Western Civilization I Midterm Exam Review Sheet Test Breakdown: 1. 13 True-False questions (2 points each) 26 points 2. 12 Multiple-Choices questions (2 points each) 24 points 3. Map Exercise with 10 tags (2 points each) 20 points 4. 2 Essays (15 points each) 30 points 100 points total Major Storylines of Western Civ: 1) The development of religion: How do people’s ideas of their relationship to the natural and supernatural change over time? Which beliefs are discarded, and what rises to replace them? 2) The Greek polis system: How did it develop and what was the system’s structure? How did it come to an end, and what did people think about it? 3) Greek and/or Hellenistic culture: What are some major aspects of it, how did it spread, and who borrowed from it in their own cultures? 4) Roman expansion: How did Rome go from being a tiny Italian village to the major world power? Where and how did it grow, and what did Romans think about it? 5) The rise of Christianity: How did Christianity become a Europe-wide religion that served as a replacement for the Roman Empire? How did the relationship between the Empire and the Christian Church change over time? 6) Roman decline: How did Rome fall apart? What did people at the time think were the reasons, and what do modern-day sources think? What were some ways in which Romans dealt with the decline? 7) The post-Roman world: Who dominated it, and how did they try to fill the gap left by the Empire? In what ways did “Roman” ideas or institutions continue, post-500? 8) The encounter between Christianity and Islam: How and where did it happen? What are the main military, cultural and religious encounters? 9) The rise and fall of feudalism as a governing system: How does feudalism work? What factors led to its rise in medieval Europe, and then to its decline? What kind of system(s) replaced it? Civilizations: Egyptians Visigoths Arabs Greeks Huns Seljuk Turks Romans Franks Holy Roman Empire Carthaginians Byzantines About these civilizations, you ought to know something about: “Where”: areas where they started from, and important areas where they ended up. For example, if you are asked about the Visigoths, you should know that they came from Denmark/northern Germany and that they ended up with a kingdom in Spain. “Who”: The name(s) of a few key leaders of these civilizations, and why these people are famous. “What and Why”: What did they do? What events did they participate in that make them significant to our understanding of Mediterranean or European culture? Obviously some civilizations are more significant, and, based on the course materials, you should have more things to say about them than others. The Romans are a good example. Dates: There a lot more important events that will be testable, but these are the ones where as close to exact dates are necessary. For the other ones, getting within 5-10 years of the date will be fine. 10,000 BCE: Start of the “New Stone Age” 3000 BCE: Start of the “Bronze Age” 509 BCE: Beginning of Roman Republic 479 BCE: End of Persian Wars with the Greeks 404 BCE: End of Peloponnesian Wars 323 BCE: Alexander the Great becomes King of Hellenistic Greece 146 BCE: End of Punic Wars; destruction of Carthage 44 BCE: Assassination of Julius Caesar 31 BCE: End of Second Roman Civil War; Octavian becomes “princeps” 4 BCE: Approximate date for birth of Jesus of Nazareth 29 BCE: Approximate date for crucifixion of Jesus of Nazareth 313 BCE: Edict of Milan; Christianity gets “friendly support” of Roman emperors 410 CE: Sack of Rome by Visigoths under Alaric 476 CE: Last Western Roman emperor overthrown by Goths; “Fall of Rome” 622 CE: Muhammad’s flight (Hegira) from Mecca 732 CE: Battle of Tours: Franks stop Muslim advance into Europe 800 CE: Charlemagne crowned “Emperor of the West” by Pope 1054 CE: Division (Schism) between Eastern and Western Christianity 1066 CE: Battle of Hastings; Normans defeats Anglo-Saxons for English crown 1095 CE: Pope Urban III calls for the First Crusade People: These are the most important people I can think of for you to study, but if in writing an essay, you want to mention others that are relevant, then that’s fine. For these individuals, you should know: “Where” they are from or what civilization/tribe they belong to; “When”: about what time period they lived in (either a century or an era, like ancient or medieval); “What” they did that’s important enough to appear on this midterm. Greeks: Socrates Christians: Jesus of Nazareth Plato St. Peter Aristotle St. Paul Philip of Macedonia Pope Leo I Alexander the Great St. Augustine of Hippo Romans: The Gracchi Brothers Germans: Alaric Pompey Franks/ Clovis Julius Caesar Charles Martel Mark Antony Charlemagne Octavian “Augustus” Britons: King Arthur Ovid Muslims: Muhammad Diocletian Abu Bakr Constantine Vocabulary: Taken from the list “Key Terms to Remember” that I’ve been giving you in Power Point form since the class started. There isn’t a separate section on the exam for definition of vocabulary, but you should study what these terms mean in case they appear in one of the other types of questions. For example, I might put a definition of a term in the True-False section, and to know if it’s true or false, you’ll have to have studied what it means. Polytheism Plebeian Heresy Monotheism Imperator Five Pillars of Islam Polis Pax Romana Jihad Hellenistic Orthodox Vassal Patrician Iconoclasm Chivalry Map Exercise: Using maps from the textbook and from any other sources, study where the following 10 tags go on a map. On the exam, you will see a blank map (with dots marked off for cities). Please place the tags in their correct place on the exam map. For cities, you should try to place them with some accuracy. --For example, Rome should be placed in the middle of Italy, although just getting it in Italy at all will count for something. But with regions, anywhere within the boundaries of the region will be okay. --For example, Holy Roman Empire can go pretty much anywhere in central Europe and still count. However, putting it in Russia or Turkey won’t count. Carthage (city) Franks Seljuk Turks Constantinople (city) Holy Roman Empire Sparta (city) Egypt Rome (city) Visigoths ** Also: Please circle the geographic area where all the Germanic tribes originated. ** Please note: The “Holy Roman Empire” is not the same as the “Roman Empire.” Essay Questions: From this list of five, I will pick THREE questions to put on the test, and you will have to answer TWO of them. 1) Compare and contrast the ways that the ancient Greek poleis and the ancient Roman Republic were governed. Who played which role(s) in the government? Which groups had the most power? Which one do you think was the most “democratic”? 2) What were the tensions that led to the end of the Roman Republic and the beginning of the Roman Empire? In your opinion, how much were these tensions caused or made worse by the actions of important individuals? 3) Given that Rome was the dominant military, culture and economic power in the known world for the first three centuries CE, why did it fall so spectacularly in the fourth and fifth centuries? Analyze social, cultural and political reasons for Rome’s decline and fall. 4) Though it began humbly as an obscure sect of Judaism, the Catholic Church had grown to become arguably the dominant force in medieval society. How do you account for this dominance? Cite any and all developments in the early Church’s history that you think are helpful in arguing your points. 5) Compare and contrast medieval Christianity with Islam. What did each religion believe? What was the impact of each on the societies where they spread, and how successful each was at accomplishing its goals? Be sure to point out similarities as well as differences, where they exist.
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