Glossary of Shipping Terms - Download as DOC

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					                        Glossary of Shipping Terms
ABI-AUTOMATED BROKER INTERFACE
A system available to brokers with the computer capabilities and customs certification to
transmit and exchange customs entries and other information, facilitating the prompt release
of imported cargo.
ABS
American Bureau of Shipping: A U.S.-based private classification, or standards setting
society for merchant ships and other marine systems.
AD VALOREM
Latin for "according to the value."(1) An ad valorem duty is an import duty based on the
value of an article as defined in the customs law of a particular country, rather than on
weight or volume. A percentage of that value is charged, for example, 5% ad valorem. (2) A
freight rate set at a certain percentage of the value of an article is known as an ad valorem
rate.
ADMEASUREMENT
The confirmed or official dimensions of a ship.
ADMIRALTY COURT
A court ha ving jurisdiction over maritime questions pertaining to ocean transport, including
contracts, charters, collisions, and cargo damages.
ADVISING BANK
A bank operating in the exporter's country that handles letters of credit for a foreign bank by
notifying the exporter that the credit has been opened in his favor.
AFFREIGHTMENT, CONTRACT OF
An agreement by a steamship line to provide cargo space on a vessel at a specified time
and for a specified price to accommodate an exporter or importer who then becomes liable
for payment even though he is later unable to make the shipment.
AFT
In, near, or toward the stern of the vessel.
AGENCY AGREEMENT
An agreement whereby the steamship line appoints the steamship agent and defines the
specific duties and areas of responsibility of that agent.
AHT (ANCHOR-HANDLING TUG)
Mo ves anchors and tow drilling vessels, lighters and similar.
AHTS (ANCHOR-HANDLING TUG/SUPPLY)
Combined supply and anchor-handling ship. Seismic ship: Conducts seismic surveys to
map geological structures beneath the seabed.
AMIDSHIPS
Generally speaking the word amidships means in the middle portion of a ve ssel.
ANTI-TRUST EXEMPTION
The immunity from prosecution under the Sherman Act, granted to steamship companies in
1916, in recognition of the special services and value American Flag merchant vessels
provide in the defense of the country in time of war.
ARBITRATION CLAUSE
A standard clause to be included in the contracts of exporters and importers, as suggested
by the American Arbitration Association. It states that any controversy or claim will be
settled by arbitration in accordance with the rules of the American Arbitration Association.
ARTICLES OF AGREEMENT
The document containing all particulars relating to the terms of agreement between the
Master of the vessel and the crew. Sometimes called ship's articles, shipping articles.
    ASBA
    American Shipbrokers Association
    ASTERN
    A backward direction in the line of a vessel's fore and aft line; behind. If a vessel moves
    backwards it is said to move astern; opposite to ahead.
    AT SEA
    In marine insurance this phrase applies to a ship which is free from its moorings and ready
    to sail.
    AUTOMATED BROKER INTERFACE
    (See ABI)
    AUTOMATED COMMERCIAL SYSTEM (ACS)
    The electronic system of the U.S. Customs Service, encompassing a variety of industry
    sectors, that permits on-line access to information in selected areas.
    AUTOMATED MANIFEST SYSTEM (AMS)
    The electronic system allowing a manifest inventory to be transmitted to the U.S. Customs
    Service data center by carrier, port authority, or service center computers.


B

    B/B (BREAKBULK)
    (See Breakbulk Cargo)
    B/D
    Barrels per day (measure of petroleum production)
    B/L (BILL OF LADING)
    (See Bill of Lading)
    B/S
    Bags; bales.
    B/S (BUNKER SURCHARGE)
    (See BAF)
    BACK HAUL (1)
    Part or all of the return portion of a route over which a trailer or container has traveled (2) A
    deviation to move cargo on the return leg of a vo yage for the purpose of minimizing ballast
    mileage and thereby reducing transportation costs.
    BACKFREIGHT
    The owners of a ship are entitled to payment as freight for merchandise returned through
    the fault of either the consignees or the consignors. Such payment, which is over and above
    the normal freight, is called backfreight.
    BACKLETTER
    Where a seller/shipper issues a 'letter of indemnity' in favor of the carri er in exchange for a
    clean bill of lading. Ma y have only a limited value. Example: P & I problems.
    BAF (BUNKER ADJUSTMENT FACTOR)
    An adjustment in shipping charges to offset price fluctuations in the cost of bunker fuel. Also
    known as a Bunker Surcharge (B/S).
    BAGGED CARGO
    Various kinds of commodities usually packed in sacks or in bags, such as sugar, cement,
    milk powder, onion, grain, flour, etc.
    BALLAST
    Heavy substances loaded by a vessel to improve stability, trimming, sea keeping and to
    increase the immersion at the propeller. Sea water ballast is commonly' loaded in most
vessels in ballast tanks, positioned in compartments right at the bottom and in some cases
on the sides, called wing tanks. On a tanker, ballast is seawater that is taken in to the cargo
tanks to submerge the vessel to a proper trim.
BALLAST BONUS
Compensation for relatively long ballast vo yage
BALLAST MOVEMENT
A vo yage or vo yage leg made without any paying cargo in a vessel's tanks. To maintain
proper stability, trim, or draft, seawater is usually carried during such movements.
BALLAST TANK
Compartments at the bottom of a ship or on the sides which are filled with liquids for stability
and to make the ship seaworthy. An y shipboard tank or compartment on a tanker no rmally
used for carrying salt-water ballast. When these compartments or tanks are not connected
with the cargo system, they are called segregated ballast tanks or systems.
BAREBOAT CHARTER
(1) A charter in which the bare ship is chartered without crew; the charterer, for a stipulated
sum taking over the vessel for a stated period of time, with a minimum of restrictions; the
charterer appoints the master and the crew and pays all running expenses. See Demise
Charter (2) Vessel contracts where charterers take over all responsibility for the operation of
the vessel and expenses for a certain period.
BARGE
Flat-bottomed boat designed to carry cargo on inland waterways, usually without engines or
crew accommodations. Barges can be lashed together and either pushed or pulled by tugs,
carrying cargo of 60,000 tons or more. Small barges for carrying cargo between ship and
shore are known as lighters.
BARGE ABOARD CATAMARAN
A wa y of loading cargo into large barges and then in turn loading the barges into a ship.
BARGE CARRIERS
Ships designed to carry either barges or containers exclusively, or some variable number of
barges and containers simultaneously. Currently this class includes two types of vessels,
the LASH, and the SEABEE.
BBB
Before breaking bulk. Refers to freight payments that must be received before discharge of
a vessel commences.
BEAM
The width of a ship. Also called breadth.
BELLY CARGO
Freight accommodation below the main deck.
BENEFICIAL OWNER
The actual owner of the lading who is using a consolidator
BERTH
The place beside a pier, quay, or wharf where a vessel can be loaded or discharged.
BERTH C/P
Term used in a voyage charter party, e.g. vessel shall proceed to Berth 2 at Falmouth.
BERTH CARGO
When a liner cargo vessel accepts extra cargo to fill the empty space remaining.
BERTH LINER SERVICE
A regularly scheduled steamship line with regularly published schedules (ports of call) from
and to defined trade areas.
BERTH OR LINER TERMS
An e xpression covering assessment of ocean freight rates generally implying that loading
and discharging expenses will be for the ship owner's account, and usually applying from
the end of the ship's tackle in the port of loading to the end of the ship's tackle in the port o f
discharge.
BILL OF LADING
A document by which the Master of a ship acknowledges having received in good order and
condition (or the reverse) certain specified goods consigned to him by some particular
shipper, and binds himself to deliver them in sim ilar condition, unless the perils of the sea,
fire or enemies prevent him, to the consignees of the shippers at the point of destination on
their paying him the stipulated freight. A bill of lading specifies the name of the master, the
port and destination of the ship, the goo4s, the consignee, and the rate of freight.
BILL OF LADING
A document issued by a common carrier to a shipper that serves as:(1) A receipt for the
goods delivered to the carrier for shipment. (2) A definition of the contract of carriage of the
goods from the port of shipment to the port of destination listed in the bill of lading. (3)
Evidence of title to the relative goods. When in order form, a bill of lading is negotiable. (See
specific types of Bill of Ladings below)
BILL OF LADING, CLAUSED
A bill of lading which has exemptions to the receipt of merchandise in "apparent good order"
noted.
BILL OF LADING, CLEAN
(1) A bill of lading which bears no superimposed clause or notation which expressly
declares a defective condition of the goods and/or the packaging (Article 18, Uniform
Customs and Practice for Documentary Credits). A bill of lading that contains a clause
declaring defective goods is called a Foul Bill of Lading. (2) A bill of lading that is silent as to
the place of storage, indicating that the goods have been stowed under deck. (See Bill of
Lading, Unclean)
BILL OF LADING, FORWARDER'S
A bill of lading issued by a forwarder to a shipper as a receipt for merchandise that the
forwarder will consolidate with cargo obtained from other exporters and ship to his agent at
the port of destination. In most cases, the Forwarder's Bill of Lading has legal standing for
banking purposes. Also called House Bill of Lading.
BILL OF LADING, FOUL
A receipt for goods issued by a carrier bearing a notation that the outward containers or the
goods have been damaged.
BILL OF LADING, INLAND
A bill of lading used in transporting goods overland to the exporter's international carrier.
BILL OF LADING, OCEAN
A document defining the terms and conditions of carriage for transport of cargo by sea
freight.
BILL OF LADING, ON BOARD
A bill of lading acknowledging that the relative goods have been received on board for
shipment on a specified vessel.
BILL OF LADING, ORDER
A negotiable bill of lading. There are two types:(1) A bill drawn to the order of a foreign
consignee, enabling him to endorse the bill to a third party. (2) A bill drawn to the order of
the shipper and endorsed by him either "in blank" or to a named consignee. The purpose of
the latter bill is to protect the shipper against the buyer's obtaining the merchandise before
he has paid or accepted the relative draft. (See also Endorsement in Blank)
BILL OF LADING, RECEIVED FOR SHIPMENT
A bill of lading acknowledging the receipt of goods by a carrier for shipment on a specified
vessel. This type of bill of lading is not acceptable under a letter of credit unless it is
specially authorized. English law does not regard these bills as a valid tender under CIF
contracts because the CIF seller is obligated to ship the goods, and a Received for
Shipment Bill of Lading is not considered proof of shipment.
BILL OF LADING, STRAIGHT
A non-negotiable bill of lading whereby the consignee named in the bill is the owner of the
relative goods.
BILL OF LADING, THROUGH
A bill of lading that covers transportation by more than one carrier from the point of issue to
the final destination (e.g., a bill from New York, via Kurabo, to Pampatar, Venezuela).
BILL OF LADING, THROUGH RAILWAY EXPORT
A bill of lading showing the place of receipt by the carrier at an inland point, with transport to
the port of exit accomplished using rail/intermodal connections.
BILL OF LADING, UNCLEAN
A bill containing reservations as to the good order and condition of the goods or the
packaging or both. Examples: bags torn,drums leaking, one case damaged, and rolls
chafed.
BILL OF SIGHT
A written description of goods given by an importer to a customs officer in the event
shipping documents have not arrived in time and the importer wishes to avoid delayed entry
charges. When an importer enters goods on a bill of sight, he usually must make a cash
deposit covering the estimated amount of duty. When the shipping documents are received
and a correct entry is made, the exact amount of duty is levied.
BILLING CARRIER (BILL ROAD)
The carrier performing the first line haul service of the movement. This carrier is responsible
for preparing the waybill document.
BLACK CARGO
Cargo banned by general cargo workers for some reason. This ban could be because the
cargo is dangerous or hazardous to health.
BOGIE
A frame with wheels on which a container rides, more commonly referred to as a chassis
BONDED WAREHOUSE
A warehouse authorized by customs authorities for storage of goods on which payment of
duties is deferred until the goods are removed.
BOW THRUSTERS
A propeller at the lower sea-covered part of the bow of the ship which turns at right angles
to the fore-and-aft line and thus provides transverse thrust as a maneuvering aid.
BREADTH
See Beam
BREAK BULK
The process of assimilating many small shipments into one large shipment at a central point
so that economies of scale may be achieved; to commence discharge of cargo.
BREAKBULK CARGO
Cargo which is shipped as a unit (e.g., palletized cargo, boxed cargo, large machinery,
trucks, and pre-slung cargo)
BREAKBULK VESSEL
(1) A vessel designed to handle palletized, pre-slung, boxed, and unitized cargo. Holds can
be at the open bay or between deck type. Between deck means, the hold can be converted
from multi levels to open bay. This type of vessel is usually self-sustaining. (2) A general,
multipurpose, cargo ship that carriers cargoes of non-uniform sizes, often on pallets,
resulting in labor-intensive loading and unloading; calls at various ports to pick up different
kinds of cargoes.
BREAKPOINT
The weight at which freight charges change, e.g., 100 kilos.
BRIDGE
     Used loosely to refer to the navigating section of the vessel where the wheel house and
     chart room are located; erected structure amidships or aft or very rarely fore over the main
     deck of a ship to accommodate the wheelhouse.
     BROKER
     A person or firm that establishes a connection between a buyer and a seller. Brokers
     operate in many fields: insurance, steamship transport, securities, drafts, and other phases
     of foreign trade. Not only do brokers bring buyers and sellers together, but they help to
     negotiate and close contracts and agreements between them.
     BROKERAGE
     Percentage of freight payable to broker (by owners in c/p's) or applicable to sale or
     purchase.
     BULK
     Cargo shipped in loose condition and of a homogeneous nature. Cargoes that are shipped
     unpackaged either dry, such as grain and ore, or liquid, such as petroleum products. Bulk
     service generally is not provided on a regularly scheduled basis, but rather as needed, on
     specialized ships, transporting a specific commodity.
     BULK CARGO
     Loose cargo that is loaded directly into a ship's hold.
     BULK CARRIER
     There are two types of bulk carriers, the dry-bulk carrier, and the liquid-bulk carrier, better
     known as a tanker. Bulk cargo is a shipment such as oil, grain, or one which is not
     packaged, bundled, bottled, or otherwise packed and is loaded without counting or marking.
     BULK SOLIDS
     Dry cargo shipped in containers, loose and in bulk, without counting or marking.
     BUNKERS
     Fuel consumed by the engines of a ship; compartments or tanks in a ship for fuel storage.
     BUOY
     A floating object employed as an aid to mariners to mark the navigable limits of channels,
     their fairways, sunken dangers, isolated rocks, telegraph cables, and the like; floating
     devices fixed in place at sea, lake or river as reference points for navigation or for other
     purposes.


