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					A Collection of Clicker Resources and References

1. Clicker Papers and Resources

CBE Life Sciences Education
The Clicker Issue: Spring 2007 (Vol 6, Issue 1)

http://www.lifescied.org/content/vol6/issue1/index.dtl

       Clicker Evolution: Seeking Intelligent Design
       Maryfran Barber*, and David Njus
       Departments of *Chemistry and Biological Sciences, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI
       48202

       Clickers in the Large Classroom: Current Research and Best-Practice Tips
       Jane E. Caldwell
       Department of Biology, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506
       Includes a set of “best practice” tips.

       Assessment of the Effects of Student Response Systems on Student Learning and Attitudes
       over a Broad Range of Biology Courses
       Ralph W. Preszler, Angus Dawe, Charles B. Shuster, and Michèle Shuster
       Department of Biology, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM 88003-8001
       Bottom Line: Learning & attitude assessments. Students had positive opinions about clickers,
       and increased frequency of clicker use -> increased learning.

Microbiology-specific use of clickers
Suchman, E., K. Uchiyama, R. Smith and K. Bender. 2006. Evaluating the Impact of a Classroom
Response System in a Microbiology Course. Microbiology Education 7:3-11.
Clicker questions delivered both at the start and throughout each class period resulted in positive
impacts on student attitude.

Seven Things You Should Know About Clickers
http://www.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/ELI7002.pdf

National Science Digital Library
http://nsdl.org/
To do: Search for clickers to find general reviews as well as chemistry and physics clicker questions.
You will find the Canadian In-Class Question Database here (http://cinqdb.physics.utoronto.ca)

Enabling Interactive Engagement Pedagogy Through Digital Technology
Madigan D. and K. Sirum ITALICS 2006 5(4): 109-121
http://www.ics.heacademy.ac.uk/italics/vol5iss4/madigan-sirum.pdf
Bottom Line: Don’t forget that your learning objectives should drive your course design, not
technology for technology’s sake!

Mauricio J. Giuliodori1, Heidi L. Lujan2 and Stephen E. DiCarlo2, 2006 Advan. Physiol. Edu. 30: 168-
173, 2006; doi:10.1152/advan.00013.2006 1043-4046/06
Between four and six pauses during a 90 minute lecture enhanced student performance on
qualitative problems in physiology. Student-student interactions were allowed after each lecture
segment (during each “pause”). After this peer instruction, only 6.5% of students with a correct


Michele Shuster, Western Regional Teaching Symposium 2008                                       Page 1
response changed to an incorrect response, while 56.8% of students with an initial incorrect
response changed it to the correct response. While the authors appear not to have used clickers,
the impact of peer instruction (think/pair/share) seems to be powerful. This points to peer instruction
as a strong possibility for enhanced performance with clicker use.
http://advan.physiology.org/cgi/reprint/30/4/168

Crossgrove K., and K. Curran. 2008. Using Clickers in Nonmajors- and Majors-Level Biology Courses:
Student Opinion, Learning and Long-Term Retention of Course Material. CBE-Life Sciences Education
7:146-154.

Bewer, C.A. 2004. Near Real-Time Assessment of Student Learning and Understanding in Biology
Courses. BioScience 54(11): 1034-1039.

Use of clickers in conjunction with case studies in large-enrollment courses.
   (i) Brickman, P. The Case of the Druid Dracula. National Center for Case Study Teaching in
            Science. http://www.sciencecases.org/druid_dracula/druid_dracula_notes.asp

   (ii) Knabb, M. and Sharp J. Cross-Dressing or Crossing-Over. Sex Testing of Women Athletes.
           National Center for Case Study Teaching in Science.
           http://www.sciencecases.org/crossing_over/prelude.asp

Zhu, E. 2007. Teaching with Clickers. CRLT Occasional Papers No. 22. University of Michigan Center
for Research on Learning and Teaching. http://www.crlt.umich.edu/publinks/CRLT_no22.pdf
This article has a great bibliography, as well as a table of helpful tips.

