CASE STUDIES by fjwuxn

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									Source: Natural Capitalism: The Next Industrial Revolution
                 (Hawken et. al., 1999)
   Interface carpets aims to be the world‟s first sustainable
    corporation
   Traditionally, old-fashioned broadloom carpet is replaced every
    decade because it develops worn spots, causing major disruption
    to an office
   Over 5 billion pounds of the carpet now in landfills has Interface‟s
    name on it
   Chairman Ray Anderson realised that not throwing more energy
    and money into holes in the ground represented a major business
    opportunity
   Interface launched a transition from selling carpet to leasing floor-
    covering services
   Interface owns the carpet and leases it to customers
   Interface is responsible for monthly inspections and maintenance if
    required
   Benefits:
      Carpet tiles used so only worn parts are replaced – usually 10-
        20% of area shows 80-90% of the wear
      Increases net employment (less manufacturing but more
        upkeep)
      Eliminates disruption, since worn tiles are seldom under
        furniture. Because the carpet is laid in the form of tiles, glue
        fumes are also significantly reduced or possibly eliminated. The
        customer‟s former capital investment becomes a lease expense
      Cost savings to customers
   Interface has developed a new polymeric material to create a new kind
    of floor-covering service, called Solenium, that can be completely
    remanufactured back into itself. All worn materials can and will be
    completely separated into their components, fibre and backing, and
    each component remade into an identical fresh product.
   Benefits:
      production process is simpler
      less wasteful: manufacturing upper surface produces 99.7% less
         waste than normal carpet, and the other 0.3% gets reused.
      provides better service - highly stain-resistant, does not mildew,
         easily cleaned with water, 35% less materials-intensive, four times
         as durable (using sevenfold less massflow per unit of service) and
         is acoustically and aesthetically improved
      suited to renewable feedstocks
      manufacturing cost substantially reduced and margin increased
   Overall reduction in the net flow of materials and embodied energy
    by 97%
   If a satisfactory quality of service isn‟t being delivered, the problem
    can be addressed directly and immediately
   Service cost can be fully deducted from taxable business income,
    just like any other normal operating expense
   Product‟s value doesn‟t have to be capitalised, as capital cost is
    entirely off balance sheet and onto that of the firm that leases it –
    giving manufacturing firm an incentive to minimise capital
    requirements per unit of service flow
 Higher performance and competitive advantage did not
  evolve through incremental improvement, but rather from a
  deliberate effort to redesign the flooring business from
  scratch so as to close all loops, take nothing away from the
  earth‟s crust, and add nothing harmful to the biosphere

 Future goal – all fossil fuel use to be ultimately eliminated
Source: Sydney Water‟s website
   Manages the water supply and sewage infrastructure for the greater
    Sydney region, servicing four million customers in Sydney, the
    Illawarra and the Blue Mountains
   Delivers over 1.6 billion litres of water and collects and treats more
    than 1.3 billion litres of wastewater daily
   Is involved in activities such as stormwater management and land
    management
   Has 3,630 staff
   Has an annual capital works program of around $500 million
   Manages $3 billion of assets, including 10 water filtration plants, 30
    sewage treatment plants and more than 40,000 kilometres of pipes
   Owns 3,155 hectares of land, of which some has undisturbed
    vegetation
 Sydney Water committed to sustainable operations
 Develops an annual sustainability report.
  (Towards Sustainability Report 2002 can be viewed at
   http://www.sydneywater.com.au/html/environment/tsr/tsrpdfs.html

 Has developed a comprehensive educational package for
  employees to build their understanding of sustainability and
  Sydney Water initiatives in this regard, including on-line and
  face-to-face components
 Initiatives:
     Programs to reduce water wastage, including periodic
      upgrading of sewage treatment systems and other
      infrastructure
     Program to fix leaks in water system using acoustic devices
      – already saving 22 million litres per day, estimated will be
      50 million litres a day when program completed
                                            (continued)

 Initiatives:
     Influencing demand through water pricing. Although
      Sydney has experienced significant and steady
      population growth, water consumption has been
      relatively stable, particularly due to the introduction of
      usage-based pricing which provides a direct incentive to
      conserve water
     Productive wastewater reuse schemes. In one project in
      south-western Sydney, dry weather flows are treated and
      used for agricultural and tree-farming activities, reducing
      nutrient, sediment and organic material discharged into
      the sensitive Hawkesbury-Nepean River system.
      Irrigation demands are now starting to outweigh
      availability of treated wastewater
                                               (continued)