C.

     C.I.F.
     Cost, Insurance and Freight: Export term in which the price quoted by the exporter includes
     the costs of ocean transportation to the port of destination and insurance coverage.
     CABOTAGE
     The carriage of goods or passengers for remuneration taken on at one point and discharged
     at another point within the territory of the same country.
     CABOTAGE
     Where cargo is carried on what is essentially a domestic flight and therefore not subject to
     international agreements that fix set rates. Cabotage rates are negotiable between shipper
     and airline and apply on flights within a country and to its overseas territories.
     CAF (CURRENCY ADJUSTMENT FACTOR)
     A surcharge on freight charges by a carrier to offset foreign currency fluctuations.
     CARGO
     Merchandise/commodities carried by means of transportation.
     CARGO HANDLING
     The act of loading and discharging a cargo ship.
CARGO INSURANCE
Insurance to protect the financial interest of the cargo owner during transportation in case of
a loss.
CARGO PLAN
A plan giving the quantities and description of the various grades carried in the ship's cargo
tanks, after the loading is completed.
CARGO PREFERENCE
Reserving a portion of a nation's imports and exports to national -flag vessels.
CARGO RECEIPT
Receipt of cargo for shipment by a consolidator (used in ocean freight).
CARGO RETENTION CLAUSES
Clauses introduced by charterers based on shortage of delivered cargo because of
increased oil prices.
CARNET
A customs document permitting the holder to carry or send merchandise temporarily into
certain foreign countries without paying duties or posting bonds.
CARRIAGE OF GOODS BY SEA ACT
A law enacted in 1936 covering the transportation of merchandise by sea to or from ports of
the United States and in foreign trades.
CARRIER
An y person who, through a contract of carriage, undertakes to perform or procure the
performance of carriage by rail, road, sea, air, inland waterway, or b y a combination of
modes. (See also Common Carrier)
CARRIER CONTAINER/SHIPPER CONTAINER
A container over which the carrier or the shipper has control either by ownership or by the
acquisition thereof under lease or rental from container companies or container suppliers or
from similar sources. Carriers are prohibited from purchasing, leasing, or renting a shipper-
owned container.
CARRIERS
Owners or operators of vessels providing transportation to shippers. The term is also used
to refer to the vessels.
CARTEL
An association of several independent national or international business organizations that
regulates competition by controlling the prices, the production, or the marketing of a product
or industry
CATWALK
A raised bridge running fore and aft from the midship, and called "walkway." It affords safe
passage over the pipelines and other deck obstructions.
CCF
Capital Construction Fund: A ta x benefit for operators of U.S.-built, U.S.-flag ships in the
U.S. foreign, Great Lakes, or noncontiguous domestic trades, by which taxes may be
deferred on income deposited in a fund to be used for the replacement of vessels.
CDS
Construction Differential Subsidy: A direct subsidy paid to U.S. shipyards building U.S.-flag
ships to offset high construction costs in American shipyards. An amount of subsidy (up to
50 percent) is determined by estimates of construction cost differentials between U.S. and
foreign yards.
CERTIFICATE OF INSPECTION
A certificate usually required for industrial equipment and meat products. There are
companies in every port city that specialize in issuing certificates of inspection for
machinery. The Meat Inspection Division of the U.S. Department of Agriculture issues
certificates of inspection for meat products that are recognized throughout the world.
CERTIFICATE OF MANUFACTURE
A document used under a letter of credit containing an affidavit that goods have been
manufactured and are being held for the account and risk of the buyer. In war times when
transportation facilities are disrupted, it is common for letters of credit to be paid against
presentation of a certificate of manufacture. This is rare in ordinary times, except in the case
of specially manufactured goods.
CERTIFICATE OF ORIGIN
A document containing an affidavit to prove the origin of imported goods. It is used for
customs or foreign exchange purposes or both. Certificates of origin are commonly certified
by an official organization in the country of origin such as a consular office or a chamber of
commerce.
CERTIFICATE OF REGISTRY
A document specifying the nation registry of the vessel.
CFS (CONTAINER FREIGHT STATION)
The term CFS at loading port means the location designated by carriers for the receiving of
cargo to be packed into containers by the carrier. At discharge ports, the term CFS means
the bonded location designated by carriers in the port area for unpacking and delivery of
cargo.
CFS CHARGE (CONTAINER FREIGHT CHARGE)
The charge assessed for services performed at the loading or discharging port in the
packing or unpacking of cargo into/from containers at CFS.
CFS RECEIVING SERVICES
The service performed at the loading port in receiving and packing cargo into containers
from CFS to CY or shipside. "CFS Receiving Services" referred herein are restricted to the
following:(1) Moving empty containers from CY to CFS (2) Drayage of loaded containers
from CFS to CY and/or ship's tackle. (3) Tallying. (4) Issuing dock receipt/shipping order (5)
Physical movement of cargo into, out of, and within CFS (6) Stuffing, sealing, and marking
containers (7) Storage. (8) Ordinary sorting and stacking. (9) Preparing carrier's internal
container load plan.
CFS/CFS (PIER TO PIER)
The term CFS/CFS means cargo delivered by breakbulk to carrier's container freight station
(CFS) to be packed by carrier into containers and to be unpacked by carrier from the
container at carrier's destination port CFS.
CFS/CY (PIER TO HOUSE)
The term CFS/CY means cargo delivered breakbulk to carrier's CFS to be packed by carrier
into containers and accepted by consignee at carrier's CY and unpacked by the consignee
off carrier's premises, all at consignee's risk and expense.
CHARTER AGREEMENT/CHARTER PARTY
A lease or agreement to hire an airplane, vessel, or other means of conveyance to transport
goods to one or more designated locations. Among other specifications, the contract usually
stipulates the exact obligations of the vessel owner (loading the goods, carrying the goods
to a certain point, returning to the charterer with other goods, etc.), or it provides for an
outright leasing of the vessel to the charterer, who then is responsible for his own loading
and delivery. In either case, the charter party sets forth the exact conditions and
requirements agreed upon by both sides.
CHARTER PARTY
A contractual agreement between a ship owner and a cargo owner, usually arranged by a
broker, whereby a ship is chartered (hired) either for one voyage or a period of time.
CHARTER PARTY BILL OF LADING
A bill of lading issued under a charter party. It is not acceptable by b anks under letters of
credit unless so authorized in the credit.
CHARTER RATES
The tariff applied for chartering tonnage in a particular trade.
CHARTERER
The person to whom is given the use of the whole of the carrying capacity of a ship for the
transportation of cargo or passengers to a stated port for a specified time.
CHASSIS
(1) A wheel assemble including bogies constructed to accept mounting of containers. (2) A
frame with wheels on which a container rides
CHEMICAL TANKER
Specially designed for the transport of chemicals.
CHIEF ENGINEER
Head of engineer department. Keeps records of all engine parts and repairs. Generally
tends to the functioning of all mechanical equipment on ship. Calculates fuel and water
consumption and requirements. Coordinates operations with shoreside port engineer.
CHIEF ENGINEER
The senior engineer officer responsible for the satisfactory working and upkeep of the main
and auxiliary machinery and boiler plant on board ship.
CHIEF MATE
The officer in the deck department next in rank to the master; second in command of a ship.
He is next to the master, most especially in the navigation and as far as the deck
department is concerned. The chief mate assumes the position of the Master in his
absence.
CHIEF STEWARD
Orders food. Prepares menus. Assists chief cook in food preparation.
CIA (CASH IN ADVANCE)
A method of payment for goods whereby the buyer pays the seller before shipping the
goods.
CLASS RATES
A class of goods or commodities is a large grouping of various items under one general
heading, and all items in the group make up a class. The freight rates that apply to all items
in the class are called class rates.
CLASSIFICATION
A customs term for the placement of an item under the correct number in the customs tariff
for duty purposes. At times, this procedure becomes highly complicated; it is not uncommon
for importers to resort to litigation over the correct duty to be assessed by customs on a
given item.
CLASSIFICATION SOCIETY
Worldwide experienced and reputable societies which undertake to arrange inspections and
advise on the hull and machinery of a ship. A pri vate organization that supervises vessels
during their construction and afterward, in respect to their seaworthiness, and the placing of
vessels in grades or "classes" according to the society's rules for each particular type. It is
not compulsory by law that a shipowner have his vessel built according to the rules of any
classification society; but in practice, the difficulty in securing satisfactory insurance rates for
an unclassed vessel makes it a commercial obligation.
CLEAN DRAFT
A draft to which no documents have been attached.
CLEAN SHIP
Refers to tankers which have their cargo tanks free of traces of dark persistent oils which
remain after carrying crudes and heavy fuel oils.
CNS (CARGO NETWORK SERVICES)
An agency to which IATA forwarders pay their freight bills.
COA
Contract of affreightment
COASTWISE
Domestic shipping routes along a single coast.
CODE OF LINER CONDUCT (UNCTAD)
A con vention drafted under the auspices of the United Nations Conference on Trade and
Development which provides that all shipping traffic between two foreign countries is to be
regulated as far as the quantities of shipments are concerned on the following percentages -
40% for owners of the country of origin, 40% for owners of country of destination, and 20%
for owners of the country which is neither the origin nor the destination
COFC
(container on flat car); a type of rail freight service involving the shipment of containers
without chassis
COGSA
Carriage of Goods by Sea
COLLECTIVE PAPER
All documents (commercial invoices, bills of lading, etc.) submitted to a buyer for the
purpose of receiving payment for a s hipment.
COLLIER
Vessel used for transporting coal.
COLLISION AVOIDANCE SYSTEM
Electronic system commonly used to prevent collisions in inland navigable waterways.
COLREG
Convention on International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea
COMBI
Combination passenger/cargo vessel; a vessel specifically designed to carry both
containers and conventional cargoes.
COMBINATION VESSELS
A type of ship that accommodates both container and breakbulk cargo. It can be either self-
sustaining or non-self sustaining. Also known as a Container/Breakbulk Vessel.
COMBINED SHIPS
Ships that can carry both liquid and dry bulk cargoes.
COMMERCIAL INVOICE
An itemized list of goods shipped that is usually included among an exporter's collection
papers.
COMMISSION
See "Brokerage."
COMMODITY SPECIALIST
An official authorized by the U.S. Treasury to determine the proper tariff and value of
imported goods.
COMMON CARRIER
(1) A publicly or privately owned firm or corporation that transports the goods of others over
land, sea, or through the air, for a stated freight rate. By go vernment regulation, a common
carrier is required to carry all goods offered if accommodations are available and the
established rate is paid. (2) A transportation company engaged in the business of handling
persons or goods for compensation and for all persons impartially
COMMON CARRIER
Holds himself out for hire to the public. Must post rates and cannot discriminate against
customers whose cargo he is equipped to carry.
COMMON EXTERNAL TARIFF (CET OR CXT)
A uniform tariff adopted by a customs union or common market on imports from countries
outside the union. It is often a required part of the entry process.
COMPLEMENT
The number of officers and crew employed upon a vessel for its safe navigation and
operation.
CONFERENCE
A group of vessel operators joined together for establishing freight rates.
CONFERENCE
An affiliation of shipowners operating over the same route(s) who agree to charge uniform
rates and other terms of carriage. A conference is "closed" if one can enter only by the
consent of existing members of the conference. It is "open" if anyone can enter by meeting
certain technical and financial standards. Conference members are common carriers.
CONFIRMED LETTER OF CREDIT
(See Letter of Credit, Confirmed)
CONFISCATION
The taking and holding of private property b y a government or an agency acting for a
government. Compensation may or may not be given to the owner of the property.
CONGESTIONS
Port/berth delays
CONNECTING CARRIER
A carrier that has a direct physical connection with another or forming a connecting link
between two or more carriers
CONSIGNEE
(1) The receiver of freight shipped by the shipper (consignor) (2) -The individual or company
to whom a seller or shipper sends merchandise and who, upon presentation of necessary
documents, is recognized as the merchandise owner for the purpose of declaring and
paying customs duties.
CONSIGNEE
The person to whom cargo is consigned as stated on the bills of lading.
CONSIGNEE MARK
A symbol placed on packages for identification purposes generally consisting of a triangle,
square, circle, diamond, or cross, with letters or numbers as well as the port of discharge.
CONSIGNMENT
The physical transfer of goods from a seller (consignor) with whom the title remains until the
goods are sold, to another legal entity (consignee) that acts as a selling agent. Only if there
is a subsequent sale does the seller receive any payment.
CONSIGNOR
(1) The person by whom freight is shipped; shipper (2) A term used to describe any person
who consigns goods to himself or to another party in a bill of lading or equivalent document.
A consignor might be the owner of the goods, or a freight forwarder who consigns goods on
behalf of his principal.
CONSIGNOR
The person named in the bill of lading as the one from whom the goods have been received
for shipment.
CONSOLIDATED SHIPMENT
An arrangement whereby various shippers pool their boxed goods on the same shipment,
sharing the total weight charge for the shipment.
CONSOLIDATOR
An agent who brings together a number of shipments for one destination to qualify for
preferential rates
CONSORTIUM
The name for an agreement under which several nations or nationals (usually corporations)
of more than one nation join together for a common purpose (e.g., a shipping consortium).
CONSTRUCTION UNIT
Equipped to assist during offshore construction and maintenance work.
CONSUL
A go vernment official residing in a foreign country charged with representing the interests of
his or her country and its nationals.
CONSULAR DOCUMENTS
Special forms signed by the consul of a country to which cargo is destined.
CONSULAR INVOICE
A document required by some countries describing a shipment of goods and showing
information such as the consignor, consignee, and value of the shipment. Certified by a
consular official, the countryÆs customs officials to verify the value, quantity, and nature of
the shipment use a consular invoice.
CONTAINER
(1) An open or enclosed structural unit designed for intermodal transport of commodities;
many have standard corner fittings to secure them to highway chassis, rail cars, or ocean
vessels, facilitating interchange among carriers in international trade (2) A single, rigid,
sealed, reusable metal "box" in which merchandise is shipped by vessel, truck, or rail.
Container types include standard, high cube, hardtop, open top, flat, platform, ventilated,
insulated, refrigerated, or bulk. Containers (except for flat-rack vehicle rack and portable
liquid tank types) have a closure or permanently hinged door that allows ready access to
cargo. All containers have constructions, fittings, and fastenings able to withstand, witho ut
permanent distortion, all stresses that may be applied in normal service use of continuous
transportation. Containers must bear the manufacturer's specifications.
CONTAINER (OCEAN)
(1) Designed to be moved inland on its own chassis, an ocean contain er can be loaded at
the shipper's plant for shipment overseas. The average outside dimensions are generally
20, 35, and 40 feet in length, 8 feet wide, and 8 feet high. (2) A van, flatrack, open top trailer
or other similar trailer body on or into which cargo is loaded and transported without chassis
aboard ocean vessels; a large rectangular or square container/box of a strong structure that
can withstand continuous rough handling from ship to shore and back. It opens from one
side to allow cargo to be stacked and stowed into it.
CONTAINER SHIP
A ship constructed in such a way that she can easily stack containers near and on top of
each other as well as on deck. A vessel designed to carry standard intermodal containers
enabling efficient loading, unloading, and transport to and from the vessel. Oceangoing
merchant ship designed to transport a unit load of standard-sized containers 8 feet square
and 20 or 40 feet long. The hull is divided into cells that are easily accessible through large
hatches, and more containers can be loaded on deck atop the closed hatches. Loading and
unloading can proceed simultaneously using giant traveling cranes at special berths.
Container ships usually carry in the range of 25,000 to 50,000 deadweight tons. Whereas a
general-cargo ship may spend as much as 70 percent of its life in port loading and
discharging cargo, a container ship can be turned around in 36 hours or less, spending as
little as 20 percent of its time in port. This ship type is the result of American design
innovation. Specialized types of container ships are the LASH and SeaBee which carry
floating containers (or "lighters,") and RoRo ships, which may carry containers on truck
trailers.
CONTAINERIZATION
A concept for the ultimate unitizing of cargo used by both steamship lines and air cargo
lines. Containers allow a greater amount of cargo protection from weather, damage, and
theft.
CONTINUOUS BOND
An annual customs bond insuring compliance with all regulations and requirements.
CONTRACT OF AFFREIGHTM ENT (COA)
     A service contract under which a ship owner agrees to transport a specified quantity of fuel
     products or specialty products, at a specified rate per ton, between designated loading and
     discharge ports. This type contract differs from a spot or consecutive vo yage charter in that
     no particular vessel is specified.
     CONTRACT RATE
     This can refer to "service contract" rates which are low, favorable rates fixed over an
     extended period of time in exchange for which the carrier receives a volume comm itment
     from the shipper.
     COOK AND BAKER (CHIEF COOK)
     Cooks and bakes.
     COUNTERTRADE
     A reciprocal trading arrangement in which the seller is required to accept goods or other
     instruments or trade in partial or whole payment for its products. Common transactions
     include barter, buyback, counterpurchase, offset requirements, swap, switch; or triangular
     trade, evidence, or clearing accounts.
     COUNTERVAILING DUTIES
     Special duties imposed on imports to offset the benefits of subsidies to producers or
     exporters of the exporting country.
     CROSS-TRADES
     Foreign-to-foreign trade carried by ships from a nation other than the two trading nations.
     CUSTOMS BROKER
     An individual or service company that transacts customhouse formalities on behalf of an
     importer. In the U.S.A., a customs broker must be licensed by the Treasury Department and
     pass a government examination covering a broad range of knowledge, including all phases
     of import regulations, rates of duties, and customs law. Licensing and requirements vary
     from country to country, so check with your local United Shipping Partner for details.
     CUSTOMS COURT
     The court to which importers must appeal or protest decisions made by customs officers.
     CUSTOMS UNION
     An agreement between two or more countries in which they arrange to abolish tariffs and
     other import restrictions on each other's goods and establish a common tariff for the imports
     of all other countries.
     CUT-OFF TIME
     The time a vehicle must be tendered at the terminal to meet a scheduled train departure
     CWO (CASH WITH ORDER)
     A method of payment for goods where cash is paid at the time of order and the transaction
     becomes binding on both buyer and seller.


