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-1st B PHARM KSA NEW

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-1st B PHARM KSA NEW Powered By Docstoc
					                                  LESSON PLAN
                                   KLESCOPH
  Smt. K.S.AKKI
  SUBJECT: PHARMACOGNOSY
  DEPARTMENT: PHARMACOGNOSY & PHYTOCHEMISTRY.


CHAPTER: DEFINATION, HISTORY AND SCOPE OF PHARMACOGNOSY.


     No of hours required as per RGUHS syllabus: 2
     No of hours required as per Lesson plan: 2
Prerequisite:
     Students need to understand the basic knowledge of natural drugs.
Objective:
     a. To understand the meaning of Pharmacognosy.
     b. To study Origin, history, its present status and future prospects of
        Pharmacognosy.
Resources:
     a. Black Board and chalk pieces.
     b. OHP projector.
References:
     1. Kokate C. K., Purohit A. P. and Gokhale S. B., Pharmacognosy 22nd
        Nirali Prakashan, 2003.
     2. Trease G. E. and Evans, W. C., Pharmacognosy.
Model Questions
10 Marks Questions
     1. What is Pharmacognosy?. Mention the present status of
        Pharmacognosy.
     2. Outline the status of Pharmacognosy in the area of research &
        Industry.
     .05 Marks Questions
     1. Write the History and Scope of Pharmacognosy.
CHAPTER: CLASSIFICATION OF DRUGS.


     No of hours required as per RGUHS syllabus: 5
     No of hours required as per Lesson plan: 6
Prerequisite:
     Students need to understand the basic need for classification.
Objective:
     a. To understand the alphabetical, morphological, chemical,
        pharmacological, taxonomical, and chemotaxonomical aspects of
        classification of crude drugs.
     b. To understand general aspects of chemotaxonomy.
Resources:

     a. Black Board and chalk pieces.
     b. OHP projector.
References:
     1. Kokate C. K., Purohit A. P. and Gokhale S. B., Pharmacognosy 22nd,
        Nirali Prakashan, 2003.
     2. Trease G. E. and Evans, W. C., Pharmacognosy.
     3. Wallis T. E, Text book of Pharmacognosy.
     4. Smith P.M, The Chemotaxonomy of plants.


Model Questions:
10 Marks Question
     1. Define Classification of crude drugs based on Taxonomy, Morphology,
        Chemical & Pharmacology?
     2. Discuss the various methods of classification of crude drugs with
        Particular emphasis on the merits of each method?




05 Marks Questions
     1. Give the pharmacological classification of crude drugs?
     2. Give the chemical classification of crude drugs?
02 Marks Questions
     1. Give the alphabetical classification of crude drugs?
     2. Define Chemotaxonomy?


CHAPTER: CULTIVATION AND CONSERVATION OF MEDICINAL PLANTS
      No of hours required as per RGUHS syllabus: 5
      No of hours required as per Lesson plan: 5
Prerequisite:
      Students need to understand the basics of mineral nutrition, essential
elements, major functions of different elements, passive and active uptake of
minerals. Mode of nutrition, transport of solutes and water and Reproduction
in plants.
Objective:
      a. To study the different methods of cultivation and collection of crude
         Drugs.
      b. To study the further processing and storage of crude drugs.
      c. To study the need for conservation of medicinal plants.
Resources:
      a. Black Board and chalk pieces.
      b. OHP projector.
References:
      1. Kokate C. K., Purohit A. P. and Gokhale S. B., Pharmacognosy 22nd,
         Nirali Prakashan, 2003.
      2. Trease G. E. and Evans, W. C., Pharmacognosy.
      3. Wallis T. E, Text book of Pharmacognosy.
      4. Cultivation of medicinal plants Shriramu and Farooqi.
      5. Atal C.K. and Kapoor B.M., Cultivation and utilization of medicinal
        plants.




Model Questions
10 Marks Questions
      1. Write a note on cultivation and collection of crude drugs?
      2. Write an account on the method of drying, preservation and storage of
        Crude drugs?


05 Marks Questions
      1. Give the advantages and disadvantages of cultivation of
        Medicinal plants?
      2. Write a note on storage of crude drugs?
      3 Write short note on need for conservation of medicinal plants?