   Initiatives:
      Distribution of ceramic mugs to head office staff and a cost
       differential for drinks served in foam cups to reduce use of
       foam cups in the cafeteria – resulting in a saving of 140,000
       cups, and $11,000, a year
      Program to encourage rainwater tanks in urban areas, such
       as provision of practical information such as sizing of tanks
       and efficient use of water. Backflow prevention devices have
       been provided free to customers purchasing tanks since June
       2002. A model home including a rainwater tank has been
       exhibited at trade shows and home display centres, and work
       with other government agencies has been undertaken to
       simplify policies and procedures
 Initiatives:
    Provision of flexible work options to maximise retention
       of skilled staff and reduce staff absenteeism eg. two
       long-day childcare centres in Sydney providing
       affordable care for children of employees and the
       community to address low levels of female participation
       in the Sydney Water workforce
    A „Give as you earn‟ scheme - staff can automatically
       donate money from their pay to tax-deductible charities
       in Australia. Sydney Water matches each new and
       additional donation above existing ones dollar for dollar.
       More than $31,583 was donated between July and
       December 2001, matched by Sydney Water
                                          (continued)


 Initiatives:
     A Youth Employment Strategy to address the fact that
      only 4.5% of employees were aged 15-24. This strategy
      includes work experience placements, sponsorship,
      scholarships, graduate and undergraduate programs, an
      apprenticeship program and disability traineeships
                                           (continued)


 Initiatives:
     A performance management system to foster staff
      development by increasing employee knowledge, skills
      and experience and e-learning and leadership training
      for senior managers
     A program to improve the health and safety culture
      through a range of programs for employees and
      selected topics. Training includes manual handling,
      construction training, ergonomics and risk
      management. The „Be Safe, Mate‟ program encourages
      employees to take responsibility not only for their own
      personal safety but also that of their colleagues
                                                    (continued)


 Sydney Water engages the community in projects such as the
  rehabilitation of Smalls Creek, which eventually leads to the
  Hawkesbury River. The creek has Aboriginal sites, a remnant
  vegetation community and several endangered species of flora.
  The local community participated in early planning workshops to
  identify and prioritise issues, and later in five full-day working bees
  to remove weeds and undertake bush regeneration and
  revegetation. The community are now taking an active role in the
  management of this area
 Sydney Water runs a Speaker‟s Program where staff present about
  Sydney Water‟s activities and water conservation initiatives to
  interested community groups
Source: Corporate Sustainability: an Investor
 Perspective. The Mays Report (Mays, 2003)
   The insurance industry has an affinity for sustainability because a
    range of environmental, social and economic factors influence its
    core business challenge of calculating risk and setting appropriate
    premiums. They also influence its core purpose of helping people
    to manage and reduce risk
   Weather-related risks, influenced by climate change, are major
    drivers of claims costs for the insurance industry in big-ticket areas
    like home and motor cover
   Natural disasters like hailstorms, floods, cyclones and bushfires
    represent a major driver of losses – both insured and non-insured –
    for the community and the economy. An inability to underwrite such
    risks would not only have ramifications for individual insurance
    companies, but global economies
Source: Mills et al, (2001) page 72, prepared for IAG
   Australia has enormous potential to suffer from impending climate
    change. More than 80% of its population resides within 50 km of the
    coast with increasing concentrations in regions already vulnerable
    to weather hazards (CSIRO, 2002)
   In addition, $1,500 billion of Australia‟s wealth is locked up in
    homes, commercial buildings, ports and other physical assets (ABS,
    2002). This is equivalent to nine times the current national budget or
    twice our gross domestic product
   The insurance industry currently underwrites the risk to the bulk of
    these assets from weather events but climate change threatens its
    ability to do so as effectively in the future
 Insurance Australia Group (IAG) is Australia‟s leading
  general insurer
 IAG provides personal, compulsory third party (CTP) and
  commercial insurances as well as retirement solutions in
  Australia and New Zealand. The Group comprises a number
  of brands, including NRMA insurance, SGIO and CGU
  Insurance
 IAG serves a significant portion of the Australian and New
  Zealand market with about 11 million policies in place
                 (continued)



 IAG has taken the first steps to incorporate sustainability
  into its business model
 At the organisational level, IAG has implemented staff
  development programs and increased eco-efficiencies
 At the product level, it has assessed how to incorporate
  sustainability principles into products
 IAG is further enhancing brand and reputation through
  participating in community programs and focusing on its
  corporate climate change position and research
                (continued)