D.

     D.W. (DEADWEIGHT)
     The maximum carrying capacity of a ship expressed in tons of cargo, stores, provisions, and
     bunker fuel.
     D.W.C. (DEADWEIGHT CARGO)
     Cargo of such weight and volume that a long ton (2,240 lbs) is stowed in an area of less
     than 70 cubic feet.
     DANGEROUS CARGO
     All substances of an inflammable nature which are liable to spontaneous combustion either
     in themselves or when stowed adjacent to other substances and, when mixed with air, are
     liable to generate explosive gases or produce suffocation or poisoning or tainting of
     foodstuffs.
DANGEROUS GOODS
Articles or substances capable of posing a significant risk to health, safety or property and
that ordinarily require special attention when being transported.
DAVITS
Two radial cranes on a ship which hold the lifeboats. They are constructed in such a way as
to lower and lift the lifeboats the easiest way possible and are unobstructed in case of an
emergency.
DCA (DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL AVIATION)
Denotes the government department of any foreign country that is responsible for aviation
regulation and granting traffic rights.
DDU (DELIVERED DUTY UNPAID)
This reflects the emergence of "door-to-door" intermodal or courier contracts or carriage
where only the destination customs duty and taxes (if any) are paid by consignee.
DEAD FREIGHT
Freight charges paid by the charterer of a vessel for the contracted space that is left partially
unoccupied.
DEADFREICHT
Space booked by shipper or charterer on a vessel but not used
DEADFREIGHT FACTOR
Percentage of a ship's carrying capacity that is not utilized.
DEADWEIGHT/DWAT/DWCC
A common measure of ship carrying capacity. The number of tons (2240 lbs.) of cargo,
stores and bunkers that a vessel can transport. It is the difference between the number of
tons of water a vessel displaces "light" and the number of tons it displaces "when
submerged to the 'deep load lineÆ". A vessel's cargo capacity is less than its total
deadweight tonnage. The difference in weight between a vessel when it is fully loaded and
when it is empty (in general transportation terms, the net) measured by the water it
displaces. This is the most common, and useful, measurement for shipping as it measures
cargo capacity.
DECK CARGO
Cargo carried on deck rather than stowed under deck. On-deck carriage is required for
certain commodities, s uch as explosives.
DECK GANG
The officers and seamen comprising the deck department aboard ship. Also called deck
crew, deck department, or just deck.
DECK HOUSE
Small superstructure on the top deck of a vessel that contains the helm and other
navigational instruments.
DECK LOG
Also called Captain's Log. A full nautical record of a ship's voyage, written up at the end of
each watch by the deck officer on watch. The principal entries are: courses steered;
distance run; compass variations, sea and weather conditions; ship's position, principal
headlands passed; names of lookouts, and any unusual position, principal headlands
passed; names of lookouts, and any unusual happenings such as fire, collision, and the
like..
DECK OFFICER
As distinguished from engineer officer, refers to all officers who assist the master in
navigating the vessel when at sea, and supervise the handling of cargo when in port.
DECKHAND
Seaman who works on the deck of a ship and remains in the wheelhouse attending to th e
orders of the duty officers during navigation and maneuvering. He also comes under the
direct orders of the bosun.
DEDICATED TRAIN
One that exclusively carries intermodal equipment (containers and trailers)
DEEP SEA TRADES
The traffic routes of both cargo and passenger vessels which are regularly engaged on the
high seas or on long voyages.
DEEP STOWAGE
An y bulk, bagged or other type of cargo stowed in single hold ships.
DEFERRED REBATE
The return of a portion of the freight charges by a carrier or a conference shipper in
exchange for the shipper giving all or most of his shipments to the carrier or conference over
a specified period of time (usually six months). Payment of the rate is deferred for a further
similar period, during which the shipper must continue to give all or most of his shipments to
the rebating carrier or conference. The shipper thus earns a further rebate that will not,
however, be paid without an additional period of exclusive or almost exclusive patronage
with the carrier of conference. In this way, the shipper becomes tied to the rebating carrier
or conference. Although the deferred rebate system is illegal in U.S. foreign commerce, it
generally is accepted in the ocean trade between other countries.
DEMISE CHARTER
See Bareboat Charter.
DEMURRAGE
(1) A charge made on cars or other equipment held by or for consignor or consignee for
loading or unloading, for forwarding directions or for any other purpose (2) A penalty for
exceeding free time allowed for loading or unloading at a pier or freight terminal. Also a
charge for undue detention of transportation equipment or carriers in port while loading or
unloading.
DEMURRAGE
A fee levied by the shipping company upon the port or supplier for not loading or unloadi ng
the vessel by a specified date agreed upon by contract. Usually, assessed upon a daily
basis after the deadline.
DENSITY
Density means pounds per cubic foot. The cubage of loose articles or pieces, or packaged
articles of a rectangular, elliptical, or square shape on one plane, shall be determined by
multiplying the greatest straight line dimensions of length, width, and depth in inches,
including all projections, and dividing the total by 1728 (to obtain cubic feet). The density is
the weight of the article divided by the cubic feet thus obtained.
DESPATCH
Time saved, reward for quick turnaround - in dry cargo only
DETENTION
Penalty assessed to the consignor or consignee for using railroad -owned equipment more
than allotted free time
DEVIATION
Vessel departure from specified voyage course
DIM W EIGHT (DIMENSIONALIZED W EIGHT)
An international airfreight formula determined by calculating length x width x height and
dividing by 166. It is charged when the actual weight is less than the dimensionalized
weight.
DISABLED SHIP
When a ship is unable to sail efficiently or in a seaworthy state as a result of engine trouble,
lack of officers or crew, damage to the hull or ship's gear.
DISCHARGES
An essential document for officers and seamen as it serves an official certificate confirming
sea experience in the employment for which he was engaged.
DIVERSION
A change made in the route of a shipment in transit
DOCK RECEIPT
When cargo is delivered to a steamship company at the pier, the receiving clerk issues a
dock receipt.
DOMESTIC CONTAINERIZATION
Mo vement of domestic freight in ocean containers, (to assist in repositioning of those
containers) or in dedicated domestic containers
DOMESTIC OFFSHORE TRADES
Domestic shipping routes serving Alaska and non-continental U.S. States and territories.
DOT (U.S. DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION)
U.S. Department of Transportation, whose purpose is to provide a dynamic federal system
of transportation to meet the country's needs
DOUBLE-STACK
The movement of containers on specialized articulated rail cars that enable the vertical
stacking of the containers on each platform of the car
DRAFT
(1) An unconditional order in writing from one person (the Drawer) to another (the Drawee),
directing the drawee to pay a specified amount to a named drawer on a fixed date. Also
known as a Bill of Exchange. (2)The depth of a ship in the water. The vertical distance
between the waterline and the keel, in the U.S. expressed in feet, elsewhere in meters .
DRAWBACK
A remission of duty or charges paid, in whole or in part, when imported goods are re -
exported or used in the manufacture of exported goods.
DRAWEE
The individual or firm on whom a draft is drawn and who owes the stated amount to the
drawer.
DRAYAGE
Synonym: Connecting Road Haulage(1) The hauling of a load by a cart with detachable
sides. (dray) (2) Road transportation between the nearest railway terminal and the stuffing
place (3) (pick-up and/or delivery) the truck portion of an intermodal move
DRILL SHIP
: Regular ship shaped vessel, production ship. Positioned by anchors or dynamic
positioning. Has its own propulsion machinery.
DRILLING UNIT
Fitted with drilling rig (oil derrick with rotary drill and a mud pumping system), d rilling for
petroleum.
DRY CARGO
Merchandise other than liquid carried in bulk.
DRY CARGO SHIP
Vessel which carriers all merchandise, excluding liquid in bulk.
DRY DOCK
An enclosed basin into which a ship is taken for underwater cleaning and re pairing. It is
fitted with water tight entrance gates which when closed permit the dock to be pumped dry.
DST (DOUBLE STACK TRAIN)
The transport by rail between two points of a trainload of containers with two containers per
chassis, one on top of the other.
DUAL PURPOSE SHIP
Specially constructed ship able to carry different types of cargoes such as ore and/or oil.
DUNNAGE
     The material used to protect or support freight in or on railcars or trailers
     DUNNAGE
     A term applied to loose wood or other material used in a ship's hold for the protection of
     cargo.


E.

