The_Chest_ptx_ by ashrafp

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									      The Chest:
Pneumothorax, Hemothorax,
  Effusions, & Empyema



               Bradley J. Phillips, M.D.
                       Burn-Trauma-ICU
                      Adults & Pediatrics
Pneumothorax
definition, classification,
     & management
               Pneumothorax                         (1)

      collection of air within the pleural space
• transforms the potential space into a real one

• may lead to various degrees of respiratory compromise

• with progression, the intrapleural pressure may exceed
  atmospheric pressure creating a tension-scenario
      • impairs respiratory function
      • decreases venous return to the right-side of the heart
             Pneumothorax           (2)

• General Management

  – First:      evacuate the air

  – Second:     address the underlying source

  – Third:      promote pleural symphysis
            Pneumothorax                (3)
                Classification System
• Spontaneous Pneumothorax
  – Primary
  – Secondary

• Traumatic Pneumothorax
  – Pulmonary source
  – Tracheobronchial source
  – Esophageal source
              Pneumothorax                       (4)

• Primary Spontaneous Ptx
  – a disease of younger individuals (15 - 35 yrs of age)
  –   males > females
  –   tall, slim body habitus
  –   cigarette smoking implicated
  –   usual cause: parenchymal blebs
        • apex of the upper lobe
        • superior segment of the lower lobe
            Pneumothorax                    (5)

• Primary Spontaneous Ptx:

              “in most instances, the treatment
     of a first-occurrence consists of hospitalization,
           tube-thoracostomy to closed drainage,
         lung-re-expansion against the chest wall,
                             and
             control of any persistent air-leak”
                                                  [Graeber „98]
Pneumothorax      (6)


     when do you
      operate on
a primary spontaneous
    pneumothorax ?
                 Pneumothorax                (7)
• Secondary Ptx: due to underlying pulmonary disease
   – COPD / Asthma / Cystic Fibrosis
   – Immunocompromised Infections
      • Tb & Cocci
      • PCP (becoming more common)

   – Treatment: Closed Thoracostomy
      • Water-seal
      • Heimlich-Flutter Valve
      • V.A.T.S.
                  Pneumothorax                       (8)

                           Traumatic Ptx
• Parenchymal Injury vs. Tracheobronchial vs. Esophageal
   – Blunt or Penetrating
   – Iatrogenic
       • central lines / thoracentesis / biopsy
       • endotracheal tube placement (esp. dual-lumen tubes !)
       • endoscopy / dilational techniques
   – Barotrauma
       • Ventilation / blast injury / Boerhave‟s syndrome
   – Operative
                 Pneumothorax                           (9)

• The Tension Ptx
  – “path of least resistance”
  – life-threatening emergency…how do you treat a tension ptx ??


• The Open Ptx: sucking-chest wound
  – intrinsic lung compliance creates complete collapse
  – 3-sided dressing
  – thoracostomy away from the traumatic wound
            Pneumothorax                    (10)

• Treatment Options
  – Observation: Inpatient vs. Outpatient
  – Thoracostomy Drainage
     • 3rd Interspace / 5th Interspace
     • Negative Suction / Water-seal
  – V.A.T.S. (becoming the “standard”)
  – Muscle-sparing Thoracotomy
  – Posterolateral & Anterolateral Thoracotomy
Pneumothorax    (11)




  Questions ?
              Pneumothorax                      (12)

      Questions…well, I have some -


1. What is the best diagnostic study ?
2. What is the role of “100 % Oxygen” & “Conservative-mgmt” ?
3. How would YOU treat a small Ptx (1 cm) in acute trauma ?
4. What is the predicted recurrence rate for a spontaneous Ptx ?
5. What is a “deep sulcus sign” ?
Pleural Effusions
       what are they ?
  where do they come from ?
  & how do you treat them ?
                          Definition
      the accumulation of excess fluid within the
          pleural space in response to injury,
                inflammation, or both



may represent a local response to disease
 or may just be a manifestation of a systemic illness
          Pathogenesis of Effusions
Rate of Fluid                                 Rate of Fluid
Accumulation                                   Removal

