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Review for Rise of Early Civilizations by hcj

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Rise of Early Civilizations
    1. Neolithic Revolution-characteristics, other names
         People learned and developed farming and domestication of animals. Also called the Agricultural
            Revolution.
    2. Basic characteristics of a civilization.
         Organized government, complex religion, job specialization, social classes, arts and architecture,
            public works, and writing.
    3. Prehistory-define.
         Period in the past before written records
    4. Use of fire is an example of what?
         Example of people adapting to their environment.
    5. Results of farming in Neolithic Revolution.
         Led to increased production of food, allowing people to remain in once place. This switch led to the
            development of civilizations and cities.
    6. Who was Hammurabi?
         King of Babylon that developed one of the first law codes ever written. Called the Code of
            Hammurabi.
    7. Imortance of Menes?
         Egyptian king that united upper and lower Egypt into one powerful kingdom.
    8. Who were the Hebrews (Jews)?
         The Israelites, or Hebrews, came to believe that God was taking a hand in their lives. They recorded
            their events and laws in the Torah, leading to the development of the worlds first monotheistic
            religion.
    9. Leaders of the Persian Empire-accomplishments
         Darius, Cyrus the Great. Created largest empire to that date. Showed toleration to those they
            conquered. Set up government by dividing empire into provinces ruled by a governor called a
            satrap. Developed a common system of weights and measures to improve trade. Set up one of the
            first money economies.
    10. Accomplishments of the Persians.
         See above
    11. Define theocracy.
         Government run by religious leaders
    12. 1st writing system invented by:
         Sumerians developed cuniform, a system of writing based on wedge shaped symbols.
    13. 3 periods of Egyptian History:
         Old, Middle, and New Kingdom
    14. Impact of the Phoenician alphabet.
         An alphabet based on sounds and not words, would lead to a quick and flexible system of writing
            that aided in recording business transactions. Greeks would later adapt this alphabet and that in turn
            lead to the languages we have today.
    15. Compare Judaism, Hinduism, Zoroastrianism, and Buddhism.
         Judaism – Belief in one God. Believed that God had made a covenant, or agreement with them
            making them the ―chosen people.‖ Holy book called the Torah. Belief in set of laws called the Ten
            Commandments.
         Hinduism – belief systems based on the Aryan created caste system. Ultimate goal is to achieve
            moksha, or union with Brahman. To do so people must free themselves from selfish desires. Must
            follow their karma, which refers to all the actions of a person’s life that affect his fate in the next
            life. People must also follow their darma, which is a person’s religious and moral duties that vary


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         depending on that person’s class. Believe in reincarnation, or rebirth of the soul, which allows them
         to continue to try and achieve moksha over several lifetimes.
       Zoroastrianism – Created by Persian thinker Zoroaster. He rejected the old Persian gods, instead
         teaching that a single, wise god named Ahura Mazda ruled the world. Ahura Mazda was in constant
         battle with Ahriman, the prince of evil. According to Zoroaster, each person had to choose which
         side to support. In the end each person would be judged for his actions.
       Buddhism – Founded by Siddhartha Gautama, a high caste prince. He spent many years wandering
         in meditation. Claimed he knew the reason and cure for life’s sorrow and suffering. Was later
         called Buddha meaning ―the Enlightened One.‖ Spent the rest of his life teaching others the reason
         and process to reach nirvana, or spiritual perfection and union with the universe. People had to
         know and the Four Noble Truths to reach this state. To follow the Four Noble Truths a person must
         follow the Eightfold Path.
  16. Who created the caste system?
       Created by the Aryans in the Indus Valley first based on occupation. Would later develop into a
         social and economic division of people in this area.
  17. The importance of Siddhartha Gautama.
       Founder of Buddhism
  18. What was the Silk Road?
       Trade route linking China to the Middle East.
  19. Practice reading and understanding maps and charts. Look at the ones in your chapters and make sure
      you can understand them and the questions asked.
  20. Understand primary sources and excerpts from them.


China/India Questions
  21. What was the likely cause of the decline of civilization in the Indus Valley?
       Ecological or natural disaster
  22. Why was the Huang He River nicknamed the ―River of Sorrows‖?
       the river often flooded and destroyed crops
  23. How did the caste system in India function as a political institution?
       Enforcing rules about social behavior
  24. What was the result of the Aryan invasion of India?
       They brought the first civilization
  25. Who was the first ruler of the Maurya dynasty? What effect did changes in his governing style bring to
      the dynasty?
       Chadragupta, used regional governors to maintain control. He created a highly bureaucratic
          government. Brought stability to the empire.
  26. What was the Mandate of Heaven?
       Idea that a ruler had permission from god/heaven to be the emperor or king.
       Ruler could remain in power as long as he remained a wise guardian of the people.
  27. Describe Confucianism – the philosophy, principles, beliefs
       Emphasized the country was parallel to the family, avoidance of violence, emphasizing the goodness
          of human nature (and promoting it through education, especially of public officials), 5 relationships.
          He taught that social order, harmony, and government could be achieved if all people lived by the
          five basic relationships: 1) ruler and subject 2) father and son, 3) husband and wife, 4) older brother
          and younger brother, 5) friend and friend These relationships stressed respect for each other.