CHAPTER: DETAILED METHOD OF CULTIVATION OF SOME OF THE
DRUGS
      No of hours required as per RGUHS syllabus: 4
      No of hours required as per Lesson plan: 6
Prerequisite:
      Students need to understand the basic concepts of general method of
cultivation with production and a brief account of domestication of plants,
improvement of plants, principles of plant breeding, and use of fertilizers,
economic and ecological aspects of cultivation.
Objective:
      To study the detailed method of cultivation of Senna, Cinchona,
isaphgula, cardamom, opium, and ergot.
Resources:
      a. Black Board and chalk pieces.
      b. OHP projector.
Refrences:
      1. Kokate C. K., Purohit A. P. and Gokhale S. B., Pharmacognosy 22nd ,
         Nirali Prakashan, 2003.
      2. Cultivation of medicinal plants Shriramu and Farooqi.
      3. Atal C.K. and Kapoor B.M., Cultivation and utilization of medicinal
         plants.
Model Questions:
10 Marks Questions
      1) Give source, cultivation and collection of Cinchona and Opium?
      2) Write in detail the cultivation of Isaphgula and Senna?
      3) Write in detail the cultivation, chemical constituents, and storage of
         Ergot?
      4) Write in detail the cultivation of Cardamom and Opium?
05 Marks Questions
      1) Give the life cycle of Ergot?
      2) What do you known about cultivation of Senna?
      3) Describe the cultivation of Opium?
      4) Describe the cultivation of Cardamom?
02 Marks Questions
      1) Mention the storage conditions required for ergot?
      2) Write when should Cardamom be collected?
      3) What do you mean by Lancing?
      4) How is Senna collected?
      5) Give reasons why rye plants have to be grown for cultivation of Ergot.


CHAPTER: STUDY OF MORPHOLOGICAL, MICROSCOPICALLY AND CELL
             WALL CONSTITUENTS OF CRUDE DRUGS.


      No of hours required as per RGUHS syllabus: 10
      No of hours required as per Lesson plan: 12




Prerequisite:
      Students need to known the basic morphology and anatomy of plants,
and its different parts. They also need to know the basics of structure and
function of cell and plant tissue system.
Objective:
      To understand the different cell wall constituents and cell inclusions, to
study the morphology and microscopy of different plant parts.
      a. Leaf-Datura, Senna,
      b. Bark- Cinnamon, Cassia, Cinchona.
      c. Wood-Quassia.
      d. Stem- Ephedra.
      e. Roots- Rauwolfia, Liquorice.
      f. Rhizome- Ginger, Podophylum.
      g. Flower- Clove.
     h. Fruits- Coriander, Fennel.
     i. Seeds –Isaphgula, Nux vomica.
Resources:
     a. Black Board and chalk pieces.
     b. OHP projector.
Refrences:
     1. Kokate C. K., Purohit A. P. and Gokhale S. B., Pharmacognosy 22nd ,
        Nirali Prakashan, 2003.
     2. Trease G. E. and Evans, W. C., Pharmacognosy.
     3. Wallis T. E, Text book of Pharmacognosy.
     4. Iyengar M.A and Naik S.G.K, Anatomy of crude drugs.
     5. Kokate C.K., Practical Pharmacognosy.
     6. Harborne J.B, Phytochemical methods of Drugs.
     7. Brain K.R, and Turner T.D, The Practical evaluation of
        Phytopharmaceuticals.


Model Questions:
10 Marks Questions
     1. What is cell? Briefly explain the cell wall constituents and cell wall
       Inclusions?
     2. Describe the morphological and microscopical characters of Ginger
       And Nux vomica?
     3. Write how will you identify the following constituents of cell?
             a) Lignified fibres.
             a) Mucilage.
             b) Cellulose
             c) Lignin
             d) Pectin.
             e) Chitin.
             f) Cutin
             g) Starch.
             h) Resin.
             i) Calcium oxalate crystals.
     4. Name the different types of Calcium oxalate, their source and methods
       Used for identification of the same?
     5. Discuss the morphology and microscopy of Cinnamon and Senna?