     EDI OR EDIFACT (ELECTRONIC DATA INTERCHANGE FOR ADMINISTRATION,
     COMMERCE AND TRANSPORT)
     (1) From the United Nations -backed electronic data interchange standards body, this is
     used to create electronic versions of common business documents that will work on a global
     scale. (2) Electronic Data Interchange; easy communication of commercial data via
     computer connections via mainframe links, PC to mainframe links or using the Internet
     EMBARGO
     To resist or prohibit the acceptance and handling of freight
     ENDORSEMENT IN BLANK
     (1) Commonly used on a bank check, an endorsement in blank is an endorsement to the
     bearer. It contains only the name of the endorser and specifies no particular payee. (2) Also,
     a common means of endorsing bills of lading dawn to the order of the shipper. The bills are
     endorsed "For..." (See Bill of Lading, Order)
     ENGINE DEPARTMENT (Q.M.E.D.)
     Trained in all crafts necessary to engine maintenance (welding, refrigeration, lathe
     operation, die casting,electricity, pumping, water purification, oiling, evaluating engine
     gauges, etc.) Usually watchstanders but on some ships day workers.
     ENTRY
     A customs form used for the clearance of ships or merchandise.
     EVEN KEEL
     When the draft of a ship fore and aft are the same.
     EXIMBANK
     Export-Import Bank: A Federal agency that aids in financing exports of U.S. goods and
     services through direct loans, loan guarantees, and insurance.
     EXPORT BROKER
     The individual who brings together buyer and seller for a fee, eventually withdrawing from
     any transaction.
     EXPORT DECLARATION
     A form completed by the exporter or its authorized agent and filed in triplicate by a carrier
     with the U.S. Collector of Customs at the point of exit. It serves a twofold purpose:(1)
     Primarily, it is used by the U.S. Bureau of Census for the compilation of export statistics on
     U.S. foreign trade. (For this reason, an export declaration is required for practically all
     shipments from the U.S.A. to foreign countries and the U.S. possessions, except for mail
     shipments of small value or for those of a non-commercial character.) (2) The declaration
     also serves as an export control document because it must be presented, together with the
     export license, to the U.S. Customs at the port of export. If the goods may be exported
     under general export license, this fact must be stated on the export declaration.
     EXPORT LICENSE
     A document secured from a government authorizing an exporter to export a specific quantity
     of a particular commodity to a certain country. An e xport license is often required if a
     government has placed embargoes or other restrictions upon exports. (See General Export
     License.)
     EXPORT TRADING COMPANY
     A corporation or other business unit organized and operated primarily for the purpose of
     exporting goods and services, or of providing export-related services to other companies.
     EXPRESS
     Premium-rated service for urgent deliveries.


F.

     FAK (FREIGHT ALL KINDS)
     A carrier's tariff description for products pooled and all shipped at one rate. FAK cargo is
     usually shipped in a container filled with different merchandise or commodities.
     FATHOM
     A nautical measurement with the following conversion equivalents: 6 feet; 1.83 meters.
     FCL
     Full Container Load, Full Car Load.
     FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION (FMC)
     The U.S. Federal agency responsible for overseeing rates and practices of ocean carriers
     that handle cargo at U.S. ports.
     FEEDER
     A grain container or reservoir constructed around the hatchway between two decks of a ship
     which when filled with grain automatically feeds or fills in the vacant areas in the lower
     holds.
     FEEDER VESSEL
     A vessel that connects with a line vessel to service a port not directly served by that line
     vessel.
     FEU
     Forty Foot Equivalent Units (Containers).
     FIO
     Free in and out.
     FIOST
     Free in and out, stowed and trimmed
     FLAG CARRIER
     An airline or vessel of one national registry whose government gives it partial or total
     monopoly over international routes. Flat Bed Chassis - A semi-trailer with a level bed and no
     sides or tops. The floor is a standard height from the ground.
     FLAGS OF CONVENIENCE
     The registration of ships in a country whose tax on the profits of trading ships is low or
     whose requirements concerning manning or maintenance are not stringent. Sometimes
     referred to as flags of necessity; denotes registration of vessels in foreign nations that offer
     favorable tax structures and regulations; also the flag representing the nation un der whose
     jurisdiction a ship is registered. Ships are always registered under the laws of one nation but
     are not always required to establish their home location in that country.
     FLAT CAR
     a freight car having a floor without any housing or body above. Frequently used to carry car
     trailers (TOFC) or oversized/odd-shaped commodities
     FLAT RACK
     A container without sides or frame members at the front and back. It can be loaded from the
     sides and top.
     FLOATING OIL STORAGE
     Oil stored on floating vessels. It has been the practice for oil to be stored in large laid-up oil
     tankers in order to offset the loss involved while the tankers are inactive.
     FMC
Federal Maritime Commission.
FOB.
Free on Board: Export term in which the price quoted by the exporter does not include the
costs of ocean transportation, but does include loading on board the vessel.
FORCE MAJ EURE
Clause limiting responsibilities of charterers, shippers and receiver of cargo
FORCE MAJ EURE
The title of a standard clause found in marine contracts exempting the parties for
nonfulfillment of their obligations by reasons of occurrences beyond their control, such as
earthquakes, floods, or war.
FORECASTLE
The raised part of the forward end of a ship's hull. The inside space may be used for crew
accommodation or quarters, though on new ships this space is being used for the storage of
paints, tackle, deck and engine stores, tarpaulins, etc.
FOREIGN EQUIPMENT
Equipment owned and controlled by a railroad other than CSXT
FOREIGN TRADE ZONE (FTZ)
A port designated by the government for duty-free entry of any non-prohibited goods.
Merchandise may be stored, displayed, and used for manufacturing within the zone and re -
exported without duties being paid. Duties are imposed only when the original goods or
items manufactured from those goods pass from the zone into an area of the country
subject to customs authority. Also called a Free Trade Zone.
FOREIGN TRADE ZONE ENTRY
A form declaring goods which are brought duty free into a Foreign Trade Zone for further
processing or storage and subsequent exportation from the zone into the commerce of
another country.
FORWARD
At or in the direction of the bow. Also the fore part of the ship.
FORWARDED SHIPMENT
Mo ve that originates on CSXT and is then delivered to another carrier
FORWARDER, FREIGHT FORWARDER, FOREIGN FREIGHT FORWARDER
An independent business that dispatches shipments for exporters for a fee. The firm may
ship by land, air, or sea, or it may specialize. Usually it handles all the services connected
with an export shipment, including preparation of documents, booking cargo space,
warehousing, pier delivery, and export clearance. The firm may also handle banking and
insurance services on behalf of a client. The U.S. forwarder is licensed by the Federal
Maritime Commission for ocean shipments.
FRA
Federal Railroad Administration - The FRA deals specifically with transportation policy as it
affects the nation's railroads and is responsible for enforcement of rail sa fety laws
FREE IN (FI)
Means the cost of loading a vessel is borne by the charterer.
FREE IN AND OUT (FIO)
Means the cost of loading and unloading a vessel is borne by the charterer.
FREE OF CAPTURE AND SEIZURE (FC&S)
An insurance clause providing that loss is not insured if due to capture, seizure,
confiscation, and like actions, whether legal or not, or from such acts as piracy, civil war,
rebellion, and civil strife.
FREE OF PARTICULAR AVERAGE (FPA)
A marine insurance clause relating to the recoverability of partial and total losses from perils
of the sea. The American and English coverages vary as follows:(1) American Conditions
     (FPAAC). The underwriter does not assume responsibility for partial losses unless caused
     by sinking, stranding, burning, or colliding with another vessel. (2) English Conditions
     (FPAEC). The underwriter assumes responsibility for partial losses if the vessel is sunk,
     stranded, burned, on fire, or in collision, even though such an event did not actually cause
     the damage suffered by the goods.
     FREE OUT (FO)
     The cost of unloading a vessel is borne by the charterer.
     FREE PORT
     A port which is a Foreign Trade Zone open to all traders on equal terms, or more specifically
     a port where merchandise may he stored duty-free pending reexport or sale within that
     country.
     FREE PRATIQUE
     Clearance by the Health Authorities
     FREE TIME
     The time between notification and when trailer use or premise use charges begin
     FREIGHT
     Money pa yable on delivery of cargo in a mercantile condition.
     FREIGHT FORWARDER
     Arranges shipments for customers usually break bulk. Does not actually carry the cargo or
     conduct business for the ship.
     FREIGHT RATE
     The charge made for the transportation of freight.
     FRUSTRATION
     Charterers when canceling agreement sometimes quote 'doctrine of frustration' i.e. vessel is
     lost, extensive delays .


G.

     GANG
     A group of longshoremen, usually four to fi ve members, with a supervisor assigned to a hold
     or portion of the vessel being loaded or unloaded.
     GANGWAY
     A narrow portable platform used as a passage, by persons entering or leaving a vessel
     moored alongside a pier or quay.
     GAS TANKER
     Specially designed for the transport of condensed (liquefied) gases. The most important
     gases are: ammonia, ethylene, LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas), which consists mainly of
     methane, and is cooled to a temperature of minus 163 degrees Celcius, and LPG (Liquefied
     Petroleum Gas) such as butane and propane.
     GATEWAY
     (1) A port of entry into a country or region. (2) A point through which freight commonly
     moves from one territory or carrier to another
     GATT (GENERAL AGREEMENT ON TARIFFS AND TRADE)
     A multilateral treaty intended to help reduce trade barriers and promote tariff concessions.
     GDP
     Gross Domestic Product: The total value of goods and services produced by a nation over a
     given period, usually 1 year.
     GENERAL CARGO
     A non-bulk oil cargo composed of miscellaneous goods.
     GENERAL EXPORT LICENSE
     An y of various export licenses covering export commodities for which validated export
     licenses are not required.
     GENERAL ORDER WAREHOUSE
     A go vernment contract warehouse for the storage of cargoes left unclaimed for a designated
     number of days after availability. Unclaimed cargoes may later be auctioned publicly.
     GEOGRAPHICAL ROTATION
     Ports in order of calling
     GNP
     Gross National Product: GDP plus the net income accruing from foreign sources.
     GOVERNMENT IMPELLED
     Cargo owned by or subsidized by the Federal Government.
     GR WT./GW
     Gross Weight.
     GRAIN CAPACITY
     Cubic capacity in "grain"
     GREAT LAKES SHIP
     Cargo ship developed to carry raw materials and manufactured goods on the Great Lakes.
     Most carry bulk cargoes of grain, iron ore, or coal.
     GROSS AND NET TONNAGE (GT AND NT)
     Gross tonnage is the basis on which manning rules and safety regulations are applied, and
     registration fees are reckoned. Port fees are also often reckoned on the basis of GT and NT.
     GT and NT are defined according to formulas which take account, among other things, of
     the volume of the vessel's enclosed spaces (GT) and the volume of its holds (NT).
     GROSS FREIGHT
     Freight money collected or to be collected without calculating the expenses relating to the
     running cost of the ship for the vo yage undertaken.
     GROSS REGISTERED TONS
     A common measurement of the internal volume of a ship with certain spaces excluded. One
     ton equals 100 cubic feet; the total of all the enclosed spaces within a ship expressed in
     tons each of which is equivalent to 100 cubic feet.
     GROSS WEIGHT
     The full weight of a shipment, including containers and packaging materials.
     GROUNDING
     Deliberate contact by a ship with the bottom while she is moored or anchored as a result of
     the water level dropping.


H.

     HAGUE RULES
     Code of minimum conditions for the carriage of cargo under a bill of lading
     HARBOR DUES
     Various local charges against all seagoing vessels entering a harbor, to cover maintenance
     of channel depths, buoys, lights, etc. all harbors do not necessarily have this charge.
     HARBOR MASTER
     A person usually having the experience of a certificated master mariner and having a good
     knowledge of the characteristics of the port and its whole area. He administers the entire
     shipping movements that take place in and within reach of the port he is responsible for.
     HARD AGROUND
A vessel which has gone aground and is incapable of refloating under her own power.
HARD CURRENCY
A currency which is sound enough to be accepted internationally and which is usually fully
convertible.
HARMONIZED CODE
An internationally accepted and uniform description system for classifying goods for
customs, statistical, and other purposes.
HARMONIZED SYSTEM (HS)
A ke y pro vision of the international trade bill, effective January 1, 1989, that established
international uniformity for classifying goods moving in international trade under a single
commodity code.
HARTER ACT
(1893) This U.S. statute refers to merchandise or property transported from or between
ports of the United States and foreign ports. Now partially superseded by the US Carriage of
Goods by Sea Act of 1936.
HATCH
The cover of, or opening in, the deck of a vessel through which cargo is loaded.
HAZARDOUS MATERIAL (HAZ MAT)
Substance or combination of substances which, because of its quantity, concentration, or
physical or chemical characteristics, may cause or significantly pose a substantial hazard to
human health or the environment when improperly packaged, stored, transported, or
otherwise managed
HAZARDOUS WASTE
An y material, whether solid, liquid or containing gaseous material, identified in the Resource
& Conservation Recovery Act (RCRA) either b y name (listed) or by characteristics
HEAVY LIFT VESSEL
A vessel specifically designed to be self-sustaining with heavy lift cranes to handle
unusually heavy or outsized cargoes.
HEAVY LIFTS
Freight too heavy to be handled by regular ship's tackle.
HELM
A tiller or a wheel generally installed on the bridge or wheelhouse of a ship to turn the
rudder during maneuvering and navigation. It is in fact the steering wheel of the ship.
HI (OR HIGH) CUBE
An y container exceeding 102 inches in height.
HOLD
A general name for the spaces below the main deck designated for stowage of general
cargo. A hold on a tanker is usually just forward of #1 cargo tank. Some newer tankers have
no hold.
HUB
A central location to which traffic from many cities is directed and from which traffic is fed to
other areas.
HULL
Shell or body of a ship.
HUNDREDWEIGHT (CWT.)
Short ton hundredweight = 100 pounds. Long ton hundredweight = 112 pounds.
     HUSBANDING
     A term used by steamship lines, agents, or port captains who are appointed to handle all
     matters in assisting the master of the vessel while in port to obtain such services as
     bunkering, fresh water, food and supplies, payroll for the crew, doctors appointments, and
     ship repair


I.