 A key business objective is to reduce the size, frequency
  and ultimate cost of claims
 Being more proactive in areas such as preventing workplace
  accidents, mitigating against climate change and promoting
  safer communities can translate directly into a lower claims
  burden
 ‘As an insurance group, our business is to pay claims. But to
  fulfil this role we must stand for more. We need to be able to
  help our customers and the community beyond just paying
  claims. To do this, we need to share our experience and
  knowledge with the community to help manage and reduce
  risks. We also need to build a culture which allows our
  people to develop and work to the best of their abilities. We
  must ensure that our business is sustainable and can deliver
  ongoing value to our shareholders’ – an IAG perspective
 Three priority areas that align IAG‟s business interests with
  societal interests:
    safety – pursuing a strong safety culture within IAG‟s own
     workplace to anchor its role as Australia‟s leading
     provider of worker‟s compensation services
    environment – improving environmental performance
     starting with the in-house „basics‟ such as recycling,
     energy efficiency, less paper use and reduced travel, but
     extending to the entire value chain through supplier and
     customer relationships
    community – supporting communities in an effort to
     reduce risk, including being safer and cleaner, thus
     reducing the potential for claims
 These initiatives:
     support premium pricing (through enhancing brand and
      reputation) and growth through increasing volumes and
      improving product mix
     reduce claim frequency and size, and cost of claims
      processing
     improve employee culture and therefore productivity as
      well as the ability to recruit and retain the best people
     decrease operating expenses e.g. lower
      energy costs, reduced workers‟
      compensation costs
   IAG has become a signatory to the United Nations Environment
    Programme‟s Finance Initiative (UNEP FI), which requires
    incorporation of environmental considerations into day-to-day
    activities
   IAG conducted extensive research into its sustainability „baseline‟
    including workplace safety and environmental performance
   IAG developed and implemented corporate safety and
    environmental targets that focus on reducing injuries and accidents,
    and also cutting its paper, fuel and energy use, and minimising
    carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. For the 2003/04 financial year
    targets included reductions of:
       energy and paper consumption by 15%
       fuel (tool-of-trade cars) and air travel kilometres by 5%
       carbon dioxide emissions by 15%
   Customer and consumer-focussed initiatives include the web-based
    Green Safe Car Profiler, a user-friendly tool on the Internet that allows
    easy comparison of new vehicle models in terms of their safety and
    environment attributes including fuel efficiency
   Other current initiatives include working with a network of Preferred
    Smash Repairers to improve their overall business performance,
    including environment and OHS [occupational health & safety] modules,
    with the ultimate combined benefit of improved service to IAG’s
    customers, better outcomes for the wider community and business
    gains as well
   IAG also has begun to ‘sustainability road-test’ a number of initiatives
    and ideas by engaging a broad range of external stakeholders from
    business, government and civil society, including organisations
    covering environment, consumer advocacy, social welfare and other
    fields that attract significant community support
 Reducing the extent of possible climate change through
  policy strategies and innovative product offerings, e.g.
  products or policies that aim to reduce car emissions by
  offering cheaper insurance premiums for lower usage and
  support for the public transport system. Benefits include:
     improved air quality
     decreased road congestion (which
      would reduce aggressive driving,
      a factor that is responsible for half
      of all accidents in the USA)
                    (continued)

   Assess differentiating factors, such as relationship between
    distances travelled in an insured vehicle and average number and
    severity of claims, to allow insurers to factor the extent of vehicle
    usage (with environmental consequences) into insurance
    premiums. Benefits include:

      better costing of premiums

      encouragement for people to use public transport, with a
       reduced contribution to global warming and lessened long-term
       variability of climate change
                  (continued)


 For the same reason, IAG are also considering the
  possibility of factoring the fuel efficiency of vehicles into
  premium calculations. Likewise eco-efficient housing
  lessens the impact of climate change. Better urban design
  has the benefits of:
     lower theft and burglary rates
     reduced vehicle usage & lower
      accident rates
     lower greenhouse emissions
 Weather and climate are „core business‟ for the insurance
  industry. At its most basic, insurers underwrite weather-
  related catastrophes by calculating, pricing and spreading
  the risk and then meeting claims when they arise. A
  changing, less predictable climate has the potential to
  reduce its capacity to calculate, to price and to spread this
  weather related risk
 IAG believes that climate change is a real threat based on
  the assessment of the science presented by the
  Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, its own
  scientific modelling work and re-insurance sector research
                          (continued)

   Currently IAG is developing a climate strategy which includes:
      investing in world-leading research to learn more about the
        problem and its expected impact, using international experts to
        look at specific Australian scenarios such as Sydney’s hailstorms
        and northern Australia’s cyclones
      considering possible adaptation strategies to minimise
        vulnerability, for example comparing the merits of rival roofing
        and other building materials
      exploring and adopting strategies that minimise IAG’s and its
        customers’ contribution to climate change through innovative
        products and processes, and new business models that
        contribute towards reduced greenhouse gas emissions, and
      establishing a clear public advocacy positioning and a call to
        action to business, governments and community groups to work
        together to find sustainable solutions to the challenges
 Business value created as a result of sustainability initiatives
  should be rigorously measured and financially evaluated
  wherever possible
 As well as providing accountability and incentive, this will
  allow the company to understand the long-term connections
  between its sustainability-related initiatives and business
  opportunity and growth
Source: Queensland Environment Protection Agency website
   Symbiotic relationship between Cairns Crocodile Farm and Mulgrave
    Central Mill illustrates how one business‟s sustainability problems
    can be another‟s solution
   Demonstrates how businesses working together can create solutions
    that have both environmental and economic benefits
   Cairns Crocodile Farm has specialised in crocodile meat and leather
    products for the export market over the last 12 years, and has some
    15,000 crocodiles
   Ability to expand limited by the need to provide more warm water for
    crocodile ponds during colder winter months. Warm water during
    winter increases the appetite and growth rates of crocodiles,
    significantly increasing farm production rates and profits
                                                      (continued)