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  28. Describe Daoism – philosophy, beliefs
       Accepting the world as you find it, avoiding useless struggles, adhering to the ―path‖ of nature.
         Stressed that natural order was most important. People should search for understanding and
         knowledge through nature.
  29. Describe Buddhism- founder, beliefs (including Four Noble Truths)
       Founder was Siddhartha Gautama (Buddha). People suffered in life because of a desire for
         happiness and riches. Four Noble Truths: all life is full of suffering, cause of suffering is desire,
         solution is to overcome desire, desire overcome through following 8-fold path.
  30. What is Nirvana?
       Ultimate spiritual reward in Buddhism. Buddhist idea of a release from suffering, selfishness, and
         pain.
  31. What happened to Buddhism in India?
       Buddhism never gained a foothold in India. It was absorbed back into Hinduism
  32. Describe the Gupta empire of India – rulers, government structure, social structure, etc.
       Founded by Chandra Gupta I, started in the year 320. Most Indian families were farmers that lived
         in small villages. India reached a golden age during this time with many developments in are,
         literature, and science.
  33. How were the cities of Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro organized?
       Each had a well organized government that provided services to its citizens. Both were laid out in a
         precise grid system, with a central citadel in the middle and residential areas surrounding it.
  34. Describe the contributions of Gupta India mathematicians.
       They developed the Arabic number system and the concept of zero.
  35. Why was the Ganges River important to India?
       Provided water for agriculture, sacred river for the Hindu population
  36. What common geographical feature isolated both India and China from the rest of the world?
       Himalaya Mountains
  37. What was a result of this geographic isolation?
       Kept both India and China isolated from the rest of civilization for a long time. Also provided a
         natural barrier to prevent invasion. Develop trade within their own areas

Greece
  38. On a map, be able to locate Minoan Civilization (Crete).
  39. On a map, be able to locate Sparta
  40. On a map, be able to Mycenae
  41. On a map, be able to locate the location of the Trojan War
  42. How did the Geography of Greece help form city-states?
       The mountainous terrain kept villages isolated, leading to the development of many small city-states.
  43. Peloponnesian War – Who was fighting?
       This was a war between Athens and Sparta
  44. What was Alexander the Greats’ most lasting achievement?
       The spreading of Greek and Hellenistic culture around the world.
  45. What city was the center of the Hellenistic world?
       Alexandria
  46. What geographic features of Greece would help to connect it to the outside world?
       Its location next to the Mediterranean and Aegean Seas.
  47. Sparta – what did Spartans emphasize?
       Military achievement and athleticism
  48. Which leader of Athens lead it to its ―Golden Age‖?
       Pericles

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  49. Who established an empire from Greece, to Egypt, to India?
       Alexander the Great
  50. What was Greek politics known for creating?
       A true democracy and democratic city-states
  51. What was the Trojan War most likely caused by?
       War between Greece and the city of Troy. Fought over a woman.
  52. What did Homer’s Epics the Iliad and the Odyssey reveal about Greece?
       Everyday Greek life and the story of the Trojan War.
  53. Why was the Delian League formed?
       It was an alliance of Greek city-states led by Athens to prevent future invasions by the Persians.
  54. What is the Socratic Method?
       Emphasizes the importance of questioning to find knowledge and ideas.
  55. Hellenistic Culture – What cultures did it blend?
       Greek, Persian, Indian, and Egyptian


Ch 6 Rome
  56. Who greatly influenced Rome in the fields of art and literature?
       Greeks
  57. What did the Roman legal system do to the empire?
       Unity and Stability
  58. What was Rome’s attitude towards the Jews living in Palestine?
       Romans tolerated Jews
  59. What was Jesus’ mission?
       Bring salvation to believers
  60. To what city did Constantine move his center of power to?
       Constantinople
  61. What contributed to Rome’s fall?
       Heavy taxes, invaders, corrupt officials
  62. When was a dictator chosen to rule the Roman Republic?
       In events of crisis
  63. Who did the Senate of Republic of Rome mainly represent?
       The aristocracy



