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Wind Energy - Prospek Energi Ang

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					WIND ENERGY PROGRAM IN INDONESIA
   ( Current status, barrier, opportunity and prospect )

                                                                                               by
           Indonesia Wind Energy Society (IWES),
                                       Jl. Raya LAPAN Ds. Sukamulya Rumpin Bogor
                                                             Telp. +62 21 75790378
                                                              ripnoms@yahoo.com
                                                             brsckd@centrin.net.id




      Joint Energy Working Group Meeting Indonesia_The Netherlands, Jakarta 01 December 2009
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                   Outline - Objective

1. Introduction
2. Present Situation
   •   Wind Turbine technology
   •   Wind Turbine Utilization

3. Barrier, Opportunity and Prospect on Wind
   Energy Implementation
4. Conclusion


            Joint Energy Working Group Meeting Indonesia_The Netherlands, Jakarta 01 December 2009
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•   The objective of wind energy development and utilization in Indonesia is an establishment
    of wind energy based electricity generating system as part of rural electrifications ( RE)
    program at various rural and isolated areas in Indonesia by achieving the capability access
    of mastering the science and technology of wind energy conversion system (WECS), their
    utilizations and dissemination of technology through industrial and private sector
    supports.


                                                                        a) Resource assessment :
                                                             - Wind data monitoring and collection
                                                                   - Identification of potential areas
           - Micro-sitting for preliminary identification of site selection for sitting measurement
                                                                                     - Wind mapping
                                                                    b) Technology Development :
                                       - Selection of appropriate WECS for Indonesia conditions
                                                             - Development of suitable prototypes
                                        - Development of hybrids and interconnecting systems.
                                         c) WECS utilizations : promotion and dissemination.
                                          - Develop pilot projects at several regions in Indonesia
                        - Techno-socio economic assessment for local manufacture of WECS




           Joint Energy Working Group Meeting Indonesia_The Netherlands, Jakarta 01 December 2009
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Wind Caracteristic :

• Renewable and clean
• Site-specific
• Direction and velocity are changing
• Wind speed increasing with the height , and the energy
  are the cube of wind speed
• The roughness, obstacles and topographi are influence of
  energy
• Wind not blowing continuously (lull condition )


        Joint Energy Working Group Meeting Indonesia_The Netherlands, Jakarta 01 December 2009
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Indonesia Global Wind




        Joint Energy Working Group Meeting Indonesia_The Netherlands, Jakarta 01 December 2009
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2. Present Situation
                  Wind Measurement and
                   Resource Assessment
 • Measurement point by LAPAN and others until 2008 are more 150
   points, and some of them have a good /excellent wind potential.
 • Sitting of measurement equipment
 • Using accurate and reliable equipment (anemometer, wind direction
   with data logger, computer access and modem)
 • Measurement height up to 50 m or higher
 • Minimum 1 year measurement
 • Methods of energy estimation : Weibull Methods and Bin Methods
 • Using software for data processing and evaluation
 • Other data contributor : P3TKEBT–ESDM, Windguard, Windrock Int’l,
   Soluziona, NipSA, BPPT, BMKG.


             Joint Energy Working Group Meeting Indonesia_The Netherlands, Jakarta 01 December 2009
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      Wind resource mapping

Ideal situation:
• Government develops policies and identifies potential
   sites, based on high-quality wind resource mapping.
• Additional detailed wind measurements should be
   conducted at specifically to identify wind sites, in order to
   establish sufficiently reliable predictions of economic
   output from the planned wind power project.
• Rule of the thumb : the more wind at the better site, the
   more energy can be produced.


