electronic cigarette

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					Electronic cigarette
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An electronic cigarette e-cigarette or personal vaporizer is a battery-powered
              cigarette,                        vaporizer,
device that provides inhaled doses of nicotine by way of a vaporized solution.
alternative to smoked tobacco products, such as cigarettes, cigars, or
addition
                                    [1]
to purported nicotine delivery,           this vapor also provides a flavor and
sensation
similar to that of inhaled tobacco smoke, while no smoke or combustion is actua
involved in its operation.

An electronic cigarette takes the form of some manner of elongated tube, though
are designed to resemble the outward appearance of real smoking products, like
cigarettes, cigars, and pipes. Another common design is the "pen-style", so nam
its visual resemblance to a ballpoint pen. Most electronic cigarettes are reusa
devices with replaceable and refillable parts. A number of disposable electroni
cigarettes have also been developed

Operation

In automatic models, when a user inhales through the device, air flow is detect
sensor, which activates a heating element that vaporizes a nicotine solution st
                [2]
the mouthpiece. On manual models, the user must depress a button to activate t
heating element to produce vapor which is then inhaled by the user. On most mod
LED on the opposite end of the device is also activated during inhalation, whic
as an indicator of use. Several LED colors are available from various manufactu

Components

While electronic cigarettes take many forms, they each generally employ the sam
components: a mouthpiece, a heating element, a rechargeable battery, an
electronic
circuits.

Mouthpiece ("cartridge")

The mouthpiece is a small disposable plastic cup-like piece affixed to the end
tube. Inside the mouthpiece is a smaller plastic cup which holds an absorbent m
that is saturated with a flavored liquid solution that may contain nicotine. T
                                                                            [3]



cup is made such that air is able to flow around it and through a hole in the e
outer piece; this is necessary for the device to provide the ability for sucti
the
vapor into the user's mouth. The mouthpiece is referred to in the industry as a
"cartridge". When the liquid in the cartridge has been depleted, it can
refilled
by the user or replaced with another pre-filled cartridge.
Another alternative to using cartridges is the direct dripping method using
By
removing the absorbent material, one is able to simply remove the plastic mouth
and drip several drops of e-liquid directly onto the atomizer bridge. To furthe
dripping, some manufacturers have created specialty mouthpieces made of stainle
steel or plastic that are intended just for dripping and do not require re
time
you drip.

Heating element ("atomizer")

The heating element serves to vaporize the liquid in the mouthpiece so that it
inhaled. This component is referred to in the industry as an "atomizer". Atomiz
a finite life of about one month (on average) and are one of the recurring expe
associated with electronic cigarettes. Some models combine an atomizer and pre-
disposable component referred to as a "cartomizer".

Battery and electronics

Most electronic cigarettes employ a lithium-ion rechargeable battery   to power t
heating element. Battery life varies depending on the battery type     and size,
of
use, and operating environment. Many different battery charger types   are availa
such as wall outlet, car, and USB chargers. The battery is generally   the larges
component of an electronic cigarette.

Some electronic cigarettes employ an electronic airflow sensor to automatically
the heating element upon inhalation, while other models require the user to pre
button while inhaling. Various other electronic circuits are usually employed a
such as a timed cutoff switch to prevent overheating and a colored LED to signa
activation of the device.

Traditionally, electronic cigarettes have utilized an electronic means of a
This
involved the use of small tactile switches, vacuum switches and the related wir
electronics necessary to run them. Users soon discovered these could be unrelia
With the advent of "mods", several manufacturers have created all mechanical
electronic cigarettes that eliminate the use of any wiring, solder or electroni
effort to improve switch reliability.

While some larger electronic cigarette models employ a user-replaceable standar
battery cell, many models are too small to house a standard-size cell and inste
require a proprietary component made by the electronic cigarette manufacturer.
those models, the battery and electronic components are housed within a single
replaceable part, which is still generally referred to in the industry simply a
"battery".
Nicotine and non-nicotine solution

Nicotine     solutions   sold   separately   for   use   in   refillable   cartridges     are
referred
to as "e-liquid" or "e-juice", and commonly contain some amount of flavoring, w
hundreds of different flavors available. They consist of nicotine dissolved in
glycol (PG) and/or vegetable glycerin (glycerol) or VG. Both PG and VG are comm
food additives.