Muslim World
  64. Explain why Islam is considered a way of life.
       Muslims do not separate their personal life from their religious life. It is part of their everyday life,
         including how people dress, when they pray, what they eat and drink. Prayer five times a day shows
         discipline.
  65. What are the five Pillars of Faith?
       1) Profession of faith, 2) Prayer five times a day, facing Mecca, 3) Giving of alms to charity and the
         poor, 4) Fasting during the month of Ramadan, 5) Pilgrimage to Mecca
  66. How did Muhammad learn that Allah had chosen him as a prophet?
       He received a message from the angel Gabriel.
  67. What does the word ―Muslim‖ mean?
       ―One who has submitted‖
  68. What does the word ―Islam‖ mean?
       ―submission to the will of Allah‖
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  69. How did nomadic traders in the Arabian Peninsula live?
       They were organized into tribes and clans that provided protection.
  70. What are the geographic features of the Arabian Peninsula?
       Mostly desert, with some fertile areas that eventually developed into trading centers.
  71. What is the Kaa’ba? How was it used before Muhammad’s time?
       The most holy shrine in Islam. Before Muhammad it was a poly-theistic shrine that was the center
         of an annual truce.
  72. Who were the Quraysh?
       The original people of Mecca before they accepted Muhammad’s teachings
  73. What was their response to Muhammad’s new faith?
       They saw Muhammad as a threat to their power and wealth.
  74. What best describes Makkah (Mecca) in the 700’s?
       It was the center of Islam.
  75. What was Muhammad’s teaching on other monotheistic faiths?
       He taught that both Christianity and Judaism were true religions, but that his teachings were the final
         refinement of God’s word.
  76. After Muhammad’s death, what was the title of religious successor called?
       Caliph and the first was Abu Bakr.
  77. Name the two sects of Islam that resulted from the division of the Muslim community?
       Sunni and Shiite
  78. Why did a division of the Muslim community occur? Be sure to know the key people.
       It grew because there were people that believed only a direct descendant of Muhammad should be
         Caliph. They wanted Ali to become caliph.
       The martyrdom of Hussain marks the beginning of the Shiite sect of Islam.
       Sunni Muslims believe that the first three Caliphs were properly chosen.
  79. Why is mathematics and science considered a major contribution of the Golden Age of Islam?
       Ideas in Math and Science were developed during this time that are still used today.
  80. Create a list of contributions from the Muslim world to our society that we still use today.
       The idea of writing a check for money at any location.
       The concept or use of algebra in math.
       The use of hospitals.
       The game of chess was used to train and educate people.
  81. What is ―cultural diffusion‖?
       The exchange of ideas, goods, and beliefs among different cultures.


Middle Ages
  82. Who conquered the former Roman province of Gaul?
       A group called the Franks.
  83. Under feudalism, lords granted land to vassals in exchange for what?
       Military service and protection.
  84. The manor economy was based on what?
       Trade among villages
  85. Why did some religious people want to reform the Church during medieval times?
       It’s very power had made it corrupt. Political leaders were allowed to appoint family members and
         friends to church positions.
  86. New agricultural technologies in the Middle Ages led to what?
       Increased food production.
  87. How did the code chivalry affect medieval ideas about women?
       It treated women with more respect.
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88. What group made up the largest part of the population in feudal society?
     Peasants or serfs
89. The Church had great power over people during the Middle Ages because
     Priests and the church determined who would achieve salvation and therefore go to heaven.
90. How did the three-field system contribute to the agricultural revolution that took place during the
    Middle Ages?
     It allowed peasants to produce more crops.
91. What responsibilities did the peasants have toward the lord of a manor? What about the Lord toward the
    peasant?
     According to feudalism, peasants promised to provide protection and labor to the lord in exchange
       for the use of land. They also had to pay rent. The lord promised protection from invasion for the
       peasants.
92. Name three ways in which the Church shaped medieval life?
     Provided education to people.
     Provided food and aid to the poor.
     Determined who would receive salvation.
93. Why was the pope a powerful figure in medieval Europe?
     He was the head of the Catholic Church, which was the most powerful entity in the world.
94. How did Pope Innocent III assert the power of the Church?
     He called for the fourth crusade. He sought to improve the power of the pope and sought out
       heretics in the church.
95. What were the characteristics of Gothic architecture?
     High reaching cathedrals with large stain-glassed windows.
96. What was the chief goal of the Crusades?
     To free the holy land and Jerusalem from Muslim control.
97. How did Spain achieve political and religious unity?
     A combination of the Reconquista to gain control of Spain back from the Muslims and the marriage
       of Ferdinand and Isabella.
98. What were three effects of the bubonic plague on medieval Europe?
     Economic decline, reduction in the population, end of feudalism.
99. What are the key characters of feudalism?
     Mutual agreement between lord and peasants where the lord provided protection in exchange for
       loyality, labor, and rent.
100.       Why is Joan of Arc remembered?
     She led the French against English army during the Hundred Years War.
101.       The word renaissance means "rebirth." What was reborn during the Renaissance?
     The rebirth of society in Europe after the devastation of the Middle Ages and Black Plague.
102.       Why did the Europeans join the Crusades? What were three results of the Crusades?
     At first as a response to the church’s call to regain the Holy Land. Then after a promise of land,
       wealth, and salvation. It led to expanded trade, European realization of other civilizations, and a
       bitter hatred between Muslims and Christians.
103.       What factors that led to the Renaissance?
     Less population left in Europe after the plague.
     More jobs and food available.
     Realization that the church was not the only thing that influenced their lives.
104.       How did Renaissance art reflect humanist concerns?
     Artists would represent humans in their true form and show their experiences in life.
105.       What powerful family controlled Florence for almost 300 years?
     Medici