         Joint Energy Working Group Meeting Indonesia_The Netherlands, Jakarta 01 December 2009
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      Wind Measurement
    Equipment Configuration

Example :
• Tower height : 50 m
• Anemometer level : 20 , 35 and 50 m
• wind direction level : 35 m and 51,5m
• Logger level : 3 m
• Other sensor : humidity, temperature
• Transfer data : by download / internet
• Tower type : tree angle w/iron bar dia. 16
  mm, hot dip galvanize steel
• Measurement period : > 1 years



                Joint Energy Working Group Meeting Indonesia_The Netherlands, Jakarta 01 December 2009
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Weibull curves for Windspeed and Direction distributions




            Joint Energy Working Group Meeting Indonesia_The Netherlands, Jakarta 01 December 2009
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                 Wind Power classification
Wind Power               Resources            Wind Power Density, WPD at 30               Wind Speed at 30 m
classification            potential                        m                                    (m/s)
                                                         (W/m2)

      2                                                       < 100                                 < 4,3
                           Marginal

      3                                                      100 -150                             4,3 - 5,0
                              Fair

      4                                                      150 -200                           5,0 – 5,5

      5                     Good                             200 -300                           5,5 – 6,3

      6                                                      300 - 400                          6,3 - 7,0

      7                                                      400 - 600                          7,0 – 8 ,2
                         Excelent
      8                                                      600 - 800                          8,2 – 9,1



                 Joint Energy Working Group Meeting Indonesia_The Netherlands, Jakarta 01 December 2009
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         Wind Data for NTT (by Windguard)
No                      Site Name                                     21m          36m          51m
1    Amarazi, Kupang NTT                                               4.3          5.0          5.4
2    Ekateta, Kupang NTT                                               3.5          4.1          4.3
3    Hansisi, Kupang NTT                                               3.9          4.3          4.4
4    Sulamu, Kupang NTT                                                4.1          4.4          4.8
5    Fatukolen, Timor Tengah Selatan, NTT                             7.26         7.36         7.64
6    Babia, Timor Tengah Selatan, NTT                                 5.42         5.74         5.59
7    Buat, Timor Tengah Selatan, NTT                                  5.51         6.01         6.31
8    Niki-niki, Timor Tengah Selatan, NTT                             3.98         4.25         4.38
9    Boa , Rote Ndao , NTT                                             5.0          5.4          5.7
10   Hituk , Rote Ndao , NTT                                           5.0          5.6          6.0
11   Hundipoho , Rote Ndao , NTT                                       3.5          4.0          4.4
12   Sanggaoen , Rote Ndao , NTT                                       3.7          4.4          4.8
             Joint Energy Working Group Meeting Indonesia_The Netherlands, Jakarta 01 December 2009
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         SUMMARY WIND ENERGY POTENTIAL
                   AND SITES

 Wind         Wind speed               WDP               WTG                        Sites/ Area
Classes         (m/s )               ( W/m2 )           ( kW )
Small scale    2,5 - 4,0              Up to 75         Up to 10 Java, NTB, NTT,                          Maluku,
                                                                Sulawesi, Sumatera


Medium         4,0 - 5,0              75 – 150          10 – 100       NTB, NTT, South, South east
Scale                                                                  and north  Sulawesi,   East
                                                                       Java



Large            > 5,0                 > 150             > 100         South Sulawesi, NTB
scale                                                                  dan NTT, South and
                                                                       North part Java


                Joint Energy Working Group Meeting Indonesia_The Netherlands, Jakarta 01 December 2009
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      Measurement point and NTT Wind map




Joint Energy Working Group Meeting Indonesia_The Netherlands, Jakarta 01 December 2009
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2. Present Situation

            WECS Development
 up to 2008, WECS Prototype output:

   Wind Turbine, capacity of : 80 W, 250 W, 1000 W, 2500 W,
    3500 W, 5 kW and 10 kW.
   WECS 20 kW, 50 kW and 100 kW on going detail drawing and
    construction.
   300 kW prototipe on going for detail engeneering design
   Several type and head level of pumping for multiblades windmill