1. Altered Pleural Membrane Permeability
2. Decreased Intravascular Oncotic Pressure
3. Increased Capillary Hydrostatic Pressure
4. Lymphatic Obstruction
5. Abnormal Sites of Entry
            Clinical Manifestations
•   Pain
•   Cough
•   Dyspnea
•   Dullness to Percussion
•   Diminished or Absent Vocal Resonance
•   Diminished or Absent Tactile Vocal Fremitus
•   Friction Rub
               Clinical: A Few Points
        Large Effusions that prevent contact between the
     Visceral & Parietal Pleura during respiration are seldom
               associated with pleuritic chest pain.

• Tumors involving the parietal pleura generally produce constant
  dull pain (Remember Ben Daly, M.D.)

• Large effusions interfere with expansion of the lung and
  produce dyspnea, shortness of breath, and atelectasis
             Radiologic Assessment                          (1)

• Chest X-Ray: PA & Lateral-Decub
    blunting of either costophrenic angle is indicative of the
    accumulation of between 250 - 500 ml of fluid

     • Lateral-Decubitus films (that allow fluid to shift to the dependent
       portion of the thoracic cavity) help differentiate fluid from pleural
       thickening & fibrosis

     • Sub-Pulmonic Effusion: accumulation of fluid between the lung &
       the diaphragm which gives the false impression of an elevated hemi-
       diaphragm
         Radiologic Assessment                       (2)


• Ultrasound: Helpful in Confirming the Presence of a
        Small Pleural Effusion & Identifying Loculations


• C.T. : Extremely Sensitive !!
      • also helps to view the underlying lung (which may be
        obscured by pleural disease)
      • can distinguish between Lung Abscess & Empyema
        Pleural Fluid Analysis

Thoracentesis   =       Pneumothorax
          Pleural Fluid Analysis

Thoracentesis: Transudate vs. Exudate
    1. Gross Appearance
    2. Cell Count & Differential
    3. Gm Stain, C & S
    4. Cytology
    5. LDH
    6. Protein
    7. Glucose, Amylase
                      Transudate
           straw-colored, clear, odorless fluid with a
                   WBC less than 1000 / ul
• Pleural Membranes are Intact
• Secondary to Altered Starling Forces
• Low in Protein & other Large Molecules

                        CHF, Cirrhosis, Nephrotic Syndrome
                        Hypoalbuminemia, Constrictive
                        Pericarditis, SVC Obstruction, PE
                              Exudate
• Characterized by Increased Protein & LDH
      [Pleural Fluid vs. Serum Levels]


• Secondary to Disruption of Pleural Membrane or Obstruction of
  Lymphatic Drainage



                            Parapneumonic, Infections, Malignancy,
                            Vasculitic Disease, GI Disease, TB, PE
   Criteria for “Exudative Effusion”
              criteria                                value
1. Pleural Protein : Serum Protein                    > 0.5

2. Pleural LDH : Serum LDH                            > 0.6

3. Pleural LDH                                        > 200

  only need 1 critical value to establish the diagnosis of exudate
              a bloody pleural effusion
occurring in a patient without a history of trauma or
                pulmonary infarction
                          is
               Indicative of Neoplasm
                  in 90 % of cases!

 Because a RBC count as low as 5000 - 10,000 /ul, can cause a pleural effusion
    to turn red, the finding of blood-tinged fluid per se has little diagnostic
                        value (usually from needle trauma)

        A True Hemothorax is when the Pleural Fluid Hct exceeds 50 %
                       of the Peripheral Blood Hct !
                         Treatment
• Transudative Effusion: focus on the systemic cause

• Exudative Effusion: dependent on the exact sub-type

• Consider Chest Thoracostomy
      •   Gross Pus / Empyema
      •   pH < 7.2
      •   Hemothorax
      •   Complicated Parapneumonic Processes
      •   Malignant Effusions…but remember the role of pleurodesis!
       although pleural disease
   itself is rarely fatal, it may be a
significant cause of patient morbidity


                    appropriate treatment may produce
                      dramatic symptomatic relief !
Pleural Effusions