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  106.      What were three key result of the signing of the Magna Carta?
        Protected free men from arbitrary arrest.
        King could not raise taxes without consent of the council.
        King had to obey the law.



Renaissance Review Questions
  107.       What did the Renaissance thinkers use in their art and writings?
        explored the human experience in the here and now
  108.       Who painted the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel?
        Michelangelo
  109.       Who invented oil paints?
        Jan and Hubert van Eyck
  110.       What were the effects of the printing revolution?
        Printed books became cheaper and easier to produce, knowledge and ideas spread; more people
         learned to read
  111.       What did the artists of the Renaissance focus on?
        Humans and their experiences
  112.       Why did the Renaissance occur in northern Europe later than it did in Italy?
        The Black Death delayed economic growth in northern Europe.
  113.       How did the printing press affect Europe?
        More people learned to read and write
  114.       What contributed to the birth of the Renaissance in Italy?
        A wealthy and powerful merchant class
  115.       Why is Albrecht Dürer often compared to Leonardo da Vinci?
        He had wide-ranging interests
  116.       How did the Roman Catholic Church react to Martin Luther’s ideas?
        Excommunicating him
  117.       How did Calvin teach that humans were born?
        sinners
  118.       What was a result of the Catholic Reformation?
        New schools to train the clergy
  119.       What happened as a result of the publication of Martin Luther’s Ninety-Five Theses?
        Began the Protestant Reformation
  120.       Calvin agreed with Luther on most important doctrines EXCEPT this one.
        Predestination
  121.       What were the reasons for the weakening of the Catholic Church?
        the new ideas of the Renaissance, the pope’s worldly concerns; the printing press
  122.       What document declared Luther a heretic and outlaw?
        Edict of Worms
  123.       What were Martin Luther’s teachings?
        Salvation by faith alone
  124.       What stand did Martin Luther lose some support from the lower classes?
     
  125.       What were Luther’s official complaints against the Catholic Church called?
        Ninety-Five Theses
  126.       What did Luther criticize the Roman Catholic Church for?
        Selling indulgences
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127.     What were the results of the Catholic Reformation?
    Witch hunts, increased training and schools for the clergy.
128.     What were Luther’s beliefs?
    Salvation could be achieved through faith alone
129.     What is predestination?
    The idea that God determined long ago who would achieve salvation
130.     Who was the religious reformer who believed in predestination?
    John Calvin
131.     What problem did the Cluniac reforms address?
    church corruption
132.     Describe the following monastic orders: Augustinians, Benedictines, Franciscans, and
   Dominicans.
    Augustinians—c.430; preaching, study of theology, education at various universities; bound to the
     order, not the monastery.
    Benedictines, c. 529; education, charitable works, help sick and poor in community, bound to a
     specific monastery not order.
    Franciscans, c. 1209, missionary, preach poverty, spread Christianity, bound to the order, not the
     monastery.
    Dominicans-c.1216, missionary, study of theology, preach to heretics, teaching; bound to the order,
     not the monastery.
133.     Why did the intellectual ideas of the Renaissance thinkers spread throughout Europe?
    Invention of the printing press
134.     What contributed to the Protestant Reformation?
    The Catholic Church had become too corrupt and politically powerful
135.     Why did the Renaissance begin in Italy?
    The Italian city-states grew wealthy from trade between Europe and Asia
136.     Who was considered the first ―Renaissance Man‖?
    Leonardo da Vinci




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