte degli amati figli; e quelle di tante vedove ed orfani per la santa causa, doveano finalmente propiziarti in questa novella redenzione, che da noi a tua imitazione, a maggior tua lode si vuoi meritare col sangue di tanti martiri, dei quali uno oggi te ne offriamo in questo generoso amico nostro raccomandalo alla tua misericordia…. Ma il tempo è venuto, li strepitosi prodigi per la ben incominciata redenzione italiana, mostrano che tu buon Dio sei con noi, che Garibaldi è la tua folgore a cui nulla resiste, il tuo Profeta nel quale ti compiaci. Ed ecco già sorgere Italia Libera ed Una, e forte così che basta ad infrangere Sola gli enormi ceppi che tutte le nazioni ingrate, ingiuste, invide, paurose le aveano per tanti anni ribaditi; e null'ostante

la patita lunghissima schiavitù, sa insorgere armata a dispetto di chi non volea e nol credea, e forte e guerriera così da offuscare le passate proprie glorie e meglio l'altrui; e di questa sua forza Ella non ne abbuserà punto saprà generosamente perdonare, adoprerà soltanto a fare rispettare la propria indipendenza, come alla conquista dell'altrui; nè questi brandi vuol Garibaldi sien riposti finché la santa missione non abbia compita, che assicuri quella pace che da tanti anni si sospira e giustizia e civiltà' reclamano, onde ricomporre i popoli in quella prima avventurosa famiglia, che prepotenza divise, avarizia contristò, odio abrutì . Oh! beati coloro che fruiranno di tanto beneficio, oh! noi invidiati che partecipiamo a si santa impresa col Duce Garibaldi, l'inviato dal cielo all’affrancamento di tutti i popoli, all'esterminio dei loro tiranni. Ed beati coloro che fruiranno di tanto beneficio, oh! noi invidiati che partecipiamo a si santa impresa retribuirli questa nazione sempre eminentemente grata e generosa verso I figli degni di Lei. Ed allora queste tue ossa, mi caro Enrico, avranno dalla gentile e riconoscente Venezia monumento degno di Lei e di te che sarai tra I prediletti … ma quando, e perché ultima la nostra infelice Venezia mi richiedi? ... anima tuttora impaziente, tollera che ciò sia, giacchè la sua liberazione è assicurata dalla preponderanza della giusta causa, dai trionfi già' ottenuti; ed a te pure deve sembrare conveniente, tornar consonante, che la fine di si gloriose inaudite imprese, abbia in Venezia la più splendida la più degna corona possibile. Addio nostro caro compagno d'armi, l'anima tua si a lungo agitata goda finalmente l'ineffabile riposo serbato ai giusti, ai generosi, e si compiaccia dell'affetto imperituro dei tuoi figli e sposa; e degli amici che tua morte onora --- Oh! l'ultima stretta della gelata tua mano sarà la prima che con l'ardente mia darò a Venezia i figli tuoi … e di questi fiori che le brune e formose figlie dell'infuocata Sicilia profusero dolenti sulla tua bara, consenti che io ne tolga questi pochi per farne triste, ma gradito presente a quella tua desolata famiglia, poiché rivedere te, riabbracciare te, fatale destino per sempre le vieta; -- Viva l'Italia armata -- Viva Garibaldi sua stella -- Viva l'Indipendenza ed alleanza di tutti le nazioni.

ENGLISH VERSION:

Meritorious Champions of Italian Independence By Major Leonardo Andervolti
A pained and rash duty pushes me in great love, obligation and desire to say my farewells to the remains of this valorous man. And you, his generous comrades in arms that I observe gathered with me around this coffin, I ask that you grant me the opportunity to pour out the contents of my afflicted soul which has been so moved by the loss of my fellow citizen. And do not lay the blame on me if I dare to praise this proud Captain, without knowing his prior military experiences, his virtues as a citizen, or the sacrifices that he made for his country. But to hallow his name for all posterity is it necessary to elaborate on his achievements beyond this last one that cost him his life? Over and above his calling himself a follower of Garibaldi, must we detail the other brave deeds of this Infantry Captain who was mortally wounded in the onslaught of this enormous castle! Indeed, the Venetian Captain Enrico Ulissi was the first who on the 20th day of this past July, notwithstanding the wounds suffered on the plain below, dared to advance up to the second level of