 Rather than the conventional solution of investing in a new
  boiler, the owners asked to use the warm water produced
  by the sugar mill ten kilometres away
 This was beneficial to the Mill as they previously had to
  pump water around a large cooling tower before
  discharging into the Mulgrave River, where there is a risk of
  thermal pollution. The Mill also receive an additional source
  of income from payment to supply the water, in addition to
  energy cost savings
                                                   (continued)



   The water is now pumped to the crocodile
    farm and cools naturally as it runs through
    the crocodile ponds and then almost 6
    kilometres through the farm‟s wetland
    treatment system prior to discharge into an
    estuarine system
   A third party has benefited from this
    arrangement as with the increase of the
    crocodile‟s appetites, there has been a 30%
    increase in demand for poultry by-products
    from the local abattoir, Bartter Enterprises
    Pty Ltd, which has significantly reduced
    their waste load
   In the first month of piping in warm water from the Mill, the benefits
    far surpassed the farm‟s expectations. The crocodiles required more
    feed than ever before, indicating a rapid growth rate
   Economic, environmental and social benefits of the project have
    included:
       estimated direct reduction of approximately 1,500 tonnes of CO2
         emissions annually from Cairns Crocodile Farm by reducing the
         need to use the boiler
       reduction of bore water usage by six million litres each week at
         the Cairns Crocodile Farm
       reduction in poultry abattoir waste by 260,000 kg annually
       creation of 13-16 new jobs over the next three years in these
         industries and in the indigenous community, who collect crocodile
         eggs for the farm
Source: Green Development: Integrating Ecology and Real Estate
 (Wilson et. al., 1998) and Natural Capitalism: The Next Industrial
                   Revolution (Hawken et. al, 1999)
 The International Netherlands Group (ING) bank
  headquarters in Amsterdam demonstrates the possibilities of
  good design
 When the bank outgrew its original headquarters, the board
  of directors decided to create a new image for the bank
 Their vision for the building – it would be “organic”, would
  integrate “art, natural materials, sunlight, green plants,
  energy conservation, low noise, and water”
                                          (continued)




 This vision was refined to also require that it must use the
  latest technology, had to be flexible, and had to be energy
  efficient. Perhaps most importantly, the bank was not to cost
  “one guilder more” than a conventional building
 The design of the building involved a multi-disciplinary team
  with close collaboration and took three years because all
  participants in the project, including employees, were
  involved at all stages
 The site was chosen by workers because of its proximity to
  their homes
                                                   (continued)



   Completed in 1987, the resultant 540,000 square foot building, which
    is a series of interconnected towers, is one of the world‟s leading
    examples of how buildings should be built
   The building:
       uses less than a tenth the energy of its predecessor and a fifth
         that of a conventional new office building in Amsterdam, with
         annual energy savings of approximately US$2.9 million (1996
         dollars)
       uses passive cooling with backup absorption chillers and uses
         no air conditioning, something extremely unusual for a building
         of its size
       is filled with natural light, artworks, curvilinear forms and flowing
         water. Indoor and outdoor gardens are fed by rainwater captured
         from the bank‟s roof
                                        (continued)




 Employee absenteeism has dropped by 15 percent,
  productivity is up, and workers even hold numerous
  evening and weekend cultural and social events there
 The bank has been elevated from fourth to second place
  amongst Dutch banks - uncertain how much this is the
  result of the new building and subsequent public
  image/corporate culture changes
Source: The Western Australian Department of the Premier and
          Cabinet Sustainability Policy Unit website
   City Farm is a youth project run under the auspices of Men of the
    Trees (WA)
   With limited resources, this not-for-profit organisation is involved in
    a wide range of sustainability issues relating to healthy urban
    communities and environments, including community development,
    land reclamation, organic food production and waste management
   On a one-hectare block, fifteen minutes from Perth CBD, City Farm
    has transformed a derelict scrap metal yard (that had originally
    been slated to be a car park) into a thriving community garden,
    implementing permaculture principles and growing organic food
   The garden includes a nursery, vegetable patches, fruit trees, native
    flora and poultry
   City Farm also hosts an artists‟ workshop
                 (continued)

 City Farm‟s primary emphasis is on community development
 City Farm‟s structure and operation is „organic‟ and
  egalitarian, with volunteers and coordinators taking
  responsibility for day-to-day tasks. It has a democratic
  approach to decision-making, with all volunteers having input
  to management issues and freedom to organise new
  activities and projects that they take responsibility for
 The City Farm site was originally contaminated with
  hydrocarbons and heavy metals, and the buildings had
  asbestos roofs. Removal of contaminated soil was
  undertaken
 Many community groups use City Farm as a space to meet
  and work, as it provides resources (both human and
  material), courses, workshops and venues for community
  groups at a low cost

 City Farm promotes many community arts projects, providing
  local artists with workshop space and organising exhibitions.
  Art surrounds the grounds, from funky signage, to the
  sculptures and painted logs. City Farm is a keen advocate of
  functional art. For example, its old can-crusher has been
  transformed into a work of art using recycled materials
                   (continued)

