Congestive Heart Failure Pathophysiology

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Congestive Heart Failure Pathophysiology Powered By Docstoc
					  PATHOPHYSIOLOGY: (Book -based)

Non-modifiable Factors:                                                       Modifiable Factors:

      Increase in age- 55 years old and above                                          Sedentary lifestyle
      Gender- female

              Decreased elasticity of blood vessels and formation of plaques on blood vessels

                                        Narrowing of the blood vessels

                              Necrosis and scarring of the vascular endothelium

                                    Impediment of blood flow to the body

                                        Increased workload of the heart

                                              Dilation of ventricles

                                              Increased in preload

                                  Increased stretching of myocardial muscle

                                  Excessive stretching of myocardial muscle

              Ineffective cardiac muscle contraction and increase O2 demand of cardiac muscle cells

                                  Decreased contraction of cardiac muscle

                             Decreased cardiac output and systemic perfusion
                 Activation of neurohormonal pathways in order to increase circulating blood vessel

                                       Continued neurohormonal stimulation

                                               Cardiac remodelling

                                              Decreased blood filling

                            Increased stroke volume and decreased cardiac output

    Inadequate perfusion                                                                  Increased wall tension

                                                  Decreased               Increase pulmonary          Separation of mitral
PALLOR             Decreased blood
                                                perfusion in the               pressure                  valve leaflets
                 flow to the kidneys
                                               coronary arteries

                   Kidneys produce                                             FATIGUE &              Increase pulmonary
                                                  Deprivation of               WEAKNESS                    pressure
                                               cardiac muscle cells
                                               of nutrients needed
                    Salt and water                 for survival                                           Impaired left
                      retention                                                                       ventricular relaxation
                                                 Normal Balance
                                              between oxygen supply
                        EDEMA                     and demand is                                          Increase diastolic
                                                    disrupted                                           pressure exceeding
                                                                                                       hydrostatic & osmotic
                                                                                                       pressure in pulmonary
                                                   ISCHEMIA                                                  capillaries

                                                                                                       Increased capillary
                                              Conversion of aerobic
                                                 metabolism to                                        pressure in the lungs
                                              anaerobic metabolism

                                                                                                         Fluid shifts from the
                 Causes reduced                    Decreased                                          circulating blood into the
                                                                                                      interstitium, bronchioles,
                 contractility                     adenosine
                                                                                                           bronchi & alveoli

                     Decreases the              Increased lactic
                     heart’s ability            acid production             Decreased lung                  Pulmonary
                     to pump                                                  expansion                     Congestion
BRADYCARDIA    Irritation of     DYSPNEA            Fluid trapped in
              myocardial cells                      pulmonary trees

               CHEST PAIN                              BILATERAL
               TROPONIN T


Description: Pathophysiology and schematic diagram/concept map of Congestive Heart Failure.