             Joint Energy Working Group Meeting Indonesia_The Netherlands, Jakarta 01 December 2009
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      PrototipeWECS Development
               Hasil Litbang LAPAN




                                                                          1.000 Watt




                         10.000 W
2.500 Watt        WECS Prototype (electric)                                           80 Watt
                                                     15
       Joint Energy Working Group Meeting Indonesia_The Netherlands, Jakarta 01 December 2009
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                      WECS Development
                                                                     Technology :
                                                                        The biggest wind turbine is
                                                                         Enercon E-126 (7 MW)
                                                                     Implementation :
                                                                        World Total installed capacity is
                                                                         around 120 GW, at the end 2008.
                                                                        The big five are :
                                                                           USA                     25.170 MW,
                                                                           Germany                 23.903 MW,
                                                                           Spain                   16.754 MW,
                                                                           China                   12.210 MW
                                                                           India                    9.645 MW,


                                                                        Indonesia is around 1.5 MW
                                                                     Total installed wind turbine


Source : GEWC & AWEA
           Joint Energy Working Group Meeting Indonesia_The Netherlands, Jakarta 01 December 2009
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     INSTALLED WIND POWER FOR TOP TEN
                COUNTRIES
             Installed Wind power capacity (MW)
Rank          Nation          2005     2006   2007                             2008            Growth rate
  1 United States             9,149   11,603 16,818                           25,170              45 %
  2 Germany                  18,415 20,622 22,247                             23,903               6%
  3 Spain                    10,028 11,615 15,145                             16,754              11 %
  4 China                     1,260   2,604   6,050                           12,210             147 %
  5 India                     4,430   6,270   8,000                           9,645               20 %
  6 Italy                     1,718   2,123   2,726                           3,736               37 %
  7 France                     757    1,567   2,454                           3,404               38 %
  8 United Kingdom            1,332   1,963   2,389                           3,241               36 %
     Denmark & Faeroe
  9                           3,136   3,140   3,129                            3,180                  2%
     Islands
 10 Portugal                  1,022   1,716   2,150                            2,862                  33 %
 11 INDONESIA                   --      --      ??                               ??                    ??

 Source : GEWC & AWEA

             Joint Energy Working Group Meeting Indonesia_The Netherlands, Jakarta 01 December 2009
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WIND TURBINES IMPLEMENTATION

 • The implementation of wind energy technology in Indonesia is still
   low
 • The implementation of isolated wind energy systems typically in
   remote area / location or islands, and they are frequently installed as
   part of development or research project
 • The biggest capacity of wind turbine installed at the moment is 100
   kW. It was implemented by PT PLN and MMER (Ministry of Mines
   and Energy Resources) at Nusa Penida and Selayar Islands .




                                                                                                    18
          Joint Energy Working Group Meeting Indonesia_The Netherlands, Jakarta 01 December 2009   18
WIND TURBINES IMPLEMENTATION
A number of pilot projects have been developed at several locations,
such as:

      • Wind Energy Village Project at Jepara – Central of Jawa ,
        Nyamuk Island, Karya Island, Oitui has been installed on 1991
        to 2004, with total intalled capacity is 69,5 kW for households
        and public lighting and water pumping .
      • Samas village Yogyakarta, Kuwaru Village, Sundak and
        Giliyang Madura , consist of several units of WECS, with total
        install capasity around 64 kW for shrimps breading growing
        (germination) compressor, water pumping’s (fresh and sea
        water) and lightings also house holds.