   City Farm has been an active music venue that has fostered many
    local musicians over the years. It is home to the Sambanistas,
    Perth's biggest community arts and percussion group
   City Farm promotes organic food through their community lunches
    and dinners. Every Thursday, City Farm cooks an organic
    vegetarian buffet lunch that is open to the public
                  (continued)


 Education has always been a primary objective at City Farm,
  providing a link between urban and rural regions. It runs
  permaculture design courses, tours of the farm for schools
  covering worm farming, composting and plant propagation,
  and recycling workshops for primary school students
 City Farm frequently runs information and workshops at
  festivals throughout the Perth metropolitan region. These
  stalls often feature compost and paper-making
  demonstrations
                  (continued)


 City Farm provides information on community groups, up-
  coming events, environmental projects and campaigns, and
  provides advice on recycling
 There is literature on hand for visitors (including their own
  publications), as well as having experienced staff to provide
  advice
 Offsite, City Farm provides people with the opportunity to get
  involved in a number of landcare programs around the State
                     (continued)

   From its inception, City Farm has regarded itself as a place where
    people could gain work-experience in a variety of areas. Many of
    its volunteers have gone on to paid employment
   Government funded projects have included „Landcare and
    Environmental Action Program‟ (LEAP), TAFE courses, 'Work-for-
    the-Dole' program, Community Service programs for the Justice
    Department and provision of volunteer opportunities for the
    mentally disabled with the Department of Mental Health Services
   City Farm is working with ATSIC and a number of other Aboriginal
    organisations and government departments in setting up a 'Safe
    Place' on the City Farm site. Such a space would provide travellers
    without accommodation a safe place to at least make a fire and
    possibly have access to an ablution block
   City Farm practices and teaches a range of recycling and reuse
    techniques that put old materials into productive use - to some
    extent this is necessitated by limited funds
   Recycling techniques are incorporated into school workshops
   City Farm recycles organic and inorganic waste material. Organic
    waste is transformed into valuable organic matter through
    composting and worm farming. Since 1994, approximately 4,000m3
    of tree mulch, 1,500m3 of lawn clippings
    and 20 tonnes of newspaper has gone into
    City Farm's gardens
                                (continued)



   Inorganic waste is reused in its offices and in arts projects. So far,
    20 tonnes of recycled metal and 200 tonnes of discarded timber
    have been used on site
   From the TAFE and surrounding offices, waste paper is brought to
    the site for recycling
   Recycling and reuse is evident in City Farm's furniture, landscaping
    and artwork
   Bicycle recycling reduces waste and provides cheap and clean
    transport
   City Farm works with its parent body, Men of the Trees to
    facilitate a range of tree-planting programs
   As a salinity abatement strategy, Men of the Trees have
    conducted hundreds of tree planting programs, many of which
    have involved school children
   City Farm's longest running tree-planting project (since 1990) is
    on the remote Aboriginal reserve of Pia, about 720km north-north-
    east of Perth. Pia is in the heartland of the Wadjarri people's
    lands, and is entirely managed by local Wadjarri people. There is
    an annual visit to the site to work on permaculture gardening, as
    well as art and music activities
 Ongoing challenges of economic viability, given there is no
  direct government funding and a heavy reliance on
  volunteers

 Secure land tenure - City Farm has operated on temporary
  leases since its inception, which has severely inhibited its
  ability to grow and restore its deteriorating infrastructure

 Lack of legislative or policy support for urban farms
  Source: Factor 4: Doubling Wealth – Halving Resource Use.
The New Report to the Club of Rome (von Weizsäcker et. al. 1997)
   Agriculture is commonly discussed as a major cause of many serious
    environmental problems including soil erosion, overuse of water
    resources, deterioration of water quality in rivers and creeks, loss of
    biodiversity and in many parts of the world, salinity
   However, a number of farmers are demonstrating that land can be
    farmed productively whilst protecting its environmental values
                    (continued)


   Sundance Farms in Arizona is an 830 hectare irrigated farm which
    grows crops including cotton, wheat, barley, milo, maize, seedless
    watermelons, rockmelons and sweet corn

   The arid conditions in Arizona are similar to those experienced in
    many areas of Australia

   Even in well-managed irrigated farms, only 40-60% of water
    applied to a field will be taken up by crops (for many farms this
    figures is closer to 20%), with the rest lost to surface runoff, deep
    percolation or sprinkler wind spray
                   (continued)


   Sundance Farms changed from furrow and flood irrigation to
    subsurface drip irrigation in 1980. The drip lines, buried 20-25 cm
    deep, emit small amounts of water right in the plant root zone. The
    soil surface usually stays dry, reducing surface evaporation, and the
    root zone is never saturated, reducing runoff and deep percolation.
    The few per cent of water lost is mostly accounted for by the
    occasional backflushing of the drip lines

   The drip lines, made to last and buried below the depth disturbed by
    any agricultural equipment, were dear to install, but the cumulative
    reductions in inputs and increases in productivity made the
    investment very cost-effective
                         (continued)