     ICC (2) (INTERNATIONAL CHAMBER OF COMMERCE OR )
     A non-governmental organization serving as a policy advocate on world business.
     ICTF (INTERMODAL CONTAINER TRANSFER FACILITY)
     An on-dock facility for moving containers from ship to rail or truck.
     IMO
     International Maritime Organization: Formerly known as the Inter-Governmental Maritime
     Consultative Organization (IMCO), was established in 1958 through the United Nations to
     coordinate international maritime safety and related practices.
     IMPORT LICENSE
     A certificate issued by countries exercising import controls that permits importation of the
     articles stated in the license. The issuance of such a permit frequently is collected with the
     release of foreign exchange needed to pay for the shipment for which the import license has
     been requested.
     IN-BOND
     A customs program for inland ports that provides for cargo arriving at a seapo rt to be
     shipped under a customs bond to a more conveniently located inland port where the entry
     documents have been filed. Customs clears the shipment there and the cargo is trucked to
     its destination, which normally is close to the inland port.
     INDEPENDENT ACTION
     A move whereby a member of a shipping conference elects to depart from the specific
     freight rates, terms, or conditions set forth by the conference. No prior approval of the
     conference is needed.
     INDUCEMENT
     When steamship lines publish in their schedules the name of a port and the words "by
     inducement" in parentheses, this means the vessel will call at the port if there is a sufficient
     amount of profitable cargo available and booked.
     INERT GAS SYSTEM
     A system of preventing any explosion in the cargo tanks of a tanker by replacing the cargo,
     as it is pumped out, by an inert gas, often the exhaust of the ship's engine. Gas -freeing must
     be carried out subsequently if worker have to enter the empty tanks.
     INFLAMMABLE LIQUIDS
     Liquids liable to spontaneous combustion which give off inflammable vapors at or below 80
     degrees F. For e xample, ether, ethyl, benzine, gasoline, paints, enamels, carbon disulfide,
     etc.
     INLAND CARRIER
     A transportation company which hauls export or import traffic between ports and inland
     points
     INLAND WATERS
     Term referring to lakes, streams, rivers, canals, waterways, inlets, bays, and the like.
     INMARSAT
     International Maritime Satellite System.
     INSPECTION CERTIFICATE
     A document certifying that merchandise (such as perishable goods) was in good condition
immediately prior to shipment.
INTEGRATED TUG BARGE
A large barge of about 600 feet and 22,000 tons cargo capacity, integrated from the rear on
to the bow of a tug purposely constructed to push the barge.
INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY
Ownership of the legal rights to possess, use, or dispose of products created by human
ingenuity, including patents, trademarks and copyrights.
INTERCHANGE AGREEMENT
Agreement with a drayage company for use of railroad-controlled equipment
INTERCOASTAL
Domestic shipping routes serving more than one coast.
INTERLINE
A mutual agreement between airlines to link their route network.
INTERLINE HAUL
Mo ve involving more than one rail carrier
INTERLINE PRICE
The price published for an origin/destination pair that uses more than one carrier and results
in one bill for the whole move; see "through price."
INTERMODAL
(1) This refers to the capacity to go from ship to train to truck or the like. The adjective
generally refers to containerized shipping or the capacity to handle the same. (2) Transport
by more than one transportation mode, usually truck and rail
INTERMODALISM
The concept of transportation as a door-to-door service rather than port-to-port. Thus
efficiency is enhanced by having a single carrier coordinating the movement and
documentation among different modes of transportation.
INTERNATIONAL LOAD LINE CERTIFICATE
A certificate which gives details of a ship's freeboards and states that the ship h as been
surveyed and the appropriate load lines marked on her sides. This certificate is issued by a
classification society or the Coast Guard.
INTERNATIONAL OIL POLLUTION COMPENSATION FUND
An inter-governmental agency designed to pay compensation for oil pollution damage,
exceeding the shipowner's liability. It was created by an IMO Convention in 1971 and
started its operations in October 1978. Contributions come mainly from the oil companies of
member states.
INTERNATIONAL TONNAGE CERTIFICATE
A certificate issued to a shipowner by a government department in the case of a ship whose
gross and net tonnages have been determined in accordance with the International
Convention of Tonnage Measurement of Ships. The certificate states the gross and net
tonnages together with details of the spaces attributed to each.
INTERNATIONAL WATERWAYS
Consist of international straits, inland and interocean canals and rivers where they separate
the territories of two or more nations. Provided no treaty is enforced b oth merchant ships
and warships have the right of free and unrestricted navigation through these waterways.
INTRACOASTAL
Domestic shipping routes along a single coast.
ISO 9000
A series of voluntary international quality standards.
ITF
International Transport Workers Federation (Trade Unions)
J.
     J&WO
     Jettison and Washing Overboard.
     JACKUP
     A deck with legs that can be jacked up or down. During operations, the legs rest on the sea -
     bed. When the rig is moved, the legs are retracted, leaving the rig floating. A backup has
     normally no propulsion machinery of its own.
     JETSAM
     Goods from a ship's cargo or parts of its equipment that have been thrown overboard to
     lighten the load in time of danger or to set a stranded ship adrift.
     JOINT VENTURE
     A term of business partnership involving joint management and the sharing of risks and
     profits between enterprises sometimes based in different countries.
     JONES ACT
     Merchant Marine Act of 1920, Section 27, requiring that all U.S. domestic waterborne trade
     be carried by U.S.-flag, U.S.-built, and U.S.-manned vessels.
     JONES ACT
     An act of the U.S. Congress prohibiting foreign flag carriers from participating in the U.S.
     intercoastal trade by water. It currentl y is applicable in such trade lanes as the U.S.
     continental states to and from Hawaii and Alaska.
     JUST IN TIME (JIT)
     The principle of production and inventory control in which goods arrive when needed for
     production or use.


K.
     KANBAN
     The Japanese word referring to the manufacturing control system in which suppliers deliver
     needed parts just in time to the assembly line for use.
     KD FLAT
     An article taken apart, folded, or telescoped to reduce its bulk at least 66 -2/3% below its
     assembled size.
     KDCL
     Knocked Down in Carload Lots.
     KDLCL
     Knocked Down in Less than Carload Lots.
     KEEL
     The lowest longitudinal timber of a vessel, on which framework of the whole is built up;
     combination of iron plates serving same purpose in iron vessel.
     KNOCKED DOWN (KD)
     An article taken apart, folded, or telescoped in such a manner as to reduce its bulk at least
     33-l/3% below its assembled bulk.
     KNOT, NAUTICAL
     The unit of speed equivalent to one nautical mile: 6,080.20 feet per hour or 1.85 kilometers
     per hour.


L.

     L&D
Loss and Damage.
L/C
Letter of credit
L/T
Long tons (2,240 lbs.).
LAGAN
Cargo or equipment to which an identifying marker or buoy is fastened and thrown
overboard in time of danger to lighten a ship's load. Under maritime law, if the goods are
later found they must be returned to the owner whose marker is attached. The owner must
make a salvage payment.
LAID-UP TONNAGE
Ships not in active service; a ship which is out of commission for fitting out, awaiting better
markets, needing work for classification, etc.
LAKER
Type of ship which trades only in the Great Lakes of North America. They usually carry
grain and ore cargoes.
LANDBRIDGE
(1) A system of through rates and service offered by a carrier for cargo shipments from a
foreign port to a U.S. port, across U.S. land to another U.S. port and finally by sea to a
foreign port destination. (2) Containers moving from a foreign country by vessel, transiting
the United States by railroad, and then loaded aboard another vessel for delivery to a
second foreign country
LASH
Lighter aboard ship: A barge carrier designed to act as a shuttle between ports, taking on
and discharging barges.
LASH SHIPS
LASH stand for Lighter Aboard Ship. It is a specialized container ship carrying very large
floating containers, or "lighters." The ship carries its own massive crane, which loads and
discharges the containers over the stern. The lighters each have a capacity of 400 tons and
are stowed in the holds and on deck. While, the ship is at sea with one set of lighters, further
sets can be made ready. Loading and discharge are rapid at about 15 minutes per lighter,
no port or dock facilities are needed, and the lighters can be grouped for pushing by
towboats along inland waterways.
LASH VESSELS
Barges specifically designed to load on a vessel internally and for quick vessel turnaround.
The concept is to quickly float the barges to the vessel (using tugs or ships wenches), load
the barges through the rear of the vessel, then sail. Upon arrival at the foreign port, the
reverse happens. Barges are quickly floated away from the vessel and another set of
waiting barges quickly are loaded. Usually crane-equipped, these barges handle mostly
breakbulk cargo.
LAY DAYS
The dates between which a chartered vessel is to be available in a port for loading of cargo.
LAY/CAN
Laydays/canceling
LAYTIME
Time allowed by the shipowner to the voyage charterer or bill of lading holder in which to
load and/or discharge the cargo. It is expressed as a number of days or hours or as a
number of tons per day.
LAY-UP
Temporary cessation of trading of a ship by a shipowner during a period when there is a
surplus of ships in relation to the level of available cargoes. This surplus, known as
overtonnaging, has the effect of depressing freight rates to the extent that some shipowners
no long find it economical to trade their ship, preferring to lay them up until there is a
reversal in the trend.
LEGAL WEIGHT (LCL)
LESS THAN CONTAINER LOAD(1) A consignment of cargo which is inefficient to fill a
shipping container. It is grouped with other consignments for the same destination in a
container at a container freight station. (2) The weight of the goods plus any immediate
wrappings that are sold along with the goods, e.g., the weight of a tin can as well as its
contents. (See also Gross Weight)
LESS THAN TRUCKLOAD (LTL)
Rates applicable when the quantity of freight is less than the volume or truckload minimum
weight.
LETTER OF CREDIT (L/C)
A document issued by a bank per instructions by a buyer of goods authorizing the seller to
draw a specified sum of money under specified terms. Issued as revocable or irrevocable.
LETTER OF CREDIT, CONFIRMED
A letter of credit containing a guarantee on the part of both the issuing and advising banks
of payment to the seller, provided the seller's documentation is in order and the terms of the
letter of credit are met.
LIEN
Retention of property until outstanding dept is paid
LIFEBOAT
A specially constructed double ended boat which can withstand heavy, rough seas.
LIFEBOAT DRILL
The master of every vessel is bound by international law to make the officers, crew and
passengers adequately acquainted with the procedures of lowering and the use of lifeboats
in case of emergency.
LIGHT DISPLACEMENT TONNAGE
The weight of a ship's hull, machinery, equipment, and spares. This is often the basis on
which ships are paid for when purchased for scrapping. The difference between the loaded
displacement and light displacement is the ship's deadweight.
LIGHTER
(1) General name for a broad, flat-bottomed boat used in transporting cargo between a
vessel and the shore. The distinction between a lighter and a barge is more in the manner of
use than in equipment. The term "lighter" refers to a short haul, generally in connection with
loading and unloading operations of vessels in harbor while the term "barge" is more often
used when the cargo is being carried to its destination over a long distance. (2) An open or
covered barge equipped with a crane and towed by a tugboat. Used mostly in harbors and
inland waterways.
LIGHTER ABOARD SHIP
An ocean ship which carries barges. These barges are loaded with cargo, often at a variety
of locations, towed to the ocean ship, sometimes referred to as the mother ship, and lifted
or, in some cases, floated on board. After the ocean crossing, the barges are off-loaded and
towed to their various destinations. The ocean ship then receives a further set of barges
which have been assembled in readiness. This concept was designed to eliminate the need
for specialized port equipment and to avoid transshipment with its consequent extra cost.
LIGHTERAGE
(1) Charge for conveying cargo by lighters or barges. (2) The cost of loading or unloading a
vessel by means of barges alongside.
LIGHTERING
Conveying cargo with another vessel known as a lighter from ship to shore, or vice versa.
LINEHAUL
The management of freight between cities, usually more than 1000 miles.
LINER
The word "liner" is derived from the term "line traffic," which denotes operation along definite
routes on the basis of definite, fixed schedules. A liner thus is a vessel that engages in this
kind of transportation, which usually involves the haulage of general cargo as distinct from
bulk cargo.
LINER SERVICE
Vessels operating on fixed itineraries or regular schedules and established rates available to
all shippers. The freight rates which are charged are based on the shipping company's tariff
or if the company is a member of a liner conference, the tariff of that conference.
LIQUIDATION
The finalization of a customs entry.
LIVESTOCK
Common farm animals.
LKG. & BKG.
Leakage and Breakage.
LLOYD'S REGISTER OF SHIPPING
British classification society.
LNG
Liquefied Natural Gas, or a carrier of LNG.
LNG CARRIER
Liquefied natural gas carrier, perhaps the most sophisticated of all commercial ships. The
cargo tanks are made of a special aluminum alloy and are heavily insulated to carry natural
gas in its liquid state at a temperature of -2850F. The LNG ship costs about twice as much
as an oil tanker of the same size.
LO/LO (LIFT-ON/LIFT-OFF)
Denotes the method by which cargo is loaded onto and discharged from an ocean vessel,
which in this case is by the use of a crane.
LOAD FACTOR
Percentage of cargo or passengers carried e.g. 4000 tons carried on a vessel of 10000
capacity has a load factor of 40%
LOAD LINE
The line on a vessel indicating the maximum depth to which that vessel can sink when
loaded with cargo. Also known as marks.
LOADED LEG
Subdivision of a ship's voyage during which the ship is carrying cargo.
LOCAL MOVE
A railroad movement in which only one road haul carrier participates. The one carrier serves
both the origin and destination station
LOGISTICS MANAGEMENT
The efficient and cost-effective management of the physical movement of goods from
supply points to final sale and the associated transfer and holding of such goods at various
intermediate storage points.
LOI
Letter of indemnity
LONG TON
2,240 pounds.
LONGSHOREMAN
Ocean carrier cargo handler that loads and unloads freight at the harbor.
LOOKOUT
     A member of the crew stationed on the forecastle, or on the bridge, whose duty it is to watch
     for any dangerous objects or for any other vessels heaving into sight.
     LPG
     Liquefied Petroleum Gas, or a carrier of LPG.
     LSA
     Liner Shipping Agreements.
     LT
     Long Ton = 1016.05 kilogram
     LTGE.
     Lighterage.
     LTL
     (See Less than Truckload)
     LUMPER
     A person hired to help unload a trailer
     LUMPSUM FREIGHT
     Money paid to shipper for charter of a ship (or portion) up to stated limit irrespective of
     quantity of cargo


M.