             Joint Energy Working Group Meeting Indonesia_The Netherlands, Jakarta 01 December 2009   19   19
continued


• Hybrid system Wind - PV and Diesel at Rote Ndao East Nusa
  Tenggara and Wini North Timor Tengah, with 5 unit of 10 kW
  wind turbine and 85 kWp PV.
• Hybrid system Wind-PV-PLN at Girisari – Bali, consist of 1 unit
  wind turbine of 2.5 kW and 4.8 kWp of Photovoltaic, for
  powering Indosat BTS.
• Small isolated grid connection in Nusa Penida island Bali,
  consist of 6 units of 80 kW and 3 units of 85 kW. At Selayar
  Island consist of 2 unit wind turbine of 100 kW each.
• Utilization by other users, for several application for water
  pumping, lighting (public and household) , communication
  power supply, battery charging, freezer and other, have been
  installed of several kilo-Watt WECS installed capacity
• Other sites… on various user




            Joint Energy Working Group Meeting Indonesia_The Netherlands, Jakarta 01 December 2009   20   20
          Hybrid Systems
 Wind Turbines 4 x 10 kW, PV 36 kWp and
Genset, 125 kW; Nembrala Rote Ndao,NTT
(2007)




                                                                 Wind Turbine 2.5 kW and PV
                                                                 4.8 kWp for BTS at Girisari, Bali
                                                                 (2008)



              Joint Energy Working Group Meeting Indonesia_The Netherlands, Jakarta 01 December 2009
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Wind Farm in Nusa Penida - Bali
                                                                          Name             Mark        Power
                                                                                                        kW

                                                                         WECS 1            WES          80

                                                                         WECS 2            WES          80

                                                                         WECS 3        Indo Electric    85

                                                                         WECS 4        Indo Electric    85

                                                                         WECS 5        Indo Electric    85

                                                                         WECS 6             Alto        80

                                                                         WECS 7            WES          80

                                                                         WECS 8            WES          80

                                                                         WECS 9            WES          80

                                                                            Total Installed             735


         Joint Energy Working Group Meeting Indonesia_The Netherlands, Jakarta 01 December 2009
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     OPERATION PROBLEMS IN NUSA PENIDA
1.    Before WT connected to grid, the power by diesel engine only as a reliable system.
      After WT connected to grid, power supplied combine by WT and diesel engine,
      with the variation wind speed conditions. If stability can’t held constantly then it
      will make the system be collapsed.
2.    Wind fluctuation condition will give Fluctuating of power supplied by WT, means
      will give fluctuating effect to diesel engine, and power system delivery be
      unreliable.
3.    Wind fluctuation not only give impact for diesel engine, but also for WT and
      influence the mechanical component . For long operation would be reduced life
      time of diesel engine and WT itself.
4.    There are increasing reactive power if WT capacity increased. Although the WT
      completed with capacitor to supply reactive power, but on high power output of
      WT, there are high reactive power needed by WT.
5.    Manual operation for diesel engine to increase or decrease power if power from
      WT varieties, not enough to keep load stabilization. To overcome this condition,
      diesel operation must be automatic control.
6.    Increasing total WT capacity should no more 30 % of total system load



                Joint Energy Working Group Meeting Indonesia_The Netherlands, Jakarta 01 December 2009
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     Observation for Small system :

• Most of the wind turbines are technically well function
  with regular maintenances. For this task, spare -parts must
  be available
• Maintenance jobs are particularly more problems at the
  remote areas due to the lack of technical persons and
  spare-parts delivery




       Joint Energy Working Group Meeting Indonesia_The Netherlands, Jakarta 01 December 2009
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     Observation for Larger WECS
• Some wind turbines do not perform according to the
  given specifications. Main reason is the sitting or
  design of operating system due to the lack of wind
  data and less technical assessment or FS
• Local governments have the important roles for wind
  applications; more supports needed are expected in
  order to accelerate the achievement
• More private companies and industry had indicated
  their interests in marketing and local fabrications,
  however, they need the stimulus for better
  contributions
         Joint Energy Working Group Meeting Indonesia_The Netherlands, Jakarta 01 December 2009
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            THE BARRIERS
Basically, it is about eliminating the deadlock situation that the market for wind power in
isolated power systems has not developed because the product is not there and the
product has not developed because the market is not there.

