midterm prep sheet by malj


									                                Western Civilization I
                             Midterm Exam Review Sheet

Test Breakdown:

1.     13 True-False questions (2 points each)               26 points
2.     12 Multiple-Choices questions (2 points each)         24 points
3.     Map Exercise with 10 tags (2 points each)             20 points
4.     2 Essays (15 points each)                             30 points

                                                       100 points total

Major Storylines of Western Civ:

1) The development of religion: How do people’s ideas of their relationship to the
natural and supernatural change over time? Which beliefs are discarded, and what rises to
replace them?

2) The Greek polis system: How did it develop and what was the system’s structure?
How did it come to an end, and what did people think about it?

3) Greek and/or Hellenistic culture: What are some major aspects of it, how did it spread,
and who borrowed from it in their own cultures?

4) Roman expansion: How did Rome go from being a tiny Italian village to the major
world power? Where and how did it grow, and what did Romans think about it?

5) The rise of Christianity: How did Christianity become a Europe-wide religion that
served as a replacement for the Roman Empire? How did the relationship between the
Empire and the Christian Church change over time?

6) Roman decline: How did Rome fall apart? What did people at the time think were the
reasons, and what do modern-day sources think? What were some ways in which Romans
dealt with the decline?

7) The post-Roman world: Who dominated it, and how did they try to fill the gap left by
the Empire? In what ways did “Roman” ideas or institutions continue, post-500?

8) The encounter between Christianity and Islam: How and where did it happen? What
are the main military, cultural and religious encounters?

9) The rise and fall of feudalism as a governing system: How does feudalism work?
What factors led to its rise in medieval Europe, and then to its decline? What kind of
system(s) replaced it?

Egyptians                      Visigoths                     Arabs
Greeks                         Huns                          Seljuk Turks
Romans                         Franks                        Holy Roman Empire
Carthaginians                  Byzantines

About these civilizations, you ought to know something about:
       “Where”: areas where they started from, and important areas where they ended
up. For example, if you are asked about the Visigoths, you should know that they came
from Denmark/northern Germany and that they ended up with a kingdom in Spain.
       “Who”: The name(s) of a few key leaders of these civilizations, and why these
people are famous.
       “What and Why”: What did they do? What events did they participate in that
make them significant to our understanding of Mediterranean or European culture?

Obviously some civilizations are more significant, and, based on the course materials,
you should have more things to say about them than others. The Romans are a good

Dates: There a lot more important events that will be testable, but these are the ones
where as close to exact dates are necessary. For the other ones, getting within 5-10 years
of the date will be fine.

10,000 BCE:      Start of the “New Stone Age”
3000 BCE:        Start of the “Bronze Age”
509 BCE:         Beginning of Roman Republic
479 BCE:         End of Persian Wars with the Greeks
404 BCE:         End of Peloponnesian Wars
323 BCE:         Alexander the Great becomes King of Hellenistic Greece
146 BCE:         End of Punic Wars; destruction of Carthage
44 BCE:          Assassination of Julius Caesar
31 BCE:          End of Second Roman Civil War; Octavian becomes “princeps”
4 BCE:           Approximate date for birth of Jesus of Nazareth
29 BCE:          Approximate date for crucifixion of Jesus of Nazareth
313 BCE:         Edict of Milan; Christianity gets “friendly support” of Roman emperors
410 CE:          Sack of Rome by Visigoths under Alaric
476 CE:          Last Western Roman emperor overthrown by Goths; “Fall of Rome”
622 CE:          Muhammad’s flight (Hegira) from Mecca
732 CE:          Battle of Tours: Franks stop Muslim advance into Europe
800 CE:          Charlemagne crowned “Emperor of the West” by Pope
1054 CE:         Division (Schism) between Eastern and Western Christianity
1066 CE:         Battle of Hastings; Normans defeats Anglo-Saxons for English crown
1095 CE:         Pope Urban III calls for the First Crusade
People: These are the most important people I can think of for you to study, but if in
writing an essay, you want to mention others that are relevant, then that’s fine.

For these individuals, you should know:
       “Where” they are from or what civilization/tribe they belong to;
       “When”: about what time period they lived in (either a century or an era, like
ancient or medieval);
       “What” they did that’s important enough to appear on this midterm.

Greeks:        Socrates                      Christians:    Jesus of Nazareth
               Plato                                        St. Peter
               Aristotle                                    St. Paul
               Philip of Macedonia                          Pope Leo I
               Alexander the Great                          St. Augustine of Hippo
Romans:        The Gracchi Brothers          Germans:       Alaric
               Pompey                        Franks/        Clovis
               Julius Caesar                                Charles Martel
               Mark Antony                                  Charlemagne
               Octavian “Augustus”           Britons:       King Arthur
               Ovid                          Muslims:       Muhammad
               Diocletian                                   Abu Bakr

Vocabulary: Taken from the list “Key Terms to Remember” that I’ve been giving you in
Power Point form since the class started.

There isn’t a separate section on the exam for definition of vocabulary, but you should
study what these terms mean in case they appear in one of the other types of questions.
For example, I might put a definition of a term in the True-False section, and to know if
it’s true or false, you’ll have to have studied what it means.

Polytheism                    Plebeian                      Heresy
Monotheism                    Imperator                     Five Pillars of Islam
Polis                         Pax Romana                    Jihad
Hellenistic                   Orthodox                      Vassal
Patrician                     Iconoclasm                    Chivalry

Map Exercise: Using maps from the textbook and from any other sources, study where
the following 10 tags go on a map. On the exam, you will see a blank map (with dots
marked off for cities). Please place the tags in their correct place on the exam map.

For cities, you should try to place them with some accuracy.
--For example, Rome should be placed in the middle of Italy, although just getting it in
Italy at all will count for something.

But with regions, anywhere within the boundaries of the region will be okay.

--For example, Holy Roman Empire can go pretty much anywhere in central Europe and
still count. However, putting it in Russia or Turkey won’t count.

Carthage (city)               Franks                         Seljuk Turks
Constantinople (city)         Holy Roman Empire              Sparta (city)
Egypt                         Rome (city)                    Visigoths

** Also: Please circle the geographic area where all the Germanic tribes originated. **

Please note: The “Holy Roman Empire” is not the same as the “Roman Empire.”

Essay Questions: From this list of five, I will pick THREE questions to put on the test,
and you will have to answer TWO of them.

1) Compare and contrast the ways that the ancient Greek poleis and the ancient Roman
Republic were governed. Who played which role(s) in the government? Which groups
had the most power? Which one do you think was the most “democratic”?

2) What were the tensions that led to the end of the Roman Republic and the beginning of
the Roman Empire? In your opinion, how much were these tensions caused or made
worse by the actions of important individuals?

3) Given that Rome was the dominant military, culture and economic power in the known
world for the first three centuries CE, why did it fall so spectacularly in the fourth and
fifth centuries? Analyze social, cultural and political reasons for Rome’s decline and fall.

4) Though it began humbly as an obscure sect of Judaism, the Catholic Church had
grown to become arguably the dominant force in medieval society. How do you account
for this dominance? Cite any and all developments in the early Church’s history that you
think are helpful in arguing your points.

5) Compare and contrast medieval Christianity with Islam. What did each religion
believe? What was the impact of each on the societies where they spread, and how
successful each was at accomplishing its goals? Be sure to point out similarities as well
as differences, where they exist.

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