these fortress doors. He did this knowing this inaccessible target, teeming with thousands of bayonets, would be most difficult to storm. Ignoring incessant artillery fire he found himself the target of thousands of enemy arms vilely hidden behind cliffs, narrow keyhole openings, and impenetrable parapets. The daunting Captain Ulissi rose up in order to encourage his companions in their dangerous enterprise. While brandishing his sword and holding high his arm in order to lead the way, an enemy musket ball perforated his thorax from right to left. Although no longer standing, the fallen soldier never ceased to scream, "Onward, onward." Seeing this and hearing him, his companions rose up like Tigers desirous of blood and retaliation. A great deal of blood was shed and revenge was theirs as they surged forward. Such was the enemy’s fear that the warring factions soon came to terms. For a good 22 days we have gathered around the proud Ulissi as he bore with resignation his agony of this deadly wound, made immeasurably worse by the absence of his dearly beloved family. To alleviate the sufferings of his wounded limb and his beautiful spirit no medicine was more powerful than that of the knowledge that this wicked monument, with its dominating barriers, had been captured or that the enemies of Italian independence had taken flight. This difficult undertaking brings such praise to our unvanquished Leader. However, despite his God-given robust nature and his being a strong 27-year-old, yesterday, 11 August at the hour of 10 a.m., such a great life ended. And thus was Garibaldi blessed!… Oh! From a superhuman nature comes the fascination of our supreme Leader, that so much influences his companions. In this way, he knows how to ease our most atrocious torments, keeps us alive in mutual harmony, teaches us how to surpass our own abilities as well as those of all others and leads us to a certain victory or to die proudly and contently. And so are those ponderous, innumerable and organised enemy arrays scattered like sawdust in the midst of an unexpected hurricane. With shame do the wicked and indolent kings, the dishonest administrators, the charlatans, the enemies of the freedom and Italian Unity contemplate how one lives, overcomes, and dies for Garibaldi. And they know this will happen because never has there been led a more loyal and holy undertaking, that, of necessity, must be followed by unspeakable triumphs. Indeed, Garibaldi’s feats already surpass those of all the ancient Leaders and in comparison put to shame those modern times. Therefore, let us repeat, his prodigious force, inexhaustible resources and genius emanate from the just cause he supports as well as from the same loyalty, steadfast principles, and courage to make them prevail, such that no others have known to demonstrate. Oh! How adventuresome we are in submitting to follow this Supreme Leader. And more adventuresome the dead Captain Ulissi, whose death merits such widely esteemed sorrow... God of the armies, who has always wanted the triumph of the just cause and for people to be free of servitude, bestow your favors upon our prodigious Leader as he undertakes his holy enterprise; and furthermore grant that he may long rejoice in this peace. Persuade the wicked kings and the usurpers that their hired or foolish arrays of soldiers stand no chance in the face of the faithful followers of this new Moses. Oh Divine and humble son of Nazareth, you to whom death has brought pleasure in the form of our redemption. You, Master and Gift, hanging mortally wounded on your cross, contemplate the ways in which others will consistently and devoutly follow the example you have set in Italy. Oh! the countless grand temples on this earth that rise up in your honor, expressions of unspeakable joy and pain; the unrivaled faith and genius---and the purist prayers of our beautiful virgins; the unending expressions of grief from heroic mothers deserted by their beloved sons; the many widowed and orphaned in the name of the Holy Cause – should finally bring You to favor this renewed redemption, that we, in Your likeness, and to Your greater glory, wish to merit by

means of the blood of so many martyrs, one of whom we offer you today, our generous friend; let him lay before you in mercy… But with a clamorous wonderment, the time for action has arrived; the auspicious beginning of redemptive process shows that the good Lord is with us; that Garibaldi is Your irresistible thunderbolt, Your prophet in whom You delight. And now arises a Free and Unified Italy, strong enough to break the enormous chains imposed over the years by all the ungrateful, unjust, jealous and fearful nations. And despite a long-endured servitude, Italy knows how to rise up in armed rebellion against those who refused to believe and did not want this; and its strength and bellicosity obscures its own past glories and surpasses those of other nations. Italy will not at all abuse this great strength and will be generous in knowing how to forgive her enemies. This force will be used against others only in respecting her own independence or to achieve it for other nations; and Garibaldi wants these swords brandished only until the Holy Mission has been achieved; the peace which has for so many years been yearned is assured; justice and civility cry out for this; from whence have come together the people in a previous adventuresome family, subject to divisive arrogance, pitiful greed, and the ugly hatred. Oh! Blessed are those who reap such great blessings. Oh! How we shall be envied while we participate in such a Holy undertaking with the leader Garibaldi, sent from heaven to all the people in order to liberate them, to exterminate their tyrants. The just consolation of the martyrs of Italian Independence will be the resplendent memories held by this nation, one that forever remains exceedingly grateful and generous in placing its children within Garibaldi’s trust. And so, my beloved Enrico, your bones will receive from the kind and grateful Venice a monument worthy of her and you, and you will be among her favorite sons. But you ask me when and lastly why does Venice remain unhappy? Please, my impatient soul, tolerate this situation, as her liberation is assured by the weight of this just cause and the triumphs that already been achieved. So is it right and of consolation to you that the finality of such a glorious and audacious undertaking will be Venice’s most splendid and worthy crowning achievement. Farewell forever, our dear comrade in arms, although your spirit has been unnerved, finally shall you enjoy the just and the generous peace reserved to right and generous men. So shall you be bathed in the everlasting affection of your children, your wife, and friends; those whom your death so honors. Oh! I shall pass the last tight grasp of your cold and lifeless hand to your children in Venice… of these flowers that the browned and shapely daughters of the scorched Sicily scattered sadly upon your coffin, let me remove these few to present as a gift to your saddened family, as a fatal destiny has forever denied that they see or re-embrace you again: -- Long live an armed Italy -Long live her star, Garibaldi -- Long live Independence and the alliance of all the nations.


								
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