Some of the main barriers that may be mentioned are : LACK OF -
  • positive tract records due to failures in too complex system designs applied in early
     pilot projects.
  • institutional sustainability at the recipient in small remote communities with limited
     human resources.
  • detailed knowledge of users demands and priorities and their development in time
  • project preparation and implementation models adapted to remote community
     condition and capacities
  • financial sustainability and commercial markets
  • Availability of cost efficient wind turbines with a long positive track record in
     appropriate size range ( small to medium size )
  • funding for local technological development
  • engineering tools for customizing systems
  • generalized reported experience and guidelines



                Joint Energy Working Group Meeting Indonesia_The Netherlands, Jakarta 01 December 2009
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         Wind Energy Prospect
• Wind is available, in certain areas in Indonesia,
  the wind potential is sufficient for electricity.
• Environmentally friendly.
• Wind energy is part of energy mix.
• Wind energy is an industry which creates job
  for medium/ high technology expertise.
• Wind energy is part of the future energy
  security.

        Joint Energy Working Group Meeting Indonesia_The Netherlands, Jakarta 01 December 2009
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        Wind Energy Prospect (2)
• Wind is cheaper alternative to diesel for remote areas.
• Smaller turbine (< 100 kW) is beneficial to location which is
  small, isolated and less populated area.
• Area connected to a grid may have large windfarms, provided
  there is sufficient infrastructure (ports, roads).
• Wind-diesel combination can be feasible for optimizing
  guarantee of supply, low cost energy and less pollution
  impact.
• For remote areas, hybrid of wind-photovoltaic-hydrogen
  electrolysis / fuel cell shows promising results



          Joint Energy Working Group Meeting Indonesia_The Netherlands, Jakarta 01 December 2009
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          Wind Energy Prospect (3)
• Several location have been done by indentified/investigation
  and some of them have good / excellent wind energy potential.
  Base on the specific sites on wind resource and demand, the
  implementation can follow the systems configuration above.
• For the wind potential sites and the remote /small island and
  small demand, the configuration with stand alone systems are
  suitable for.
• The extended for existing electricity generating by adding the
  wind turbine for hybrid system also have prospected at several
  location especially at eastern part Indonesia or at the Islands.
• The feasibility study at several location have been done
  identified, some of them have prospected to be implementation
  for grid inter-connection with large wind turbine.
• Specific user at the outer and border island, for powering the
  communication equipment and safety guard                                                            29
             Joint Energy Working Group Meeting Indonesia_The Netherlands, Jakarta 01 December 2009
            The Challenge
The contribution of wind energy in Indonesia has to be gained, i.e, by
     means of :
a. More assessment and identification of wind potential at various area
    in Indonesia supported by accurate and reliable wind data base. This
    has to be done nationally with the targets to produce the
    representative wind map of Indonesia
c. Local fabrication of certain type of WECS using proper technology have
    to performed for reducing the cost and increasing             market
    achievement
d. Large WECS implementation have to be initiated in order to realize the
    contribution of wind energy according to BPEN/Road Map 2025 .
    WECS products of the size of 300kW – 1 MW and are available for
    implementation.
e. Local governments have the important roles for wind applications;
    more supports are expected in order to accelerate the achievement



            Joint Energy Working Group Meeting Indonesia_The Netherlands, Jakarta 01 December 2009
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                           Challenges (2)
• Regulation covering short and long term goals, must be
  developed among stake holder.
• Knowledge basis must be established, including specifically
  wind map to allow strategic outlook for wind energy
• Financial support policy for renewable energy and specifically
  for wind
• Technology in operation & maintenance, product spec which
  meets condition in Indonesia (low speed wind), cost
  optimization, local production, international cooperation, etc.
• Cooperation among stake holders: central/ local government,
  business, universities, research, financial institutions and
  participation of local people.