   Questions ?
     Hemothorax
“ the collection of blood between the
    visceral and parietal pleura…”
                   Hemothorax                     (1)
• Causes of a Spontaneous Hemothorax
  – Pulmonary:      bullous emphysema, PE, infarction, Tb, AVM‟s

  – Pleural: torn adhesions, endometriosis
  – Neoplastic: primary, metastatic (melanoma)
  – Blood Dyscrasias: thrombocytopenia, hemophilia, anticoagulation
  – Thoracic Pathology:       ruptured aorta, dissection

  – Abdominal Pathology: pancreatic pseudocyst, hemoperitoneum
                    Hemothorax             (2)

               The Pathophysiologic Process

• the accumulation of pleural blood forms a stable clot

• overall ventilation & oxygenation becomes impaired
      • mechanical compression of the lung parenchyma
      • mediastinal shift
      • flattening of the hemidiaphragm
                  Hemothorax            (3)

               The Pathophysiologic Process

• over time, the clot is partially-absorbed, leaving behind
  loculated fluid and fibrinous septations

• macro-fibrin deposition begins to provide a structural
  framework

• this “peel” slowly contracts to entrap the underlying lung
   Hemothorax        (5)


   Goal of Treatment
to remove the pleural blood
       and allow for
complete lung re-expansion
                     Hemothorax                   (4)

• General Management Options
  –   thoracentesis: bedside / ultrasound-guided / C.T.-guided
  –   thoracostomy drainage: the mainstay
  –   thorascopic surgery: less than 2 wks. & use a 30-degree scope
  –   thoracotomy: massive hemothorax / instability / chronic hemothorax
  –   local fibrinolytic therapy: urokinase (1000 IU/ml) in 150cc solution
                 Hemothorax                  (6)

• Often, there is an accompanying pneumothorax
  – Dual Chest Tube Management
     • Superior-Apical: Ptx
     • Diaphragmatic-posterior: Htx
     • Consider targeted-drainage into a loculated collection

  – All tubes to negative suction with protective water-seal
  – Prophylactic antibiotics may be indicated while the tubes
    are in (controversial!!)
  – Chest tubes removed: 100 -150 cc‟s / day
                          Hemothorax                       (6)

            Undrained hemothorax increases the risk
                  of empyema & fibrothorax

• Large collections should be drained slowly to minimize
  the development of re-expansion-pulmonary-edema
  [“R.E.E.P.”] (stop after 2 liters…wait 6-8 hrs, then drain out another 1-2 liters, etc)

• Computed tomography is the diagnostic of choice
Hemothorax

Questions ?
                   Hemothorax
     Questions…well, I have some –


1.   When do YOU operate on a “Traumatic Hemothorax” ?
2.   What options exist in trying to drain a hemothorax (chest tube
     placement) ?
3.   What are the reported complications of chest tube placement ?
What is an Empyema ?
                  Empyema Thoracis
       An Accumulation of Pus in the Pleural Cavity

• 1-2 % incidence in the pediatric population
• Up to 18 % in immunocompromised adults
• General Management
  –   Appropriate Antibiotic Coverage
  –   Thoracostomy Drainage
  –   Streptokinase / Urokinase
  –   Surgical Intervention - Decortication
            The Stages of Empyema
• Stage I - “Exudative”
     • sterile pleural fluid develops secondary to inflammation without
       fusion of the pleura

• Stage II - “Fibrinopurulent”
     • a fibrinous peel develops on both pleural surfaces limiting lung
       expansion

• Stage III - “Organizing”
     • in-growth of capillaries & fibroblasts into the fibrinous peel
  Empyema: A Pediatric Review
                                                                          # of
                                                                    500   Cases


                                                                          # of
                                                                          Positive
                                                                          Cultures

                                                                          Staph
                                                                    0     aureus
                                                     Strep pneumo
                                      Staph aureus
             # of Positive Cultures
# of Cases
                                                                          Strep
                                                                          pneumo
     Empyema...

      Questions ?

“don’t let it happen !!!”
      The Chest:
Pneumothorax, Hemothorax,
  Effusions, & Empyema




                 Any Questions…?

								
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