A Teacher’s Guide To Visiting the Newseum With Elementary Students Interactive, dynamic, and rich in content, the Newseum provides an opportunity for students and teachers to discover, experience and connect to a variety of subjects. To help you make the most of your Newseum visit, this guide, designed for elementary school classes, offers activities for your students to do before they arrive, while they are at the Newseum and after they return to the classroom. The activities cover a variety subjects that fit the Newseum’s educational strands: • • • Headlines of History: Explore historic events through the newspapers, radio and television broadcasts and Web sites that covered the events. Journalism: From news decision-making to ethics to struggles and dangers that journalists face, learn the story behind the stories. The First Amendment: Connect with the “first freedoms,” the foundation of what makes American democracy work. Objectives Students should: • Learn about the five freedoms the First Amendment guarantees. • Understand the role the press has played in reporting U.S. history. • Explore the different ways news is shared and consider how to determine when information is credible. Essential questions • • • How do the five freedoms affect our lives? How has news been shared throughout history — from ancient times until the present? How does the press help us understand historic events? This guide is designed for students in grades 1 to 5 with the understanding that younger students may do better with adult guidance. Standards of learning Newseum classes, tours and publications align with national standards of learning from these organizations: the National Council of Teachers of English, the International Reading Association, the National Council for the Social Studies and the National Center for History in the Schools. Visiting the Newseum The best place to start a Newseum tour is with a viewing of What’s News in one of the Orientation Theaters. Then your students can explore Today’s Front Pages, the Pulliam Family Great Books Gallery, the News Corporation News History Gallery, and the Cox Enterprises First Amendment Gallery. Students can learn how journalists make decisions and test their understanding of news media ethics in the NBC News Interactive Newsroom and the Ethics Center. A visit to the Walter and Leonore Annenberg Theater lets visitors fully experience some of the major news stories from history in a unique 4-D atmosphere. Other galleries and exhibits, you’ll want your students to see include: Before you visit Choose from these activities to prepare your students for a visit to the Newseum. • • • • • • 1. The First Amendment promises five freedoms for all Americans: religion, speech, press, assembly and petition. Talk about what these rights mean to the students. Ask students how the rights affect their lives. • Freedom of religion means you can worship — or not worship — as you choose. The government cannot tell you what to believe. Because of this freedom, a teacher or principal cannot make you say a prayer in school; they also cannot stop you from praying privately. • Freedom of speech means you can say what you think without getting in trouble from the government — as long as what Early News History Gallery: A you say doesn’t put people in danger. For look at early efforts to meet example, you can’t joke about carrying a the human need to share news. bomb on an airplane when you’re at an Bloomberg Internet, TV and airport. You can’t yell fire in a crowded Radio Gallery: A review of theater when there isn’t one. You can electronic media and how they criticize anyone you want, but you can’t shape our view of the news. say that you plan to hurt someone. Berlin Wall Gallery: A lesson in how a wall that shaped • Freedom of the press means that history couldn’t stop the flow newspapers, news broadcasts and news of information. Web sites can report without the Time Warner World News government interfering. It also means that Gallery: A look at world news people can write what they want in books, and press freedom around the online or in newspapers. Good journalists world. try to be fair, accurate and clear so that Journalists Memorial: A people will continue to pay attention to reflection on journalists who what they say. have lost their lives covering the news. • Freedom of assembly means that people Comics Gallery: An can hold meetings, form groups or hold exploration of one of the most demonstrations. Governments can put some popular features in restrictions on public demonstrations but newspapers. cannot stop them. For example, a government might require a parade permit for a march or limit when the march can happen. • Freedom to petition means that you can ask the government to fix laws that you believe are wrong. There are procedures – like lawsuits and lobbying – that Americans can follow to make sure their government hears them. 2. Have each student choose one of the five freedoms that the First Amendment protects and draw a picture of themselves with a speech bubble saying what the freedom means to them. Do they go to church? Have they heard a speech that was important to them? Do they read newspapers or watch the news with their families? Have they ever been part of a protest or demonstration? _Freedom of religion means I can go to church with my family on Sundays.____________ ____________________ __________________._ ___________________ 3. Humans need to exchange news. In ancient times, long before newspapers, television or the Internet, people used different methods to communicate news. They might have passed along news face to face, by drawing pictures or symbols, playing drums or horns, sending smoke signals or singing or story-telling. Divide the class into groups and give each group a current news event. Have each group use drawings or symbols to tell the story. Present the stories to the class. 4. Ask students to interview parents, grandparents, relatives or older friends or neighbors. Ask them to find out how previous generations got their news. Do they think those methods were better or worse than current methods? What news events stand out in their memories? 5. Visit the Newseum’s online Front Page exhibit at www.newseum.org. Choose a news story and compare how different newspapers across the nation or the world played the story. How many newspapers covered the story? Why do you think this story was important? What other types of stories did newspapers cover? After you visit After your class visits, choose from these activities to review and reinforce what the students learned. 