     6. Describe the general histological features of Bark and leaf drugs?




05 Marks Questions
     1. Give the different parts of cell with their functions?
     2. Describe with example how morphological characters can be used to
         identify the crude drugs?
     3. Give the morphology of datura?
     4. What are trichomes, mention the different types?
     5. Write short notes on Cinnamon bark?
     6. Describe the microscopical characters of Senna with a neat labeled
       diagram?
     7. Describe with a neat labeled diagram the tissues as seen in the TS of
       ephedra stem?
     8. Give the microscopical characters of liquorice?
     9. Give the morphological characters of Ginger?
     10. Explain the microscopical characters of Rauwolfia?
     12. Bring out the important differences by comparing transverse sections
         of any two rhizomes?
     13 Write note on Isaphgula and define swelling index?


     14. Describe the morphological characters of two fruits of umbellfere
         Family?
     15. Give the biological source and family and uses of Coriander, and
         Ginger?
     16. Give the microscopical characters of Clove?
     17. Describe the microscopical characters and uses of Datura?
     18. Give the biological source, Family and uses of Cinnamon, ad
         Podophylum?
     19. Give the microscopical characters of Quassia?
     20. Enumerate the cell wall constituents and cell wall inclusions?
     21. Give the diagnostic characters of Stem and Roots?
     22. Give the diagnostic characters of Bark and Leaf?
     23. Give the diagnostic characters of Senna and Datura?
     24. Give the chemical constituents of Quassia?




02 Marks Questions
     1. Mention the characters 0f umbelliferous fruits?
     2. Write the source constituents and uses of ephedra?
     3. Name the chemical constituents of Rauwolfia?
     4. Describe the diagnostic features of Cinchona?
     5. Enumerate the uses of Rauwolfia?
     6. Describe with an illustrated diagram the TS of datura leaf?
     7. What are Vittae give their structure?
     8. Give the microscopical characters of diagnostic importance in
       Cinchona powder.
     9. Give the source, family and uses of Clove?
     10. Give the source, family and uses of Rauwolfia?
     11. Write notes on Podophyllum?
     12. Mention the types of stomata with examples?
     13. Define the following
        a. Compound Quills.
        b. Parquetry cells.
     14. What are chemical constituents of Isaphgula?
     15. Describe the different types of trichomes and how are they useful in
         identification of crude drugs?
     16. Write the source constituents and uses of Quassia wood?


     17. Name the different drugs that contain mucilage, and how is mucilage
         tested?
     18. Mention the difference between Cruciferoius and Rubiaceous
         stomata?
     19. Mention the chemical nature and function of Suberin?
CHAPTER:      STUDY OF NATURAL PESTICIDES.


      No of hours required as per RGUHS syllabus: 2
      No of hours required as per Lesson plan: 2
Prerequisite:
      Students need to know the basics of use of pesticides, advantages and
disadvantages and different methods of pest control.
Objective:
      a. To understand the advantages and disadvantages of natural
         pesticides over Synthetic pesticides.
      b. To study in detail the source, cultivation, chemical constituents and
         uses of Pyrethrum, Neem and tobacco.
Resources:
      a. Black Board and chalk pieces.
      b. OHP projector.
References:
      1. Kokate C. K., Purohit A. P. and Gokhale S. B., Pharmacognosy 22nd ,
         Nirali Prakashan, 2003.
      2. Trease G. E. and Evans, W. C., Pharmacognosy.
      3. Wallis T. E, Text book of Pharmacognosy.
      4. Medicinal Plants of India, Indian Council of Medical Research.


Model Questions:
05 Marks Questions
      1. Write notes on Natural Pesticides?
      2. Give the advantages and disadvantages of Natural Pesticide?
      3. Write a brief note on Tobacco?
      4. Write a brief note on Neem?


CHAPTER: STUDY OF PLANT CONSTITUENTS CARBOHYDRATES.


      No of hours required as per RGUHS syllabus: 10
      No of hours required as per Lesson plan: 11
Prerequisite:
      Students need to know the basic knowledge of different plant
constituents and their uses.
Objective:
      a. To understand the different plant constituents present in plants.
      b. To study the primary cell constituents, carbohydrates and related
         products.
      c. To study the biological source, method of production, chemical
         constituents tests, uses and adulterants of Isaphgula, Linseed,
         Honey, Acacia, Agar, Sterculia, Tragacanth, Cellulose and its
         products, Pectin, Guar gum, and sodium alginate.
Resources:
      a. Black Board and chalk pieces.
      b. OHP projector.




