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THE CHRONOLOGY OF EARLY HUMAN SOCIETIES AND CIVILIZATION

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									             THE CHRONOLOGY OF EARLY HUMAN SOCIETIES AND CIVILIZATION

2.5 Million BCE   Humans emerge in Africa; Old Stone Age begins; small hunter-gatherer bands
  600,000 BCE     Humans spread across Afro-Eurasia; subsistence living; best hunter, gatherer leads
  500,000 BCE     Humans harness fire; bone, wood tools; generalized gender equality
   16,000 BCE     Low sea levels allow humans to migrate to the Americas, Australia
   12,000 BCE     Stone tools become widely used; cave painting suggest complex animistic religion
   10,000 BCE     Neolithic Revolutions: farming villages of Southwest Asia, tools adapt to agriculture
   9,500 BCE      Humans reach southern South America; first evidence of permanent settlements in Chile, Mexico
   9,000 BCE      In Afro-Eurasia, humans domesticate pigs, goats, sheep, cattle; wool weaving arises
   8,500 BCE      Sedentarism sees rise of classes, private property, patriarchal villages, extended families
   8,000 BCE      Agriculture (rice, millet), silk-weaving arise in the Yangtze, Yellow River valleys
   7,500 BCE      Pastoral nomads herd domesticated animals; nomadic women retain some rights
   6,000 BCE      Pottery allows storing of food; irrigation leads to increased productivity
   5,500 BCE      First cities in Southwest Asia; trade develops within region, merchants, artisans arise
   5,000 BCE      Farming arises in Valley of Mexico; polytheist religion associated with fertility
   5,000 BCE      Huang-He river culture in China has villages, farming, pottery, silk
   4,000 BCE      Sumerian city-states: technological revolution – writing, plow, wheels;
    4000 BCE      Maize domesticated in Central Mexico; animism begins to give way to deities of fertility, climate
   3,500 BCE      Sumerian civilization: warriors, priests rule; command economies
   3,100 BCE      Menes unites Egypt, theocratic state: rule by dynasty; aristocracy, land-owning families; hieroglyphics
   3,000 BCE      Malayo-Polynesian migrations out of China spread Neolithic culture in Indochina
   3,000 BCE      Bronze Age in Southwest Asia, Egypt; trade in handicrafts, luxuries, literature such as Book of the Dead
   2,550 BCE      Great pyramids in Egypt; polytheist religions with dogma, complex rites, elite priesthood
   2,500 BCE      First city-states of Indus Valley civilization rely on trade, farming; generalized equality
   2,200 BCE      First empire arises as Akkad conquers Southern Mesopotamia
   1,600 BCE      Minoan civilization on Crete, Aegean; bronze culture, general gender equality; women had influence; trade
   2,000 BCE      Phoenician trading cities: first alphabet, metal artisans, cloth, purple dye
   2,000 BCE      Horse, camel domesticated in Central Asia; nomadic pastoralism arises
   2,000 BCE      Evidence of cotton cultivation, metallurgy, ceramics in Mesoamerica; deities of craft, trades develop
   2,000 BCE      Kotosh culture (Peru), Xia culture (China) spread farming, sedentarism
   2,000 BCE      Sumer’s Epic of Gilgamesh is world’s first piece of literature
   2,000 BCE      Migration of Semitic tribes (Jews, Arabs) throughout Southwest Asia
   2,000 BCE      Agriculture, herding spreads to Northern Europe, West/East Africa
   1,900 BCE      Widespread environmental disasters in India devastate civilization
   1,750 BCE      Nubian Kingdom along southern Nile famed for metal work, trade; blended culture
   1,750 BCE      Hammurabi’s Law Code in Babylon blends Mesopotamian traditions
   1,600 BCE      Mycenaean fortified palaces; war society: nobles war bands, cavalry, personal combat; trade with Minoans
   1,600 BCE      Indo-Aryan nomads migrate from Central Asia to Europe, SW Asia, disrupt civilizations
   1,500 BCE      Iron technology, chariot warfare arrive in Southwest Asia, India, Egypt
   1,500 BCE      Shang dynasty (China) rules feudal state; ancestor worship, divination leads to writing
   1,500 BCE      Castes arise as nomads become sedentary, blend culture with Indus traditions
   1,500 BCE      Polynesians migrate across Pacific islands carrying chickens, pigs, taro
   1,500 BCE      Olmec civilization; ceremonial cities of priests, elites who rule tropical farmers; extensive trade over region
   1,450 BCE      Mycenaeans invade Greece and destroy Minoan civilization; develop alphabet
   1,400 BCE      Hittites establish large empire in Asia Minor, Iron Age begins with use of iron tools
   1,300 BCE      Egyptian Book of the Dead details religious life, instructions for afterlife
   1,200 BCE      First monotheistic religion arose as Jews migrated, settled Southwest Asia; Books of Moses as oral tradition
   1,200 BCE      Southwest Asia, Egyptian, Indian states destroyed by pastoral nomads
   1,200 BCE      Sea Peoples disrupt Mediterranean; Philistines settle in modern Israel
   1,200 BCE      San Lorenzo (Olmec capital): earthen mounds, palaces, temples; authoritarian state, many local chiefdoms
   1,000 BCE      Dorian Greek invasions cause Dark Ages; loss of literacy due to invasions; beginning of Iron Age
   1,000 BCE      Vedic Age begins in India, Aryans push south, establish cities, aristocratc states
   1,000 BCE      Fortified moat village in Vietnam led by chieftains; rice cultivation, plows, extensive water control; peasants emerge
   1,000 BCE      Sub-Saharan Africa: Stateless societies of lineages, kin groups, shamanistic religions common
   1,000 BCE      Olmec society, trade spread advanced culture to Mayans of Yucatan, Monte Albans of Oaxaca

								
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