 Water-use efficiencies increased from roughly 60% to over
  95%, a factor of 1.6 improvement
 Reduced tillage operations, replacing ploughing, floating,
  land planing and listing with simple shallow surface tillage
  also reduced tillage energy use by 50%
 Simplified tillage allowed quicker postharvest turnaround of
  fields, permitting two crops to be harvested in some years
                       (continued)




 Because the drip lines cut water losses, less of the applied
  herbicides and fertilisers left the fields. Herbicide
  applications were reduced by 50% and nitrogen fertiliser use
  by 25-50%
 Less water had to be pumped from deep well turbines,
  thereby reducing pumping energy use by 50%
 Crop yields increased by 15-50%
   A variety of factors probably contributed to the many observed
    benefits:
      greater uniformity of water application
      greater effectiveness of systemic insecticides now delivered
       through the drip lines directly to the plant roots
      better management of yield-reducing salts that often accumulate
       in surface-irrigated fields
      higher yields with less water meant a reduction in water use by a
       factor of 1.8 to 2.4 – in a hot and unforgiving desert where rising
       water costs had already wrung out the most obvious savings
Sources: Good News for a Change: Hope for a Troubled Planet
  (Suzuki and Dressel, 2002) and The Natural Step website
 Nike isn‟t always widely held up as an example of a
  sustainability-focussed organisation, particularly in light of
  revelations in recent years of sweatshop labour that has
  been used to manufacture some of their products

 However, in 1998 the organisation adopted The Natural
  Step‟s principles and has adopted sustainability as a
  company-wide priority
 In 2003, there were 65 pilot projects and initiatives that
  focused on sustainable product design and operational
  efficiencies. Some of these activities include:
     measuring the company‟s global footprint by examining
      the supply chain, from packaging to transportation, as a
      step toward creating sustainability benchmarks, tracking
      results and reducing harmful impacts worldwide
                         (continued)

 attempting to replace inorganic solvents with water-based adhesives,
  cleaners and primers. Water-based cements in 90% of its shoes
  have helped the company save over 1.6 million gallons of solvents a
  year – the equivalent of more than 32,000 barrels of oil. They have
  also been working on removing carcinogenic phthalates out of inks.
  Nike advertised in conjunction with Greenpeace it would be phasing
  out the use of PVC‟s
 making shoeboxes 10% lighter, saving 4,000 tons of raw materials
  and US$1.6 million annually
 attempting to make a totally recyclable shoe, with uppers and lowers
  that can be easily separated and recycled into other products –
  everything from more shoes to basketball court pads and volleyballs
                          (continued)


 adopting the use of organic cotton. Although only 3% of cotton used
  in their products is now organic, the sheer volume of throughput still
  means that this is providing the organic cotton industry with
  enormous support
 creating 17 sustainability-oriented positions in the United States and
  Asia
 developing a commuting program to encourage Nike employees in
  the United States to take public transit, bike and carpool. This has
  resulted in 14,137 gallons of gas saved and 11,310 pounds of
  pollution prevented in 2000
 Nike has the following three sustainability goals:
     Eliminate the concept of waste in product design, use of
      materials, energy, and any other resources that cannot
      be readily recycled or reabsorbed back into nature
     Eliminate all substances that are known or suspected to
      be harmful
     Close the loop and take full responsibility for products at
      all stages of their development
Source: Good News for a Change: Hope for a Troubled
          Planet (Suzuki and Dressel, 2002)
   Leads the way in sustainable practice for the forestry industry
   Own what has been called the finest privately owned industrial
    forest in the US
   Their practices have been praised by everyone from the Rainforest
    Action Network and the Sierra Club to the Washington Post and
    the Christian Science Monitor
   Employs 7,500 people directly, and grosses about US$250 million
    (US) a year in plywood, hardwood and softwood lumber, oil and
    gas
   Business started in 1855 by the present owner‟s grandfather-in-law
   The family have funded everything from libraries and scholarships
    to church construction and foreign aid programs
                                    (continued)



   The company has formally pledged to do three things:
      maintain the health of the forest ecosystem
      support the production of wood on a sustained, renewable basis
      provide social and economic benefits to the surrounding areas
        and communities
   Collins Pine makes smaller profits than its publicly traded
    competitors simply because its owners aren‟t greedy
   Their more long-term methods mean they lose 25% profit, or
    hundreds of thousands of dollars, compared to competitors. For
    example, by using natural tree regeneration, the forest matures at a
    more normal rate than the usual, even-age tree farm monoculture
    management
                                     (continued)


   Ironically, because Collins Pine forests are more ecologically rich,
    they are more impacted by government regulators, e.g. more
    stringent regulations to protect the fish and game species they‟ve
    managed to bring back
   In another example, the US Forest Service cuts firebreaks just
    inside their property line, because a well-managed, mature forest
    tends to stop burns. Clear-cutting neighbours in the watershed
    are allowed to overcut, while Collins Pine is then not allowed to
    take more in the state-allowable cut
                                      (continued)