           Joint Energy Working Group Meeting Indonesia_The Netherlands, Jakarta 01 December 2009
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    RE REGULATION AND POLICY
   Regulation RI No 5/2006: National Energy Management (PEN
    2006) Small Distributed Power Generation using Renewable Energy
    (Ministerial Decree: No. 1122 K/30/MEM/2002)
   Green Energy Policy (Ministerial Decree: No. 0002/2004)
   Regulation on Electricity Supply and Utilization (Government
    Regulation No. 03/2005)
   Medium Scale Power Generation Scheme for Renewable Energy
    (Ministerial Regulation : No. 002/2006)
   , Penelitian, Pengembangan dan Penerapan IPTEK untuk
    mendukung Ketersediaan Energi Tahun 2025 (RISTEK 2025)
   Regulation on Electricity Supply and Utilization (Government
    Regulation No. 2Government
   White paper6/2006)
   Energy Law (Law No. 30/2007)

              Joint Energy Working Group Meeting Indonesia_The Netherlands, Jakarta 01 December 2009
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Price Policy (1)/ PLN
For IPP Developing :
• Capacity classification :
  - Up to 1 MW
  - 1 MW to 10 MW
  - > 10 MW
• The price is Average Ceiling Price for up to 10 MW
• Price for > 10 MW based on Project Estimated Price
• Staging Price applied as incentive for :
  Up to 10 MW : 5 years first & 10 yrs second
  > 10 MW        : 10 years first & 20 yrs second
• The first 5 (up to 10 MW) and 10 years (>10 MW) prices are
  higher to speed up the investment pay back


          Joint Energy Working Group Meeting Indonesia_The Netherlands, Jakarta 01 December 2009
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   Price Policy (2), PLN
• Regional Tariff Applied for :
  - Java, Madura & Bali
  - Sumatra & Sulawesi
  - Kalimantan, West Nusatenggara & East
    Nusatenggara
  - Maluku & Papua
• Currency for Tariff :
  - Up to 10 MW in Rupiah
  - > 10 MW in US $
• Final price in contract through negotiation adjusted to the
  project location condition

          Joint Energy Working Group Meeting Indonesia_The Netherlands, Jakarta 01 December 2009
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                                Conclusion
•   Wind energy is an opportunity that has to be worked out.
•   Wind energy is part of energy mix strategy and an investment for the future (energy,
    environment & economic benefit)
•   Wind potential mapping, especially east Indonesia, must be developed to allow planning
    for the stake holder.
•   Policy recommended: optimizing the solution for current (low cost energy, reliability) and
    future (learning process).
•   Collaboration should be made between government, business, academics and research
    institution to have a viable and integrated approach to overcome the problem.
•   More/ additional working examples with various capacity are needed to improve common
    understanding among stake holder to achieve better effectiveness and efficiency in
    developing wind turbine application.

•   The potential user of WECS is the provinces / regencies that has a good to excellent wind
    speed especially on eastern part Indonesia Oelbubuk and Fatukolen Villages), Islands and
    borders area.
•   Several location at south and north sulawesi , south java , NTT and NTB area have wind
    speed it can implemented possibility .
     2/2/2011      Joint Energy Working Group Meeting Indonesia_The Netherlands, Jakarta 01 December 2009   35   35
Wind Indonesia - The Netherlands
         Cooperation

• Senter Novem is developing a ToR for the
  MESO Scale mapping at least in the Eastern
  part of Indonesia
• Develop and Implementing Wind Farm in NTT


       Joint Energy Working Group Meeting Indonesia_The Netherlands, Jakarta 01 December 2009
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Thank You
                                                  Indonesia Wind Energy Society (IWES),
                                                          Jl. Raya LAPAN Ds. Sukamulya Rumpin Bogor
                                                                                Telp. +62 21 75790378
                                                                                 ripnoms@yahoo.com
                                                                               brsckd@centrin.net.id




 Joint Energy Working Group Meeting Indonesia_The Netherlands, Jakarta 01 December 2009
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