2. CLICKER EXCERPTS FROM A RECENT SYLLABUS (Large Enrollment Class)

Supplies
5 NMSU test score sheets (available at the campus bookstore) and a No. 2 pencil are required for
the exams. You will be asked to show a photo ID when you hand in your test score sheet at each
exam. Please purchase the full-page size blue and white test score sheet with 184 question lines (92
on each side) and which is labeled “New Mexico State University Test Score Sheet” on the top.
An eInstruction Radio Frequency (RF) Student Response Pad (“clicker”) (available at the campus
bookstore) (REQUIRED). Either the orange & blue “Gen 1” or the white and blue “Gen 2” clicker will
work. You will need to REGISTER your clicker for YOUR SPECIFIC section of Biol 211G with eInstruction
online (see instructions in the clicker section of this syllabus. Class Key: F35688L751.

Class Participation: Up to 100 points of your final grade can be earned based on in-class
participation using your clicker. Participation points will begin to be earned starting on WEDNESDAY,
JANUARY 30 (this gives you until this date to purchase and register your clicker). The way that clicker
points can be earned is described in a subsequent section of this syllabus.

Clickers and Clicker Points
Participation/Clicker Points
As noted above, you can earn up to 100 points for class participation by using your OWN clicker to
answer in-class questions. Please refer to the Academic Honesty section below for further
information regarding class participation points. Briefly, any student(s) who allow(s) other student(s)
to earn participation points without actually being in class to earn them themselves will be
penalized by (at a minimum) a loss of all participation points, as will the students who allowed their
clicker to be used by another students on their behalf. The Instructor reserves the right to consider
more severe penalties, similar or identical to those outlined in the Exam Policies section.



Michele Shuster, Western Regional Teaching Symposium 2008                                       Page 2
There will be MANY in-class clicker questions during the semester (but there will be NO CLICKER
MAKE-UPS- see below for more information). For each question that you answer correctly, you will
earn one “daily point”. For each question that you answer incorrectly, you will earn 0.5 “daily
points”. There are no points available for unanswered questions. Thus, the majority of the daily
points that you earn are purely for participation, rather than accuracy. However, the more
questions that you answer correctly, the more daily points you can earn. Your final % of clicker
points will be based on the proportion of daily points you earn, based on the total number of
questions asked during the semester. For example, if 120 questions are asked during the semester,
and you answer 100 correctly and 15 incorrectly (and fail to answer 5), you will earn 89.58% of the
possible clicker points [(100x1) + (15x0.5)]/120, which is 89.58 out of 100 clicker points. You are
encouraged to attend all lectures and answer the questions to the best of your ability. Not only will
you maximize your clicker points, but, given that many of the clicker questions may reappear (at
least in a closely related form) on in-class exams, you will get practice with exam material.
Remember, with the exception of University Business, there are NO CLICKER MAKE-UPS (see below
for more information).

Important Points About the “Clickers”
       You are responsible for having and REGISTERING a clicker for this class (registration
       instructions, including the class key follow)
       You are responsible for knowing your “clicker number” in this class (this can be obtained by
       noting your “Pad ID” when you register, from the e-mail you will receive from eInstruction
       after you register, and by logging back into your eInstruction account information)
       You are responsible for making sure that your clicker is working (by looking for your number
       to turn blue as you click in your answer, by observing the lights/display on your clicker or by
       checking with me)
       If you experience problems using your clicker, it is your responsibility to contact eInstruction
       IMMEDIATELY (www.einstruction.com or toll free 1.888.333.7532). If the problem is not
       resolved within two days, please let me know so that I can also contact eInstruction.
       With the exception of Official University Business, there will be NO CLICKER MAKEUPS (so
       please remember to bring your clicker to class everyday). This is consistent with the University
       policy regarding attendance, which states that “Students are expected to attend regularly
       all classes for which they are registered”. However, I will add one week’s (two lectures)
       worth of clicker points to everyone’s clicker points at the end of the semester (i.e. missing up
       to one week of lecture will not affect your total possible clicker points).
       Clicker points are earned by bringing and using your OWN clicker in each class meeting.
       Having another student use your clicker while you are absent is a form of cheating, and
       both/all students involved will automatically lose all possible clicker points for the class (at a
       minimum).
       If you are absent for Official University Business, then please print out the clicker questions for
       the day you missed (from the posted review questions on WebCT), answer them on the hard
       copy print-out, staple your official university excuse (with your name on it) to your answers,
       and hand it in to me for credit. This must be done within ONE WEEK of your return, or else
       there is no guarantee that I can give you credit for the missed work (regardless of an official
       university excuse). It is up to you to make-up your clicker questions in a timely fashion (within
       one week, as outlined herein).

