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					                        PROPAGATION, EX SITU CONSERVATION AND
                                 MENTHA PULEGIUM
                                 Delgado-Sousa,F.1*; Rosa, C.; Sousa,T.; Amaro–Silva,,C.1; Oliveira,Mª R.1
                                 1Escola Superior Agrária de Castelo Branco; Quinta Sra de Mércules; Apartado 119 6001-909 Castelo Branco
                                                                                                                                                                                                         Species Characterization and Regional Interess
                                                                                                                                                                                     The ecotypes in study of Mentha genera, from the Labiteae family, are
                                                                                                                                                                                     either spontaneous or cultivated in the Portuguese region of Beira Interior,
               Objectives                                                                                                                                                            by their importance as aromatic, culinary and medicinal herbs.
    Study the best propagation method
                                                                                    VIAN A DO C ASTEL O

                                                                                                    BR AGA
                                                                                                                              VILA R EAL                   BR AGAN Ç A

                                                                                                    POR TO

                                                                                                                                                                                                             Botanical              Commom               Proprieties            Regional                Chemical                                       Plant
    of Mentha cervina and Mentha                                                          AVEI RO
                                                                                                                   VISE U
                                                                                                                                           GUA R DA

                                                                                                                                                                                                               name                  names                                        uses                components                                       parts
    pulegium                                                                  LEIR IA
                                                                                               COI MB RA                                   PEN AM AC OR

                                                                                                                            CA STELO BR AN C O

                                                                                                                                           ID AN HA -A -N OV A
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Poejo do peixe Drinks
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           "Miga de peixe"(*) E. oil with high % of
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Flavours           menthol
                                                                                        SAN TAR ÉM
                                                                                                                       POR TALE GR E
                                                                                                                                                                                                         Mentha cervina              Unknwon       Flavour in cigars,      Sauces                                                               Stem
    Morphological characterization to                              LISB OA

                                                                                                                  ÉVOR A                                                 Legenda:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Poleol de cérvol cigarettes and                                                                               Roots
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   pipe tobacco                               In study on Agro nº 800
                                                                                                                                                                         Con ce lh os
                                                                                                                                                                               IDA NHA -A -NO VA
                                                                                                                                                                               PE NA MA CO R

    identify correctelly the accessements                                                 SETÚ BAL

                                                                                                                                                                              Po rt uga l

                                                                                                                                                                         Escala: 1/2 3000 0 0

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Medicinal               Tea to bronquite E. oil with 90% polegon                             Leaves
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Poejo       Oil used in flavours    and asthma         Menthol                                           Inflorescens
                                                                                                          FA RO

                                                                                                                                                                                                       Mentha pulegium              Pennyroyal     Detergents              "Miga de peixe"(*) Flavonoids                                        Stem
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Poleol d'aigua Household products       Licours            Carotenoids                                       Roots
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Repellent to insects,   Sauces             Tannins
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   specially fleas
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Abortificant activity
                                                                                                                                                                                                       (*) Soup made with fish
                                                                                                                                                                                                       river and bread

                                                   Material and Methods
       Germination tests                                        Vegetative Propagation Assays                                                                                                                                                                              Morphological Characterization
100 seeds of Mentha pulegium (3 months                              Terminal cuttings of Mentha cervina and
old), in 4 layers of wash filter paper                              Mentha pulegium                                                                                                                                                                                           Colour chart (RHS-2001)
Conditons: 16h/25ºC day and 8h/20ºC nigth                           Growth regulator IBA 0,5%                                                                                                                                                                                 Morphological descriptors elaborated
                                                                    Turf and perlite (2:1)                                                                                                                                                                                    in Program AGRO Nº 34

Germination percentage is based on the                              The experimental design was completely
emergency of the radicules                                          randomized:two species; two treatments
                                                                    (T, IBA); four replications

                                                                                                                               Results                                                                                                                                                     Vegetative Propagation
        Germinatio                              Morphological Characterization
        n                                                                                                                                                                                                               Ecotypes
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Mentha cervina

                                                                                                                                                                                                   1                                               2                                                                           100
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Root %