Solutions are also available in differing nicotine concentrations, to let
decide
the amount of nicotine to be taken in. Concentrations range from Zero Nicotine,
midrange doses (6–8 mg/ml and 10–14 mg/ml respectively), to high and extra-high
doses (16–18 mg/ml and 20–54 mg/ml respectively). The concentration ratings are
often printed at the e-liquid bottle or cartridge, although the standard
"mg/ml"
often gets abbreviated to just "mg". Solutions are also available that c
nicotine
       [2]
at all.

Some flavor varieties attempt to resemble traditional cigarette types, such as
tobacco and menthol, and some even attempt to mimic specific cigarette brands,
as Marlboro or Camel. Fruit and other flavors are also available, such as vanil
caramel, and coffee.

American Association of Public Health Physicians

The American Association of Public Health Physicians has come out in support of
electronic cigarettes. The AAPHP recommends that the FDA reclassify the electro
cigarette as a tobacco product (as opposed to a drug/device combination) and be
that the effects of second-hand smoke will be significantly decreased using ele
cigarettes.[17] [18]

Health New Zealand Ltd. study

In 2008, Dr. Murray Laugesen, of Health New Zealand, published a report on the
of Ruyan electronic cigarette cartridges. Ruyan funded the research, but both D
Laugesen and the WHO claim that the research is independent.[21] The presence of
trace amounts of TSNAs in the cartridge solution was documented in the analysis
results also indicated that the level of nicotine in the electronic cigarette
was
not different from the concentration of nicotine found in nicotine patches.[21]    John Britton,

a lung specialist at the University of Nottingham, UK and chair of the Royal Co
Physicians Tobacco Advisory Group said “if the levels are as low as in nicotine
replacement therapy, I don’t think there will be much of a problem. ”[21] The study
conducted detailed quantitative analysis and concluded that carcinogens and tox
are present only below harmful levels. The final conclusion of the safety repor
"Based on the manufacturer’s information, the composition of the cartridge liquid is not
hazardous to health, if used as intended."[22]
Manufacturers promote electronic cigarettes as a safer alternative to smoking
cigarettes, claiming that most of the harmful material produced by the combusti
tobacco in traditional cigarettes is not present in the atomized liquid of elec
cigarettes. Despite claims that electronic cigarettes are safer, manufactures i
warning labels with their products. For instance, the following advisory appear
website of Green Smoke, a electronic cigarette company: “Warning: Nicotine is highly
addictive. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or mitigate an
or condition.”[23]

According to Cancer Research UK, "For a smoker, the health hazards of continuin
smoke greatly outweigh any potential risks of using NRT".[24] It may be worth noting,
however, that while electronic cigarettes are purported to deliver nicotine t
in a
manner similar to that of a Nicotrol inhaler, no electronic cigarette has yet b
approved as a medicinal NRT product or provided the necessary clinical testing for suc
approval. Moreover, doubts have been raised as to whether electronic cigarettes
actually deliver any substantial amount of nicotine at all.[25]

Though manufacturers have marketed electronic cigarettes as a way to curtail an
addiction to nicotine,[26] international health organizations have stated they may not be
marketed as a cessation device.[20] a number of regulatory agencies have issued
warnings regarding the health effects of these products. The recently formed El
Cigarette Association aims to eliminate unsubstantiated health claims made by
electronic cigarette companies, and those companies that wish to participate in
association must agree to refrain from making such claims.[27][28] In a recent online
survey from November 2009 among 303 smokers, it was found that e-cigarette
substitution for tobacco cigarettes resulted in reduced perceived health proble
compared to smoking conventional cigarettes (less cough, higher ability to do e
and a better sense of taste and smell).[29]

				
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Description: electronic cigarette