     M/R
     Mate's Receipt.
     M/T
     Metric Ton (2204.6 lbs).
     M/V OR MV
     Motor Vessel.
     MAIN DECK
     The main continuous deck of a ship running from fore to aft; the principle deck; the deck
     from which the freeboard is determined.
     MAINTENANCE OF WAY
     The process of maintaining roadbed (rail, ties, ballast, bridges etc.) These materials are
     hauled in special maintenance of way cars, which also include cars that are equipped with
     heavy equipment, such as cranes and tie replacing machines
     MANIFEST
     A document containing a full list of the ship's cargo, extracted from the bills of lading.
     MANNING SCALES
     The minimum number of officers and crew members that can be engaged on a ship to be
     considered as sufficient hands with practical ability to meet every possible eventuality at
     sea.
     MAQUILADORA
     A foreign plant operating under an in-bond program whereby components may be shipped
     into Mexico duty-free for assembly and subsequent re-export. Maquiladora plants are also
     known as Twin Plants.
     MARITIME ADMINISTRATION (MARAD)
     A U.S. government agency, while not actively in volved in vessel operation, that administers
     laws for maintenance of merchant marine for the purposes of defense and commerce.
     MARITIME LIEN
     A claim which attaches to the res, i.e., the ship, freight, or cargo.
MARITIME SUBSIDY BOARD (MSB)
A branch within the Maritime Administration which deals with Operating Differential Subsidy
and Construction Differential Subsidy.
MARK
(See Consignee Mark, Markings, Port Marks)
MARKINGS
The physical markings on a product indicating the country of origin where the article was
produced.
MARPOL 73/78
The International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, 1973, as modified
by the Protocol of 1978.
MASTER (CAPTAIN)
Highest officer aboard ship. Oversees all ship operations. Keeps ships records. Handles
accounting and bookkeeping. Takes command of vessel in inclement weather and in
crowded or narrow waters. Handles communications. Receives and implements instructions
from home office.
MATE'S RECEIPT
Receipt of cargo by the vessel, signed by the mate (similar to a dock receipt).
MEASUREMENT TON
The measurement ton (also known as the cargo ton or freight ton) is a space measurement,
usually 40 cubic feet or one cubic meter. Cargo is assessed a certain rate for every 40 cubic
feet or one cubic meter it occupies.
MERCOSUR
A trade alliance between Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay, with Chile and Bolivia as
associate members.
MICROBRIDGE
A system of through rates and service offered by a carrier for cargo shipments from any
inland U.S. location to a port, by sea to a foreign port and finally overland to foreign inland
destination.
MIN. B/L
Minimum Bill of Lading.
MINILAND BRIDGE
The process of taking inland cargo bound for export to the coast by rail and loading it
directly to the ship.
MINI-LANDBRIDGE
Imported traffic movement from an origin port to an inland point that is not a port on an
ocean bill of lading
MIRAID
Maritime Institute for Research and Industrial Development.
MIXED SHIPMENT
A shipment consisting of more than one commodity, articles described under more than one
class or commodity rate item in a tariff.
MM
Mercantile Marine.
MOA
Memorandum of agreement
MODU
Mobile Offshore Drilling Unit.
MOORING LINE
     A cable or line to tie up a ship.
     MSB
     Maritime Subsidy Board.
     MT.
     Empty.
     MTC
     Maritime Transport Committee, OECD
     MULTIPURPOSE SHIP
     An y ship capable of carrying different types of cargo which require different methods of
     handling. There are several types of ships falling into this category, for example, ships which
     can carry roll on/roll off cargo together with containers.
     MW
     Minimum Weight Factor.


N.

     N.E.M.
     Not elsewhere mentioned.
     N.E.S.
     Not elsewhere specified.
     NAFTA (NORTH AMERICAN FREE TRADE AGREEMENT)
     A free trade agreement comprising the U.S.A., Canada, and Mexico.
     NATIONAL CARGO BUREAU
     A pri vate organization having representatives throughout the main harbors in the U.S. It is
     empowered to inspect cargoes of a hazardous nature and issue certificates which are
     automatically approved by the Coast Guard.
     NATIONAL CARRIER
     A flag carrier owned or controlled by the state.
     NATIONAL FLAG
     The flag carried by a ship to show her nationality.
     NEOBULK
     Shipments consisting entirely of units of a single commodity, such as cars, lumber, or scrap
     metal.
     NESTED
     When three or more different sizes of an article are placed within each other so that each
     article will not project above the next lower article by more than 33 -1/3% of its height.
     NESTED SOLID
     When three or more different sizes of an article are placed within each other so that each
     article will not project above the next lower article by more than 1/4 inch.
     NET CAPACITY
     The number of tons of cargo which a vessel can carry when loaded in salt water to her
     summer freeboard marks. Also called cargo carrying capacity, cargo deadweight, and useful
     deadweight.
     NET TERMS
     Free of charters' commission.
     NET TONNAGE
     Equals gross tonnage minus deductions for space occupied by crew accommodations,
     machinery, navigation equipment, and bunkers. It represents space available for cargo (and
passengers). Canal tolls are based on net (registered) tonnage.
NET W EIGHT (ACTUAL NET WEIGHT)
The weight of the goods alone without any immediate wrappings; e.g., the weight of the
contents of a tin can without the weight of the can.
NMFC
National Motor Freight Classification.
NO OBJ ECTION CERTIFICATE
A document provided by scheduled or national airlines of many countries declaring no
objection to a proposed charter flight operated by another airline. It is often demanded by
government authorities before they grant permission for a charter flight to take place.
NO OBJ ECTION FEE
A sum of money normally paid by a charter airline to a scheduled airline in order that it
waives its right of objection to its government, thus allowing a charter to take place. The
amount is usually a fixed percentage of the gross cost of a charter. Tantamount to a bribe,
this is common practice in the Middle East and Africa.
NOE
Not Otherwise Enumerated.
NOHP
Not Otherwise Herein Provided.
NOI
Not Otherwise Indicated.
NOIBN
Not Otherwise Indicated By Number; Not Otherwise Indicated By Name.
NON-CONFERENCE LINE
A shipping line which operates on a route served by a liner conference but which is not a
member of that conference.
NONCONTIGUOUS
Domestic shipping routes serving Alaska and non-continental U.S. States and territories.
NON-VESSEL OPERATING COMMON CARRIER (NVOCC)
An FMC-Licensed cargo consolidator of small shipments in ocean trade, generally soliciting
business and arranging for or performing containerization functions at the port.
NOR
Notice of readiness
NORSKE VERITAS
Norwegian classification society.
NOS
Not Otherwise Specified.
NRT
Net registered tons. This tonnage is frequently shown on ship registration papers; it
represents the volumetric area available for cargo at 100 cubic feet = 1 ton. It often is used
by port and canal authorities as a basis for charges.
NT
Net Tons.
NVO
Non-vessel-operating common carrier, a ships agent, conducts business for the ship but
does not operate the vessel.
NVOCC
(See Non-Vessel-Operating Common Carrier)
O.

     O&R
     Ocean and Rail.
     O.R. DET.
     Owner's Risk of Deterioration.
     O.R.B.
     Owner's risk of breakage.
     O/N
     Order Notify; Own Name.
     O/O
     Order of.
     O/R
     Owner's Risk.
     OBO
     Ore/bulk/oil vessel
     OBO SHIP
     A multipurpose ship that can carry ore, heavy dry bulk goods and oil. Although more
     expensive to build, they ultimately are more economical because they can make return
     journeys with cargo rather than empty as single-purpose ships often must.
     OCEAN WAYBILL
     A document, issued by a shipping line to a shipper which serves as a receipt for the goods
     and evidence of the contract carriage.
     ODS (OPERATING DIFFERENTIAL SUBSIDY)
     (1) A pa yment to an American-flag carrier by the U.S. federal government to offset the
     difference in operating costs between U.S. and foreign vessels. (2) A direct subsidy paid to
     U.S.-flag operators to offset the high operating cost of U.S.-flag ships when compared to
     foreign-flag counterparts.
     OFF-HIRE CLAUSE
     In a time charter, the owner is entitled to a limited time for his vessel to be off hire until such
     time as the vessel may be repaired or dry-docked.
     OFFICER
     An y of the licensed members of the ship's complement.
     OFF-LINE
     An airline that sells in a market to which it does not operate. An off-line carrier will use
     another operator to link with its network.
     OFF-LOAD
     Discharge of cargo from a ship.
     OFFSHORE SERVICE VESSELS
     Special vessels employed in exploration for, development of or continuous production of,
     subsea oil and gas.
     OIL RECORD BOOK
     A book or log kept by the master of an oil tanker wherein every discharge or escape of oil is
     recorded.
     OIL TANKER
     A ship designed for the carriage of oil in bulk, her cargo space consisting of several or many
     tanks. Tankers load their cargo by gravity from the shore or by shore pumps and discharge
     using their own pumps.
     OILER
     An unlicensed member of the engine room staff who oils and greases bearings and moving
     parts of the main engine and auxiliaries. Most of this work is now done automatically and the
     oiler merely insures it operates correctly.
     OPEN ACCOUNT
     A trade arrangement in which goods are shipped to a foreign buyer without guarantee of
     payment such as a note, mortgage, or other formal written evidence of indebtedness.
     OPEN POLICY
     A cargo insurance policy that is an open contract; e.g., it provides protection for all of an
     exporter's shipments afloat or in transit within a specified geographical trade area for an
     unlimited period of time, until the policy is cancelled by the insured or by the insurance
     company. It is "open" because the goods that are shipped are also detailed at that time.
     This usually is shown in a document called a marine insurance certificate.
     OPEN RATES
     Pricing systems that are flexible and not subject to conference approval. Usually applied to
     products in which tramps are substituted for liners.
     OPEN REGISTRY
     A term used in place of "flag of convenience" or "flag of necessity" to denote registry in a
     country which offers favorable tax, regulatory, and other incentives to ship owners from
     other nations.
     ORDINARY SEAMAN
     (1) A deck crew member who is subordinate to the Able Bodied Seamen. (2) An apprentice
     AB, assists AB's bosun, and officers, keeps facilities clean.
     ORE CARRIER
     A large ship designed to be used for the carnage of ore. Because of the high density of ore,
     ore carriers have a relatively high center of gravity to pre vent them being still when at sea,
     that is, rolling heavily with possible stress to the hull.
     ORE-BULK-OIL CARRIER
     A large multi-purpose ship designed to carry cargoes wither of ore or other bulk
     commodities or oil so as to reduce the time the ship would be in ballast if restricted to one
     type of commodity. This type of ship is sometimes called bulk-oil carrier.
     ORF
     Owner' Risk of Fire or Freezing.
     ORL
     Owner's Risk of Leakage.
     ORW
     Owner's Risk of Becoming Wet.
     OS&D
     Over, Short and Damaged.
     OUARTERMASTER/HELMSMAN
     An able-bodied seamen entrusted with the steering of a vessel.
     OVERHEAD SHIPMENT
     A railroad movement involving at least three railroad carriers at which CSXT is neither the
     first nor the last carrier
     OVERTONNAGING
     A situation where there are too many ships generally or in a particular trade for the level of
     available cargoes


P.