References:
      1. Kokate C. K., Purohit A. P. and Gokhale S. B., Pharmacognosy 22nd ,
         Nirali Prakashan, 2003.
      2. Trease G. E. and Evans, W. C., Pharmacognosy.
      3. Wallis T. E, Text book of Pharmacognosy..
      4. Taylor V.E, Brady R, Text book Of Pharmacognosy.
      5. Harborne J.B, Phytochemical methods of Drugs.
      6. Brain K.R, and Turner T.D, The Practical evaluation of
         Phytopharmaceuticals.
      7. Whistler R.L, Industrial gums polysacrides and their derivatives.


Model Questions:
10 Marks Questions
      1. What are carbohydrates? Give its chemistry, classification with one
        example each?
05 Marks Questions
      1. Write notes on cellulose and its products?
      2. Give the chemical test for agar?
     3. How do you distinguish acacia from tragacanth?
     4. Write the Pharmacognosy of cotton?
     5. What are gums and mucilage? Name two drugs containing the same
         With its chemical tests?
     6. Give a method of preparation of starches?
     8. How do you distinguish pure honey from sugar syrup?
     9. Give the biological source, chemical constituents and uses of acacia?
     11. Define simple and complex polysaccharides with examples. Give the
         general tests for the identification of reduced sugars?
     12. Explain the chemical tests for the identification of a) agar b) gelatin?
     13. Give the source, constituents and uses of guar gum and sodium
         alginate?
     14. Write the method of production of honey, its constituents and uses?
     .


02 Marks Questions
     1. Define swelling factor?
     2. How do you distinguish pure honey from adulterated?
     3. Give the geographical distribution of plantago ovate?
     4. Define mucilage. Mention the difference between gums and mucilage?
     5. Give the source, constituents and uses of sterculia?
     6. Give the source, constituents and uses of linseed?
     7. Give the source, substitutes and adultrants of agar?
     8. Give the source of pectin and guar gum?
     10. What are the chemical constituents if Isaphgula?
     11. What is pectin?




CHAPTER: LIPIDS


     No of hours required as per RGUHS syllabus: 03
     No of hours required as per Lesson plan: 04
Prerequiste:
      Students need to understand the basic knowledge of lipids from plant
sources.
Objective:
      a. To understand the definition, method of extraction, chemistry, the
           Method of analysis of lipids.
      b. To study the method of production, chemical constituents, tests, uses
           and adultrants of castor oil, shark liver oil, and chaulmoogra oil, wool
fat, bees wax, spermaceti, coca butter and olive oil.




Resources:
      a. Black Board and chalk pieces.
      b. OHP projector.
References:
      1) Kokate C. K., Purohit A. P. and Gokhale S. B., Pharmacognosy 22nd ,
           Nirali Prakashan, 2003.
      2) Trease G. E. and Evans, W. C., Pharmacognosy.
      3) Wallis T. E, Text book of Pharmacognosy.
      4) Taylor V.E, Brady R, Text book Of Pharmacognosy.
      5) Harborne J.B, Phytochemical methods of Drugs.
      6) Brain K.R, and Turner T.D, The Practical evaluation of
           Phytopharmaceuticals.
      7) Jean Bruneton, Pharmacognosy and photochemistry.
      8) Pharmacopoeia of India
      9) I.L.Finar, Text book of Organic chemistry.


Model Questions:
10 Marks Questions
      1. Give the source, method of preparation, constituents and uses of wool
           fat and agar?
      2. Give the source, method of extraction, chemistry and method of
           analysis of lipids?
05 Marks Questions
      1. Define lipids and describe Identification tests of lipids?
      2. Define saponification value and acid value and give its significance?
      3. What are specific chemical tests for fixed oil?
      4. Give the method of preparation of cocum butter and pectin?
      5. Write a note on iodine value and Ester value?
      6. Give the method of preparation of castor oil and gelatin?
      11. Give the method of production, chemical constituents and uses of
          Beeswax and spermaceti?
02 Marks Questions
      1. Write a note on shark liver oil?
      2. What is chaulmoogra oil?
      3. Give the source, constituents and uses of beeswax?
      4. Define ester value. Give its significance?