   Collins Pine at Alameda forest was asked if they had any of the rare
    great grey owl feeding at their meadows, which then required a 600-
    foot wide strip of trees to be left around all meadows. In spite of the
    imposition, they said yes, not because they had ever seen the owl,
    but because the habitat was appropriate and the owl could return
   Despite lower profits and stiffer regulations, the Collins family takes
    low enough profits that they can provide decent wages for all their
    employees
   Staff are proud they can protect the forests and their long-term
    livelihood
   Many staff have waited years for an employment opportunity to
    arise at Collins Pine
                                     (continued)



   The company also decided to certify its wood, whereby an outside
    agency is invited to determine if a company‟s practices are truly
    sustainable, so that the lumber can become “certified,”, that is, bear
    a consumer label stating that it is cut within the renewable limits of
    that forest
   Despite initial reluctance from many employees about potential loss
    of control, interference and more paperwork, the outcomes have
    been inspiration for higher achievement and a revitalisation of
    practices
   This process also initiated positive dialogue with environmental
    organisations such as Greenpeace
Source: The Western Australian Department of the Premier and
          Cabinet Sustainability Policy Unit website
   The Granny Smith Gold mine is a joint venture between Delta Gold
    and Placer Dome, located approximately 25 km south-southwest of
    the township of Laverton, surrounded by a number of other mines, in
    the north-eastern goldfields region of Western Australia
   Laverton has a population of about 500 people, a substantial
    proportion of whom are Wongutha, the traditional custodians of the
    surrounding country
   The processing plant has been producing gold from ore since 1990.
    Originally envisaged to have a 10 year lifespan, the discovery of
    additional gold deposits in 1998 will see another 20 or more years,
    providing both the company and the community time to find ways to
    diversify local industry with a goal of a longer term sustainable future
   The Granny Smith mining venture has developed and introduced a
    unique blend of sustainability practices and is taking more holistic
    approaches to mining activities
   Granny Smith Gold Mine aims to encourage beneficial
    environmental, economic and social outcomes, to relations in both
    the immediate vicinity of the mine site and with the local community
    of Laverton
   By recognising the importance of sustainability, Granny Smith's gold
    operations have introduced a philosophy that recognizes economic
    potential as only one of a host of values, such as social justice and
    conservation, which can be nurtured in concert with traditional
    business goals
   Revegetation has been planned and designed for both operations
    and closures. As progressive decommissioning of sites occurs over
    the life of the operation, revegetation follows in phases
   The revegetation strategy includes final terraforming of disturbed
    land, planting schemes for tailings areas and general rehabilitation
    of the Granny Smith location
   The seed, save and sow method is used, where original plants at
    dig sites are de-seeded for propagation and later
    replanting/reseeding to ensure the integrity of local ecosystems is
    retained
   With a goal of diversification of the local economy, an experimental
    crop of 200 olive trees has also been planted and is growing well
                              (continued)



   Granny Smith has a worm farm for recycling of all cardboard, paper
    and food scraps on the mine site, thus providing fertility for the olive
    trees while solving a waste management issue
   The "Ruggies" recycling program initiated in 1997 to reduce
    material disposed to landfill. Several mines have since joined the
    program and thousands of tonnes of waste have been recycled.
    The program has also succeeded in cleaning up mine sites.
   Material recycled includes steel from mill balls, copper from cables
    and aluminium from drink cans
                         (continued)


 Transport contractors that once returned from minesites to
  Perth empty are now taking saleable cargoes back with
  them
 Money raised benefits children's hospital and charities
 All people work voluntarily for the Ruggies Recycling
  initiative
                             (continued)
   The social impacts associated with having a large mining operation
    on the edge of a remote community are being considered
   For most of the past century there have been few significant
    attempts to cultivate positive relations with local indigenous people
   Historically the gold mining industry has been weak with respect to
    employment of aboriginal people
   Granny Smith has made efforts to increase local employment
    opportunities for the indigenous people, in both the town and on the
    mine site
   Various mine training programs such as the Aboriginal Mine Training
    Program and the Adult Certificate of General Education open new
    career opportunities
                         (continued)



 Cultural initiatives that seek to encourage and support
  opportunities for local artists to display and sell their work
  have also become a normal part of the mine's development
  strategy
 It was determined that local arts and crafts such as weaving,
  painting, pottery, wooden artefacts and carvings in the form
  of traditional 'tools of the trade', such as shields and
  boomerangs, would benefit from the construction of a small
  tourist outlet to facilitate greater sales
 The mine is working with the community on developing the
  local economy, so that when the mine eventually closes, the
  community has alternative means of generating income.
  Harnessing previously undeveloped local potential is
  essential to providing a truly sustainable vision for the area
 With this in mind the potential for olive farming, tourism, and
  crafts sales are being investigated to diversify the local
  economy
 This is an example of effective liaising between two
  communities. One, a mining camp with a fly in-fly out
  population, and the other, a small town-site in an isolated
  corner of Australia's outback, where people historically
  received relatively little benefit from large mining
  developments
 The efforts made between the two demonstrate the global
  community possibilities for successful outcomes through
  incorporating sustainability into mining operations
 Ingenuity, resourcefulness and creativity in regards to
  rehabilitation approaches
 Genuine approaches taken towards the building and
  maintaining of positive relations - both employees and the
  wider community
 Contributing to the quality of life of local community -
  respecting cultural and social needs
 Wider social contribution also - in the form of the Ruggies
  Recycling Program and its contribution to Princess Margaret
  Hospital
                       (continued)