     P&I
Protection and indemnity insurance
P.L. 480
Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance Act of 1954.
P.L. 664
Mandates that 50 percent of government impelled cargoes be carried under U.S. flag.
Known as the 50/50 shipping law.
PA
(See Particular Average)
PAIRED (PORT OF ARRIVAL IMMEDIATE RELEASE AND ENFORCEMENT
DETERMINATION)
A U.S. Customs program that allows entry documentation for an import shipment to be filed
at one location, usually an inland city, while the merchandise is cleared by customs at the
port of entry, normally a seaport. Ma y be ineffective with certain types of high -risk cargoes,
such as quota-regulated textiles or shipments from drug production regions. Cities where
there is a natural flow of cargo are actually "paired" in the program; e.g., Atlanta, an inland
city, is linked with Savannah, a seaport.
PANAMAX
A vessel designed to be just small enough to transit the Panama Canal
PAPERLESS RELEASE
Under ABI, certain commodities from low-risk countries not designated for examination may
be released through an ABI-certified broker without the actual submission of documentation.
PART CHARTER
Where part of an airline's scheduled flight is sold as if it were a charter in its own right. Often
incorrectly used as a synonym for split charter.
PARTICULAR AVERAGE (PA)
Partial loss or damage to goods.
PASSENGER SHIP
A passenger ship that its authorized to carry over twelve passengers.
PER CONTAINER RATE
Rates and/or changes on shipments transported in containers or trailers and rated on the
basis of the category of the container or trailer.
PERILS OF THE SEA
Fortuitous accidents or casualties peculiar to transportation on navigable water, such as
sinking, collision of vessel, striking a submerged object, or encountering heavy weather or
other unusual forces of nature.
PERISHABLES
An y cargo that loses considerable value if it is delayed in transportation. This usually refers
to fresh fruit and vegetables.
PERSONAL FLOATATION DEVICE
Approved floats meant as life preservers and carried on board American ships.
PHYTOSANITARY INSPECTION CERTIFICATE
A certificate issued by the U.S. Department of Agriculture indicating that a shipment has
been inspected and is free of harmful pests and plant diseases.
PIGGYBACK
An ocean container or trailer riding on a rail car (COFC or TOFC)
PIGS
A railroad term for trailers loaded on flat cars
PILFERAGE
As used in marine insurance policies, the term denotes petty thievery-the taking of small
parts of a shipment-as opposed to the theft of a whole shipment or large unit. Many ordinary
marine insurance policies do not cover against pilferage, and when this coverage is desired
it must be added to the policy.
PILOT
A person who is qualified to assist the master of a ship to navigate when entering or leaving
a port.
PILOT HOUSE
The enclosed space on the navigating bridge from which a ship is controlled when under
way.
PILOTAGE
The act carried out by a pilot of assisting the master of a ship in navigation when entering or
leaving a port. Sometimes used to define the fee payable for the services of a pilot.
PILOTAGE DUES
A fee payable by the owner or operator of a ship for the services of a pilot. This fee is
normally based on the ship's tonnage.
PIVOT W EIGHTS
That weight of a ULD above which a higher tariff applies. In effect, it is an incentive to
maximize cargo density.
PLACE
A particular street address or other designation of a factory, store, warehouse, place of
business, private residence, construction camp, or the like at a point.
PLACE OF REST
This term, as used in the Containerized Cargo Rules, means the location of the floor, dock,
platform, or doorway at the CFS to which cargo is first delivered by the shipper or agent
thereof.
PMA
Pacific Maritime Association.
POINT
A particular city, town, village, or other community or area which is treated as a unit for the
application of rates.
POOL TRAILERS
Free-running trailers owned by leasing companies
POOLING
The sharing of cargo or the profit or loss from freight by member lines of a liner conference.
Pooling arrangements do not exist in all conferences.
PORT AUTHORITY
A go vernment body (city, county, or state) which in international shipping maintains various
airports and/or ocean cargo pier facilities, transit sheds, loading equipment, or warehouses
for air cargo. It has the power to levy dockage and wharfage charges, landing fees, and
other costs.
PORT MARKS
An identifying set of letters, numbers, or geometric symbols followed by the name of the port
of destination that are placed on export shipments. Foreign government requirem ents may
be exceedingly strict in the matter of port marks.
PORT OF DISCHARGE
A port where a vessel is off-loaded and cargo discharged.
PORT OF ENTRY
A port at which foreign goods are admitted into the receiving country.
PORT OF LOADING
A port where cargo is loaded aboard the vessel, lashed, and stowed.
PR-17
Public Resolution which requires that U.S. Government financed cargoes (Eximbank) must
be shipped 100% in U.S. flag ships, but that the requirement may be waived up to 50% in
some cases.
PREMISE
Use penalty assessed to shippers or consignees for holding private trailers or containers at
the origin or destination terminal in excess of allotted free time
PREPAID FREIGHT
Generally speaking, freight charges both in ocean and air transport may be either prepaid in
the currency of the country of e xport or they may be billed collect for payment by the
consignee in his local currency. On shipments to some countries, however, freight charges
must be prepaid because of foreign exchange regulations of the country of import or rules of
steamship companies or airlines.
PRE-SLUNG CARGO
Cargo shipped already in a cargo sling or net, such as coffee in bags or coconut shells. It is
usually prepared and loaded at the pier, ready for the vessel's arrival and subsequent
loading.
PRIMA FACIE
A Latin term frequently encountered in foreign trade that means "on first appearance." When
a steamship company issues a clean bill of lading, it acknowledges that the goods were
received "in apparent good order and condition" and this is said by the courts to constitute
prima facie evidence of the conditions of the containers; that is, if nothing to the contrary
appears, it must be inferred that the cargo was in good condition when received by the
carrier.
PRO NUMBER
(1) A number assigned by the carrier to a single shipment, used in all cases where the
shipment must be referred to. (2) The number used in identifying waybills and freight bills.
Pro means progressive and agents use progressive numbers for this identification
PRODUCT CARRIER
A tanker which is generally below 70,000 deadweight tons and used to carry refined oil
products from the refinery to the consumer. In many cases, four different grades of oil can
be handled simultaneously.
PRODUCTION UNIT
Equipped to extract petroleum, e.g. oil production ship.
PROFORMA
When used with the title of a document, the term refers to an informal document presented
in advance of the arrival or preparation of the required document, in order to satisfy a
customs requirement.
PROOF OF DELIVERY (POD)
The delivery receipt copy of a freight bill indicating the name of the person who signed for a
package with the date and time of delivery.
PROPANE CARRIER
A ship designed to carry propane in liquid form. The propane is carried in tanks within the
holds; it remains in liquid form by means of pressure and refrigeration. Such ships are also
suitable for the carriage of butane.
PROPORTIONAL PRICE
Price from or to an intermediate point; may be used only to construct an interline price; i.e.,
a combination of two prices
PROTEST
U.S. Customs Form 19 allows for a refund of an overpayment of duty if filed within 90 days
of liquidation
Q.
     QUALIFIED MEMBER OF THE ENGINE DEPARTMENT(OMED)
     Unlicensed members of the engine department who attend to a fully automated engine
     room.
     QUARTERS
     Accommodations.


R.

     RADIO DEPARTMENT - RADIO OPERATOR
     Maintains and monitors radio, sends, and receives messages. Often maintains electronic
     navigation equipment.
     RAMP
     A structure, permanent or temporary, from which trailers are driven onto or off of a railroad
     flatcar. Also used in reference to any city or location where piggyback loading and unloading
     can be performed
     REBATE
     A deduction taken from a set payment or charge. Because a rebate is given after payment
     of the full amount has been made, it differs from a discount which is deducted in advance of
     the payment. In foreign trade, a full or partial rebate may be given on import duties paid on
     goods which are later re exported.
     RECAP
     Recapitulation of the terms and conditions agreed
     RECIPROCITY
     A practice by which governments extend similar concessions to one another.
     REEFER
     Refrigerator ship; a vessel designed to carry goods requiring refrigeration, such as meat and
     fruit. A reefer ship has insulated holds into which cold air is passed at the temperature
     appropriate to the goods being carried.
     REEFER BOX
     An insulated shipping container designed to carry cargoes requiring temperature control. It
     is fitted with a refrigeration unit which is connected to the carrying ship's electrical power
     supply.
     REFG
     Refrigerating; Refrigeration.
     REGS.
     Registered Tonnage.
     RELEASED VALUE
     Value assigned a shipment with a maximum value per pound; used for liability purposes
     RETALIATION
     An action taken by a country to restrain imports from another country that has increased a
     tariff or imposed other measures that adversely affect the first country's exports.
     RETURN CARGO
     A cargo which enables a ship to return loaded to the port or area where her previous cargo
     was loaded.
     REVERSE ROUTE
     The exact re verse of the route a loaded car traveled from its destination, including all
     carriers and junctions involved
     REVERSIBLE TIME
     Option for charterers to add together time allowed for loading & discharging relative to terms
     of a particular charter party
     RO/RO (ROLL-ON/ROLL-OFF) VESSEL
     (1) A ship designed to accommodate cargo that is rolled on and rolled off. Some Ro/Ro
     vessels can accommodate containers and/or breakbulk cargo. A Ro/Ro Vessel can be self-
     sustaining. (2) Freight ship or ferry with facilities for vehicles to drive on and off (roll -on roll-
     off); a system of loading and discharging a ship whereby the cargo is driven on and off on
     ramps. Equipped with large openings at bow and stern and sometimes also in the side, the
     ship permits rapid loading and discharge with hydraulically operated ramps providing easy
     access. Fully loaded trucks or trailers carrying containers are accommodated on th e deck.
     ROLLING CARGO
     Cargo which is on wheels, such as truck or trailers, and which can be driven or towed on to
     a ship.
     ROYALTY
     A charge on charter flights levied by some governments before traffic rights are granted.
     Sometimes called a "no objection fee." It is usually a fi xed proportion of a total charter value.


S.

     SALVAGE
     (1) The rescue of goods from loss at sea or by fire. Also, goods so saved, or payment made
     or due for their rescue. (2) The property which has been recovered from a wrecked vessel,
     or the recovery of the vessel herself.
     SCHEDULE B
     Refers to "Schedule B, Statistical Classification of Domestic and Foreign Commodities
     exported from the U.S.A." This is being replaced under the Harmonized System.
     SCHEDULED FLIGHT
     An y service that operates under a set timetable.
     SCR (SPECIFIED COMMODITY RATE)
     A rate applied to narrowly specified commodities and usually granted on relatively large
     shipments. Theoretically, it is of limited time duration.
     SEA TRIALS
     A series of trials conducted by the builders during which the owner's representatives on
     board act in a consulting and checking capacity to determine if the vessel has met the
     specifications.
     SEABEE
     Sea-barge, a barge carrier design similar to "LASH" but which uses rollers to move the
     barges aboard the ship; the self-propelled loaded barges are themselves loaded on board
     as cargo and are considerably larger than those loaded on LASH ships.
     SEAL
     A de vice fastened to the doors on a railcar or trailer used to secure its contents and to
     insure the integrity of a shipment
     SEAWORTHINESS
     (1) Statement on the condition of the vessel. It has valid certificates, is fully equipped and
     manned (2) The sufficiency of a vessel in materials construction, equipment, crew and ou tfit
     for the trade in which it is employed. An y sort of disrepair to the vessel by which the cargo
     may suffer - overloading, untrained officers, etc., may constitute a vessel unseaworthy.
     SEAWORTHINESS CERTIFICATE
     A certificate issued by a classification society surveyor to allow a vessel to proceed after she
     has met with a mishap that may have affected its seaworthiness. It is frequently issued to
     enable a vessel to proceed, after temporary repairs have been effected, to another port
     where permanent repairs are then carried out.
SECTOR
The distance between two ground points within a route.
SELF-SUSTAINING
A vessel that has its own cranes and equipment mounted on board for loading and
unloading. Used in ports where shore cranes and equipment are lacking.
SELF-SUSTAINING SHIP
A containership which has her own crane for loading and discharging shipping containers
enabling the ship to serve ports which do not have suitable lifting equipment.
SELF-UNLOADER
A bulk carrier which is equipped with gear for unloading cargo.
SEMISUBMERSIBLE
Deck supported by pillars, fastened to pontoons. The pontoons are half submerged during
operations. Kept in position by anchors (or by dynamic positioning). Normally equipped with
its own propulsion machinery.
SERVICE
The defined, regular pattern of calls made by a carrier in the pick-up and discharge of cargo.
SERVICE CONTRACT
A contract between a shipper and an ocean carrier of conference, in which the shipper
makes a commitment to provide a minimum quantity of cargo over a fixed time period.
SHIFTING
This refers to movements or changing positions of cargo from one place to another. This
can easily endanger the seaworthiness or cargoworthiness of the ship.
SHIPMENT
Freight tendered to a carrier by one consignor at one place at one time for delivery to one
consignee at one place on one bill of lading.
SHIPPER
Term used to describe an exporter (usually a manufacturing company).
SHIPPERS
Individuals or businesses who purchase transportation services or commodities.
SHIPPER'S COUNCIL
An organization of shippers formed to collectively and services with the conferences of ship
operators.
SHIPPER'S EXPORT DECLARATION (SED)
A form required by the U.S. Treasury Department and completed by a shipper showing the
value, weight, consignee, and destination of export shipments as well as the Schedule B
identification number.
SHIPPING ACT
Created in 1916 and revised in 1984, the Shipping Act is a comprehensive legislative act
defining the U.S. ocean freight industry. This legislation defines the rules and regulations
governing the business practices of steamship companies, non-vessel operating carriers,
and freight forwarders.
SHIP'S AGENT
A person or firm who transacts all business in a port on behalf of shipowners or charterers.
Also called shipping agent; agent.
SHIP'S MANIFEST
An instrument in writing containing a list of the shipments constituting the ship's cargo.
SHORT TON
2,000 pounds.
SHORT-SHIPPED
Cargo manifested but not loaded.
SIGHT DRAFT
A draft payable upon presentation to the drawee. (Compare with Date Draft and Time Draft.)
SINGLE-LINE HAUL
Shipment over one railroad
SLOP TANK
A tank in a tanker into which slops are pumped. These represent a residue of the ship's
cargo of oil together with the water used to clean the cargo tanks. They are left to separate
out in the slop tank.
SOFT CURRENCY
Currency which is not fully convertible to all currencies but only to some other soft
currencies.
SPINE CAR
Skeletonized, lightweight, three or five-unit, fully articulated rail car, designed to carry single-
stack containers and trailers
SPLC (STANDARD POINT LOCATION CODE )
An industry wide standard used to identify a location served by a common carrier
SPOT (VOYAGE)
A charter for a particular vessel to move a single cargo between specified loading port(s)
and discharge port(s) in the immediate future. Contract rate ("spot" rate) covers total
operating expenses, i.e., bunkers, port charges, canal tolls, crew's wages and food,
insurance and repairs. Cargo owner absorbs, in addition, any expenses specifically levied
against the cargo.
STANDARD INTERNATIONAL TRADE CLASSIFICATION (SITC)
A standard numerical code system developed by the United Nations to classify commodities
used in international trade.
STAND-BY VESSEL
Stationed near an offshore in-stallation, responsible for evacuating its crew in emergencies.
Also performs continuous guard function, warning other vessels to keep their distance from
installations, etc.
STARBOARD
The right-hand side of a ship when facing the front or forward end. The starboard side of a
ship during darkness is indicated by a green light.
STCC
(Standard Transportation Commodity Codes) the STCC system is a 7 digit coding structure
designed to classify all commodities or articles which move or may move in freight
transportation
STEAMSHIP AGENT
A duly appointed and authorized representative in a specified territory acting on behalf of a
steamship line or lines and attending to all matters relating to the vessels owned by his
principals.
STEAMSHIP LINE
A company usually having the following departments: vessel operations, container
operations, tariff department, booking, outbound rates, inward rates, and sales. The
company can maintain its own in-country offices to handle regional sales, operations, or
other matters, or appoint steamship agents to represent them doing the same. Some lines
have liner offices in several regions and appointed agents in others.
STEM
(Noun) The upright post or bar of the bow of a vessel.
STERNWAY
The reverse movement of a vessel.
     STEWARD ASSISTANT
     Clean galley and mess halls, set tables, prepare salads, and clean living quarters.
     STORAGE CHARGE
     A penalty assessed to shippers or consignees for holding private trailers or containers at the
     origin or destination terminal in excess of allotted free time
     STORE
     A general term for provisions, materials and supplies used aboard ship for the maintenance
     of the crew, and for the navigation, propulsion, and upkeep of the vessel and its equipment.
     STOWAGE
     (a) The loading of cargo in a vessel in such a manner as to provide the utmost safety and
     efficiency for the ship and the goods it carries. (b) The placing of goods in a ship in such a
     way as to ensure the safety and stability of the ship not only on a sea or ocean passage but
     also in between ports when parts of the cargo have been loaded or discharged.
     STOWAGE FACTOR
     Cubic space ratio (measured in cubic feet per long ton, cubic meter per metric ton or cubic
     per metric ton)
     SUBSIDY
     An economic benefit granted by a government to producers of goods or services, often to
     strengthen their competitive position. Sue & Labor Cause. A provision in marine insurance
     obligating the assured to do things necessary after a loss to prevent further loss and to act
     in the best interests of the insurer.
     SURETY BOND
     A bond insuring against loss or damage or for the completion of obligations.