CHAPTER: PROTIENS


      No of hours required as per RGUHS syllabus: 03
      No of hours required as per Lesson plan: 04
Prerequisite:
      Students need to understand the basic knowledge of proteins, their
occurrence, properties and chemical tests for identification.
Objective:
      a. To understand the definition, classification, chemistry and method of
        analysis of proteins.
      b. To study collagen, gelatin and its products.
Resources:
      a. Black Board and chalk pieces.
      b. OHP projector.
References:
      1) Kokate C. K., Purohit A. P. and Gokhale S. B., Pharmacognosy 22nd ,
        Nirali Prakashan, 2003.
      2) Trease G. E. and Evans, W. C., Pharmacognosy.
      3) Wallis T. E, Text book of Pharmacognosy..
      4) Taylor V.E, Brady R, Text book Of Pharmacognosy.
      5) Harborne J.B, Phytochemical methods of Drugs.
      6) Brain K.R, and Turner T.D, The Practical evaluation of
        Phytopharmaceuticals.
      7) Pharmacopoeia of India
      8) I.L.Finar, Text book of Organic chemistry.


Model Questions:
10 Marks Questions
      1) What are proteins and method of analysis?
      2) Describe the classification and chemistry of proteins?
05 Marks Questions
      1) Give the sources, method of preparation and uses of pectin?
      2) Define protein and write a note on gelatin?
      3) Give the method of production, chemical constituents and uses of
        Collagen?
      4 Give the method of production, chemical constituents and uses of
        gelatin and its products?


02 Marks Questions
      1) What is collagen? Give its uses?
      2) What are gelatin products and write their uses?
      3) What is collagen? Mention its uses?
      4) Define proteins?


CHAPTER: PLANT FIBRES


      No of hours required as per RGUHS syllabus: 02
      No of hours required as per Lesson plan: 03
Prerequisite:
      Students need to understand the basic knowledge of plant fibers, their
occurrence, properties and chemical tests for identification.
Objective:
      To study plant fibers used in surgical dressings and related products.
Resources:
     a. Black Board and chalk pieces.
     b. OHP projector.
References:
     1) Kokate C. K., Purohit A. P. and Gokhale S. B., Pharmacognosy 22nd ,
       Nirali Prakashan, 2003.
     2) Trease G. E. and Evans, W. C., Pharmacognosy.
     3) Wallis T. E, Text book of Pharmacognosy..
     4) Mohammad ali, Text book of Pharmacognosy..


Model Questions:
10 Marks Questions
     1. Mention the plant fibres used in pharmacy. Write the Pharmacognosy
        of any one fibre?
05 Marks Questions
     1. Give a pharmacognostic account of jute?
     2. Give a pharmacognostic account of cotton?
     3. Write a note on plant fibres and name two surgical dressings and
        their uses?
     4. How will you distinguish between animal and vegetable fibres?
     5. Name two four different types of surgical dressings and their uses?
02 Marks Question
     1. What are surgical dressings?
     2. Name the plant fibres used in surgical dressings and give their
       specific uses?




CHAPTER: DRUG ADULTERATION


     No of hours required as per RGUHS syllabus: 02
     No of hours required as per Lesson plan: 02
Prerequiste:
      Students need to understand the basic knowledge of evaluation of crude
drugs and its need.
Objective:
      To study different methods of adulteration of crude drugs and general
methods for detection of adulterants.
Resources:
      a. Black Board and chalk pieces.
      b. OHP projector.
References:
      1. Kokate C. K., Purohit A. P. and Gokhale S. B., Pharmacognosy 22nd ,
        Nirali Prakashan, 2003.
      2. Trease G. E. and Evans, W. C., Pharmacognosy.
      3. Wallis T. E, Text book of Pharmacognosy.
      4. Mohammad ali, Text book of Pharmacognosy.


Model Questions:
05 Marks Questions
      1) Name five different methods used for the adulteration of crude drugs?
      2) Discuss the factors responsible for the deterioration of crude drugs.
         Describe the method of prevention of deterioration?
      3) Define adulteration. Give the difference between deliberate and
         indelebrate adulteration?
      4) Write the various methods used in detection of adulteration with
         examples?
th
         examples?

				
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