 Successful communications with government and non-
  government agencies, and grass-roots community members
 Positive approach to long-term issues considered too hard by
  previous generations
 Sustainability reporting - transparency and openness in
  communicating progress towards sustainability
Source: the former NSW Environment Protection Authority
                       website
   Blackmores provides natural health products and services, selling
    vitamins, minerals, herbs and nutrients
   Started out as family business more than 60 years ago but publicly
    listed in 1985
   Employs some 240 people in Australia, and also operates in New
    Zealand and South East Asia
   Sustainability initiatives stem from the company founder, Maurice
    Blackmore, who firmly believed that human health depends on a
    healthy environment and that this connection should be reflected in
    his company‟s business principles. This has been a long-standing
    approach
   Reducing trade waste discharge - by planning of operations, and
    installing a new pump. Liquid waste is treated by a specialist
    contractor
   Recycling incoming packaging - waste plastic is compressed and
    sold to recyclers, cartons are reused three times before being sent
    to recyclers
   Blackmores is a signatory to the new National Packaging Covenant
   Separating recyclable and organic waste from staff canteen waste
    sent to landfill. An on-site worm farm deals with a percentage of
    organic waste each day
   Reusing products - products below specification and returned
    products are used as additives to fertiliser
                             (continued)


   Reducing energy use - through participation in the Energy Smart
    Business Program run by the former NSW Sustainable Energy
    Development Authority
   The company has set up a formal energy team and introduced
    several measures to cut its consumption of electricity:
      the building has been insulated
      low-wattage fluorescent tubes have been installed
      airconditioning is controlled by time switches
      lights are turned off when not in use
   The company has also installed a solar generator on the roof and
    feeds electricity back to the grid. It has increased its use of „green‟
    power from 5% to 25% in one year
 Contributing to community projects and local environmental
  projects. For example, for several years in a joint partnership
  with Oz Green (Global Rivers Environmental Education
  Network), and the Manly Environment Centre, Blackmores
  contributed to a program encouraging children and
  businesses to care for local waterways. The first project set
  out to clean up Manly Lagoon by monitoring pollution and
  encouraging local industries to minimise their impact on the
  Manly catchment
                (continued)



 Raising staff awareness - by establishing environmental
  goals for the office, factory, kitchen, whole corporation and
  company future to encourage staff to make a conscious and
  ongoing effort towards improving environmental
  performance
 Training for new staff includes pollution control and
  environmental awareness
   Reduced waste sent to landfill
   Reduced energy consumption
   Blackmores received a silver award at the Energy Smart Green
    Globe Awards in March 2000, acknowledging its energy efficient
    practices and the successful completion of 50% of targeted projects
    agreed to with the former NSW Sustainable Energy Development
    Authority
   In October 2001 the company attained gold award standard
   Blackmores does not have specific information about costs and
    savings as cleaner production ideals have been part of the company
    ethos since conception
Source: Sydney Water website
   In 1998 SEC Plating Company was using 300,000 litres of water per
    day, making them one of the top 20 water consumers among trade
    waste customers in Sydney
   The company also constantly battled to meet trade waste (aqueous
    liquid waste) quality standards
   Poor waste management was identified as one of the key underlying
    causes
   The company developed an effluent improvement program to reduce
    pollutants entering the waste stream from the source, reduce the
    volume of water used, isolate waste streams containing substances
    prohibited under Sydney Water's Trade Waste Policy, and implement
    water recycling
 Some issues became more manageable through employee
  education and better „housekeeping‟ – addressing relatively
  simple issues such as preventing tanks overflowing,
  improving chemical handling to reduce and manage spills,
  and changing work practices
 Determining the acceptability of wastewater streams for
  Sydney Water‟s sewerage system required a thorough
  analysis program, testing for compatibility with other
  wastewater streams, and investigating treatment suitability
  in the company's own effluent treatment equipment
                     (continued)



 Some waste streams were able to be batch treated onsite,
  while others required transport for offsite management
 Water recycling trials have indicated scope for recycling
 Average daily mass emissions have decreased substantially
Long-term average daily mass trade waste load for SEC Plating Company,
                         2000/01 and 2001/02
            (Source: Sydney Water) *Sulfate load is x1000
   Other benefits:
      cost savings, with a 60% reduction in trade waste costs There
       have been overall savings of thousands of dollars per annum,
       from reduced quarterly agreement fees, reduced laboratory
       analysis costs, and reduced water and sewerage costs
      water consumption has been reduced from 300,000 to 100,000
       litres per day
   SEC Plating Company intends to maintain this focus on
    environmental improvement and cost saving and has set clear
    targets for its water management program, including 70% recycling
    of wastewater

								
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