T.

     T.E.U.
     Twenty Foot Equivalent Unit (containers): A measurement of cargo-carrying capacity on a
     containership, referring to a common container size of 20 ft in length.
     T/C
     Time charter
     T/C EQUIVALENT
     Revenue per day
     TAIL SHAFT
     The extreme section at the aft end of a ship's propeller shaft.
     TALLY SHEET
     A list of incoming and outgoing cargo checked by the tally clerk on the dock.
     TANK-BARGE
     A ri ver barge designed for the carriage of liquid bulk cargoes.
     TANKER
     A tanker is a bulk carrier designed to transport liquid cargo, most often petroleum products.
     Oil tankers vary in size from small coastal vessels of 1,500 tons deadweight, through
     medium-sized ship of 60,000 tons, to the giant VLCCs (very large crude carriers).
     TARE WEIGHT
     The weight of packing and containers without the goods to be shipped.
     TARIFF
     (1) A general term for any listing of rates or charges. The tariffs most frequently encountered
     in foreign trade are: tariffs of international transportation companies operating on sea, land,
     and in the air; tariffs of international cable, radio, and telephone companies; and the
customs tariffs of the various countries that list goods that are duty free and those subject to
import duty, giving the rate of duty in each case. There are various classes of customs
duties.
TARIFF ACT OF 1930 (P.L. 361)
imposes a 50-percent tariff on maintenance and repair work done on U.S.-flag vessels in
foreign shipyards. Also, U.S.-flag vessels either must be built in the United States or have
been a U.S.-flag vessel for at least 3 years to be eligible to carry preference cargo.
TEMPERATURE CONTROLLED CARGO
An y cargo requiring carriage under controlled temperature.
TERRITORIAL WATERS
That portion of the sea up to a limited instance which is immediately adjacent to the shores
of any country and over which the sovereignty and exclusive jurisdiction of that country
extend.
TEU
A twenty-foot equivalent unit (6.1m). A standard unit for counting containers of various
lengths and for describing container ship or terminal capacity. A standard 40' container
equals 2 TEUs.
THC (TERMINAL HANDLING CHARGE)
A charge made for certain handling services performed at terminals.
THIRD ASSISTANT ENGINEER
In charge of eight to twelve watch. Maintains lighting fixtures. Repairs malfunctioning
accessories in living quarters. Assist other engineers as directed.
THIRD MATE
In charge of eight to twelve watch. Makes sure emergency survival equipment (lifeboats, life
rings, etc.) is in order. Assists other officers as directed.
THIRD PARTY
An independent retailer of intermodal transportation, may be a shipper agent or association
THROUGH PRICE
The price applicable from point of origin to destination; may be a joint price or a combination
of two or more prices
TIB (TEMPORARY IMPORTATION UNDER BOND)
A U.S. Customs' temporary admission into the U.S.A. under a conditional bond for articles
not imported for sale or for sale on approval.
TITLE, PASSING
The passing of title to exported goods is determined in large measure by the se lling terms
and must be clearly specified and understood by both parties.
TOFC
trailer on flat car, also known as piggyback; a container with chassis or rail trailer
transported on a rail car
TON
2,240 pounds - Freight rates for liner cargo generally are quoted based on a certain rate per
ton, depending on the nature of the commodity. This ton, however, may be a weight ton or a
measurement ton.
TON MILE
A measurement used in the economics of transportation to designate one ton being moved
one mile. This is useful to the shipper because it includes the distance to move a commodity
in the calculation.
TON-DEADW EIGHT
The carrying capacity of the ship in terms of the weight in tons of the cargo, fuel, provisions,
and passengers which a vessel can carry.
TON-DISPLACEMENT
The weight of the volume of water, which the fully loaded ship, displaces.
TONNAGE
A quantity of cargo normally expressed as a number of tons.
TOP-OFF
To fill a ship which is already partly loaded with cargo.
TOW
When one or more vessels are being towed; when a tug is towing one or more floating
objects; to pull an object in the water by means of a rope.
TOWAGE
Charges for the services of tugs assisting a ship or other vessels in ports or other locations;
the act of towing a ship or other objects from one place to another.
TRACKING
A carrier's system of recording movement intervals of shipments from origin to destination.
TRADE
A term used to define a geographic area or specific route served by carriers.
TRADING LIMITS
Maritime area usually specified by range of ports in which a vessel may operate
TRAMP
A vessel that does not operate along a definite route on a fixed schedule, but calls at any
port where cargo is available.
TRAMP SERVICE
Vessels operating without a fixed itinerary or schedule or charter contract.
TRANSPORT INDEX
The number expressing the maximum radiation level in a package or ULD.
TRANSPORTATION DATA COORDINATION COMMITTEE
Sets the standards for interchange of transportation data
TRANSSHIPMENT
The transfer of a shipment from one carrier to another in international trade, most frequently
from one ship to another. Because the unloading and reloading of delicate merchandise is
likely to cause damage, transshipments are avoided whenever possible.
TRIM
The relationship between a ship's draughts forward and aft.
TRUCKLOAD
Truckload rates apply where the tariff shows a truckload minimum weight. Charges will be at
the truckload minimum weight unless weight is higher.
TRUST RECEIPT
The release of merchandise by a bank to a buyer for manufacturing or sales purposes in
which the bank retains title to the merchandise.
TUG
A small vessel designed to tow or push large ships or barges. Tugs have powerful diesel
engines and are essential to docks and ports to maneuver large ships into their berths.
Pusher tugs are also used to push enormous trains of barges on the rivers and inland
waterways of the U.S. Oceangoing salvage tugs provide assistance to ships in distress and
engage in such work as towing drilling rigs and oil production platforms
U.
     U.S. EFFECTIVE CONTROLLED FLEET
     That fleet of merchant ships owned by United States citizens or corporations and registered
     under flags of "convenience" or "necessity" such as Liberia or Panama. The term is used to
     emphasize that, while the fleet is not U.S.-flag, it is effectively under U.S. control by virtue of
     the ship's owners and can be called to serve U.S. interests in time of emergency.
     U.S.-FLAG VESSELS
     are registered in the United States and are subject to additional U.S. laws and regulations to
     which foreign-flag vessels are not. They must be owned by U.S. citi zens, corporations, or
     governments and must be crewed mainly by U.S. citi zens.
     ULCC
     Ultra Large Crude Carriers. Tankers larger than 300,000 dwt.
     ULD (UNIT LOAD DEVICE)
     A pallet or container for freight.
     UMLER
     (Universal Machine Language Equipment Register) a computer readable file of vital
     statistics for each railroad car in service. It applies to all railroads, types of cars, and data
     processing machines
     UNCLEAN BILL OF LADING
     (See Bill of Lading, Unclean)
     UNCTAD
     United Nations Conference on Trade and Development
     UNIFORM COMMERCIAL CODE
     The Uniform Commercial Code, or Uniform Customs and Practice for Documentary Credits
     ICC Publication No. 500, was first established and published in 1933 by the International
     Chamber of Commerce. Revisions were made in 1951, 1962, 1974, 1983, and 1993. The
     code defines documentation standards to be followed by international banks when
     negotiating letters of credit. The code is binding, and seeks to define a worldwide standard
     applicable to all involved in international trade, exchanging goods, and money using the
     international letter of credit.
     UNITIZATION
     The packing of single or multiple consignments into ULDs or pallets.
     UNIVERSAL POSTAL UNION
     The organization which negotiates international mail charges.
     UNMANNED MACHINERY SPACES
     A space where alarm bells are installed on the bridge of a ship to trace or rectify any
     machinery faults. The computerized devices will report any fault immediately it appears and
     the engineers on board can attend to the necessary ramifications.
     UNSEAWORTHINESS
     The state or condition of a vessel when it is not in a proper state of maintenance, or if the
     loading equipment or crew, or in any other respect is not ready to encounter the ordinary
     perils of sea


V.

     VALUATION CHARGES
     Transportation charges assessed shippers who declare a value of goods higher than the
     value of carriers' limits of liability.
     VLCC
     Very Large Crude Carriers: Tankers between 200,000 and 300,000 dwt.
     VOYAGE CHARTER
     A contract whereby the shipowner places the vessel at the disposal of the charterer for one
     or more voyages, the shipowner being responsible for the operation of the vessel.


W.

     WAR RISK
     The possible aggressive actions against a ship and its cargo by a belligerent government.
     This risk can be insured by a marine policy with a risk clause.
     WAR RISK INSURANCE
     Insurance issued by marine underwriters against war-like operations specifically described
     in the policy. In former times, war risk insurance was taken out only in times of war, but
     currently many exporters cover most of their shipments with war risk insurance as a
     protection against losses from derelict torpedoes and floating mines placed during former
     wars, and also as a safeguard against unforeseen warlike developments. In the U.S.A., war
     risk insurance is written in a separate policy from the ordinary marin e insurance; it is
     desirable to take out both policies with the same underwriter in order to avoid the ill effects
     of a possible dispute between underwriters as to the cause (marine peril or war peril) of a
     given loss.
     WAREHOUSE RECEIPT
     A receipt of commodities deposited in a warehouse identifying the commodities deposited. It
     is non-negotiable if permitting delivery only to a specified person or firm, but it is negotiable
     if made out to the order of a person or firm or to a bearer. Endorsement (without
     endorsement if made out to bearer) and delivery of a negotiable warehouse receipt serves
     to transfer the property covered b y the receipt. Warehouse receipts are common documents
     in international banking.
     WAREHOUSE-TO-WAREHOUSE
     A clause in marine insurance policy whereby the underwriter agrees to cover the goods
     while in transit between the initial point of shipment and the point of destination with certain
     limitations, and also subject to the law of insurable interest. The warehouse -to-warehouse
     clause was once extremely important, but marine extension clauses now often override its
     provisions.
     WARRANTIES (1) EXPRESSED WARRANTY:
     An agreement written in a marine underwriter's insurance policy which must be strictly and
     literally complied with. A violation voids the insurance, e.g., trading warranties. (2) Implied
     Warranty: - Fundamental conditions implied in a contract of marine insurance are
     seaworthiness of the vessel and the legality of the venture.
     WATCH
     The day at sea is divided into six four-hour periods. Three groups of watchstanders are on
     duty for four hours and then off for eight, then back to duty. Seamen often work overtime
     during their off time.
     WAYBILL
     A document covering a shipment and showing the forwarding and receiving station , the
     names of consignor and consignee, the car initials and number, the routing, the description
     and weight of the commodity, instructions for special services, the rate, total charges,
     advances and waybill reference for previous services, and the amount prepaid
     WEATHER PERMITTING
     That time during which weather that prevents working shall not count as laytime
     WEIGHT
     (1) GrossThe weight of the goods including packing, wrappers, or containers, both internal
     and external. The total weight as shipped. (2) Net - The weight of the goods themselves
     without the inclusion of any wrapper. (3) Tare - The weight of the packaging or container. (4)
     Weight/Measurement Ton - In many cases, a rate is shown per weight/measurement ton,
     carrier's option. This means that the rate will be assessed on either a weight ton or
     measurement ton basis, whichever will yield the carrier the greater revenue. For example,
     the rate may be quoted based on 2,240 pounds, 40 cubic feet, one metric ton, or one cubic
     meter. (5) Weight Ton There are three types of weight ton: the short ton, weighing 2,000
     pounds; the long ton, weighing 2,240 pounds; and the metric ton weighing 2,204.68 pounds.
     The last is frequently quoted for cargo being exported from Europe.
     WEIGHT LOAD FACTOR
     Payload achieved as against available, expressed as a percentage. Volume rather than
     weight frequently limit cargo; load factors of 100 percent are rarely achieved.
     WEIGHT, LEGAL
     Net weight of goods plus the inside packing.
     WHARFAGE
     A charge assessed by a pier or dock owner against the cargo or a steamship company for
     use of the pier or dock.
     WITH AVERAGE (WA)
     A marine insurance term meaning that shipment is protected for partial damage whenever
     the damage exceeds a stated percentage.
     WITH PARTICULAR AVERAGE (WPA)
     An insurance term meaning that partial loss or damage of goods is insured. The damage
     generally must be caused by sea water, and many terms specify a minimum percentage of
     damage before payment. It may be extended to cover loss by theft, pi lferage, delivery,
     leakage, and breakage.
     WITHOUT RESERVE
     A term indicating shipper's agent or representative is empowered to make definitive
     decisions and adjustments abroad without approval of the group or individual represented.
     (See Advisory Capacity)
     WORLDSCALE
     An index representing the cost of time chartering a tanker for a specific voyage at a given
     time. The index is given at Worldscale 100, which represents the price in dollars per ton for
     carrying the oil at that rate. The negotiated rate will be some percentage of the index value.


X.


Y.

     YIELD
     Revenue, not necessarily profitable, per unit of traffic.


Z.

				
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