1. The First Amendment guarantees five freedoms to all Americans. Ask your students: Which freedom do you think is most important? Is it freedom of religion, freedom of the press, freedom of speech, freedom of assembly or freedom to petition the government? Discuss their views in class or have the students write a paragraph explaining their choices. 2. The First Amendment is a tool for social change. Show the class photos of the 1963 March on Washington. Discuss the civil rights movement. Let the class listen to an excerpt from Martin Luther King Jr.’s famous “I Have a Dream” speech. (Examples can be found online.) Ask the class: What First Amendment freedoms did people use in the civil right movement? Have students match the freedom to the activity that supported the civil rights movement. Note that freedoms may be used in different ways. If your class has studied the civil rights movement, can the students think of other examples of how the First Amendment freedoms helped the movement? Freedom Religion ____ Activity A. Activists held large and small demonstrations — from lunch counter sitins to marches to rallies to protest inequalities. B. People made speeches protesting racism; others made speeches supporting racist laws and segregation. C. People formed groups to fight for civil rights. D. In churches, ministers preached against racism. E. People sued to get laws changed. F. Newspapers and television news covered demonstrations and reported on violence against black Americans. G. People lobbied Congress to pass the Civil Rights Act of 1964. Speech _____ Press _____ Assembly ____ & ____ Petition ____ & _____ Answers: Religion D; Speech B; Press F; Assembly A & C; Petition E & G 3. Have the students write a news story about their trip to the Newseum. Tell them to be sure to include the 5 Ws – who, what, when, where and why — and the H — how. 4. Journalists often use polls to report on trends. Have your class survey classmates, family members or friends on these questions: What First Amendment freedom is most important to you? What First Amendment right would you give up if you had to give up one? Each student should ask the question of at least five people. Tally the results and discuss. Students can create graphs to show the results. You can make copies of the box below to help your students conduct the survey. For students The First Amendment and survey questions Step 1: Read the First Amendment to the person you are questioning. “Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances.” Step 2: Note that it protects five rights: religion, speech, press, assembly and petition. Step 3: Ask first question: What First Amendment freedom is most important to you? Step 4: Ask second question: What First Amendment freedom is most important to you? Step 5: Ask these questions of at least five people and bring the answers back to class to share. 5. Encourage your students to keep up with current events by reviewing the online exhibit of Today’s Front Pages or playing the online Newsmania™ game at www. newseum.org. Newseum Activities: Grades 1-5 Hearst Corporation Orientation Theater 1. The orientation film “What’s News?” lists some categories that define news. Name at least three categories that the film says are news: ___________________ Comics Gallery 2. Find the “Peanuts” comic strip from the 1950s in the case. Compare this to the large panel “Peanuts” strip on the opposite wall. These characters have changed over time. What are three ways they are drawn differently? ___________________ ______________________ _________________________ ____________________ ______________________ Early News History Gallery 3. Look at the case called the Sounds and Sights of News. Name some early methods that people used to share news. _____________________ _________________________ ___________________ 4. In the case called Written News, you’ll learn about Thoth, the Egyptian god of scribes. What did the Egyptians think Thoth looked like? _____________________________________________________________________ News Corporation News History Gallery 5. Write down one headline you found in the News History Gallery. What year did it appear? ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ 6. Visit the replica of a colonial press in the News History Gallery. John Dunlap used a press similar to this one to print what historic document on July 8, 1776? ________________________________________________________________________ Cox Enterprises First Amendment Gallery 7. The First Amendment was ratified in 1791. Name the five freedoms the amendment guarantees to all Americans. 1.________________________ 2.________________________ 3.________________________ 4.________________________ 5.________________________ Bloomberg Internet, TV and Radio 8. Look at the year 1969 on the timeline in the Bloomberg Internet, TV and Radio Gallery. Several types of news media covered the moon landing. Circle the news media that covered the event. Radio Internet Television Newspapers Cell phones NBC News Interactive Gallery 9. According to the “Be a Reporter” game, what are the five Ws that reporters try to put in every story? ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ Berlin Wall Gallery 10. One of the biggest news stories of the last century was the building and, eventually, the tearing down of the Berlin Wall. Read about the history of the wall. What is the main difference between the East side of the Wall and the West side of the Wall? Why do you think they are so different? ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ Teacher’s Answer Key Grades 1-5 Hearst Corporation Orientation Theater 1. The film lists ten: Firsts, War, Peace, Life, Death, Love, Hate, Sacrifice, Breakthroughs and Freedom. Comics Gallery 2. Answers will vary and might include different colors of clothing; less defined lines and different fonts. Early News History Gallery 3. Songs, drums, bells and other musical instruments as well as coins and knotted ropes were all used to spread news in various cultures. 4. Thoth was portrayed either as a human with a bird head of an Ibis or as a dog-faced baboon. News Corporation News History Gallery 5. Answers will vary. 6. Declaration of Independence. Cox Enterprises First Amendment Gallery 7. Religion, press, speech, petition, assembly. Bloomberg Internet, Radio and TV Gallery 8. Radio, television and newspapers NBC News Interactive Newsroom and the Ethics Center 9. The five Ws are: Who, what, when, where and why. Berlin Wall Gallery 10. The West side of the Wall is covered in graffiti art and the East side is entirely white. Answers will vary, might mention that freedom of expression was allowed on the West side or that the East side was painted white so it would be easy to spot people trying to escape.
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