Clicker Registration
Student Instructions (Provided by eInstruction)

You will need:
    Class Key: F35688L751
    Internet connection


Michele Shuster, Western Regional Teaching Symposium 2008                                         Page 3
      Enrollment Code/coupon (e.g. from school bookstore)
      or
      Method of Payment (Credit Card or personal check from U.S. bank)
Enrolling through CPSOnline
Create an Account (if you don’t already have one)
    1. Go to www.einstruction.com.
    2. Click on the Students link at the top left of the window.
    3. Select your school or university from the drop-down menu.
    4. Click Choose Site.
    5. Enter your serial number in the space provided. You can find your serial number on your LCD
        screen when you turn on your pad: if your pad does not have an LCD screen, your serial
        number is on the back of the pad, under the battery cover.
    6. Click Create Your Account.
    7. Create a CPSOnline Username and Password and fill in your contact information. Click
        Submit to create your account.

You’ve now created a CPSOnline account. You can use your CPSOnline username and password
to login anytime to CPSOnline. Now you can enroll your pad in your class.

Enroll in a Class
    1. Click Yes to enroll immediately in your class.
    2. Enter your Class Key in the space provided. If you have a Code, enter it in the Code box.
         Note that a Code is not required.
    3. Click Submit and choose your payment options. Click Continue.
    4. Fill in your billing information and click Continue.
    5. To join an additional CPSOnline class, click the Enroll in a class button from the main menu.
    6. Once you have finished enrolling in all of your classes, click Log Out. So that CPSOnline
         properly records your information, log out of CPSOnline.

NOTE: If you enroll in more than one class using CPS, your response pad may have a different
assigned number for each class. Note your assigned response pad number after you enroll for each
class, and use the reminder emails from eInstruction to keep track of your information.

 Contact eInstruction Technical Support
 Live Chat: www.einstruction.com,
 Customer Support Phone: 888.333.7532

Academic Honesty

All students are required to maintain the highest standards of academic honesty and conduct-
these are the same high standards that will be expected of you in your future academic and
professional careers. The student code of conduct outlines many of these expectations, and may
be found at (http://www.nmsu.edu/%7Evpsa/SCOC/misconduct.html). Cheating and academic
misconduct in any form will NOT be tolerated (see the penalties described in the Exam Policies
section and noted at the end of this section). The student code of conduct outlines various forms of
academic misconduct in section III.B . Cheating includes, but is not limited to possession and/or use
of unauthorized materials during exams; copying the work of another (e.g. another student,
instructor or other reference source); using the words or ideas of another (e.g. another student,
instructor or other reference source), especially without proper acknowledgement and citation
(but keep in mind that citing a source DOES NOT allow you to use their words and/or organization
and/or structure if these are copied directly or substantially copied); providing another student the
opportunity to copy your work on exams or assignment, looking at the work of another student

Michele Shuster, Western Regional Teaching Symposium 2008                                     Page 4
during exams and quizzes and providing another student the opportunity to earn participation
(clicker) points when they are not in class to earn them themselves (in which case both/all students
involved will be considered to have engaged in academic dishonesty, and both/all will, at a
minimum, lose all of the participation (clicker) points).

Attendance
Formal attendance will not be taken during lectures. However, it is strongly recommended that you
attend and participate in all lectures, as this is your opportunity to earn class participation points
and to get the most out of the class. Note also the University expectation regarding attendance,
found in the current Undergraduate Catalog: “Students are expected to attend regularly all classes
for which they are registered”. You are responsible for all the material (including announcements of
schedule or other syllabus changes and any announcements regarding the assignments)
presented in lecture. If you do miss a lecture, please be sure to obtain lecture notes from another
student, review the reference materials and then, once you have completed this review process,
contact me if you have any remaining questions.

3. Writing Effective Questions

Bloom B. S. (1956). Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, Handbook I: The Cognitive Domain. New
York: David McKay Co Inc.

http://www.officeport.com/edu/blooms.htm
http://www.indiana.edu/~best/write_better_tests.shtml

4. Contact Info

Michèle Shuster
mshuster@nmsu.edu
http://web.mac.com/micheleshuster/Site/About_Me.html
575.646.3916




Michele Shuster, Western Regional Teaching Symposium 2008                                      Page 5