                                      Stem                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      75
                                          shapes                                                                                                                                     round                                                     square                                                                           50
                                           hairs                                                                                                                                     calyx                                                 calyx and stem                                                                        0
                                            simple leaves                                                                                                                  ensiform                                                       ovale-lanceolate                                                                            IBA         T
                                            margins                                                                                                                          entire                                                          serrulate                                                                40 days         100        100
                                            points of attachement                                                                                                           sessile                                                         sub-sessile                                                               15 days         100        100
n                                           bracts                                                                                                                                                                                        ovate-lanceolate
                                                                                  verticillaster forming a long spike                                                                                                            verticillaster forming a long spike
                                                                                             terminal head                                                                                                                                  terminal head                                                                               Mentha pulegium
    Ecotype: Mentha pulegium          Flower
                                                                                                                             hermaphrodite                                                                                                hermaphrodite                                                                       100
    Seed size(mm): 0,6                     calyx                                                                              campanulate                                                                                                     tubular                                                                          75
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Root %

                                                                                                                                 simple                                                                                                       dentate
    Seed colour: Orange grey                                                                                              4 teeth (triangulars)                                                                                  5 teeth (2 narrow+3 triangulars)
                                           corolla                                                                     pink white (RHS-N155D)                                                                                           violet (RHS-(85A)
    Number of seeds per g: 978                                                                                                campanulate                                                                                                  campanulate                                                                          0
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     IBA              T
                                          stamens dehiscence                                                                    extrorse                                                                                                     extrorse
    Germination %: 66                 Blooming months                                                                            VII - X                                                                                                       VI - X
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    40days            100          100
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    21days            93           100
                                      Cientific Name, according
                                                                                                                                           Mentha cervina (L)                                                                         Mentha pulegium (L)                                                                               Tre atme nt
                                      Franco (1984)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Figure 1- Root percentage and precocity, according to the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                vegetative propagation method used

                                  Conclusions                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Phenological evolution

         The results show that the most efficient mean of propagation was the                                                                                                                                                                                                                             150
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Num ber of days

     vegetative one. This further suggests that, in the future, this method of                                                                                                                                                                                                                            130
     propagation will be of the utmost importance in the production,                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          90
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Floration phase
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Vegetation phase
     preservation and conservation of the above mentioned species.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            50
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Mentha             Mentha

        According to other works in Portugal, we didn’t find seeds in Mentha
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   cervina           pulegium

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Figure 2- Phenological evolution, from March to July 2002
     cervina, whose results are only in vegetative propagation.
         A characterization/demonstration field was established with the plants                                                                                                                                                               References
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Franco, J. A. 1984. Nova Flora de Portugal (Continente e Açores). Volume II. Clethraceae-
     propagated in autumn/winter 2002. The plants were morphologically                                                                                                                                                                        Compositae. Sociedade Astória, Lda. Lisboa.pp: 172-185
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Mickey, M. & King, C.2002. The Cambridge Illustrated Glossary of Botanical Terms.Cambridge
     characterized so as to identify and to correctly classify botanically, each                                                                                                                                                              University Press.United Kingdom
     specie (considering that they have different origins in the Beira Interior                                                                                                                                                               Rosa, C.2003.Plantas Aromáticas e Medicinais da Beira Interior-Propagação, Conservação e
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Caracterização.Relatório de Fim de Curso de Engª de Ciências Agrárias-Ramo Agrícola. ESA-
     region).                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 IPCB.Castelo Branco
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Sousa, T.2003.Ensaios de Técnicas Experimentais de Germinação de Sementes para a Conservação
         In this project we are working with other species of AMP, until                                                                                                                                                                      ex-situ de Plantas Aromáticas e Medicinais. Relatório de Fim de Curso de Engª de Ciências
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Agrárias-Ramo Agrícola. ESA-IPCB.Castelo Branco
     2004.The staff pretends to implement in-situ and ex-situ conservation                                                                                                                                                                    Acknowledgments
     inserting plants in original places of native flora and establish a tematic                                                                                                                                                             This experiment was carried out on behaf of Program Agro nº 34 “Etnobotany, the use and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             management of aromatical and medicinal plants and their sustainable utilization as a contribution to
     Botanic Garden at ESACB, to contribute to sustainable development,                                                                                                                                                                      the improvement of rural areas”, in “Escola Superior Agrária” (School of Agriculture of the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Polytechinc Institute), Castelo Branco – Portugal.
     environmental education and awareness of AMP diversity.

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