Foot and mouth disease _38814 by heku

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									?Papule, checking, cases, vomiting, the maximum




?Foot and mouth disease

?

    Foot and mouth disease (Hand, foot and mouth disease, HFMD) is
caused by enteroviruses, many infectious diseases occur in infants
and young children, can cause the hand, foot, oral herpes, and
individual patients may cause myocarditis, pulmonary edema, aseptic
meningitis and other complications. Foot and mouth disease caused by
enteroviruses are 20 (type), A group of Coxsackie virus 16, 4, 5, 9,
10, B-group 5-2, as well as the enterovirus 71-foot-mouth disease
are more common pathogens, with Coxsackievirus A16 (Cox A16) and
enterovirus 71 (EV-71). Beijing 306 hospital paediatric Zhang
    The disease has an incubation period of 2 to 7 days of infection
including patients and covert infections. During a pandemic, the
patient is a major source of infection. Patients in the acute phase
of illness may be excreted from the pharynx; herpes virus in broth
with a large number of virus, when combined with the virus after
overflow; disease for several weeks, patients still excreted in
feces can ever since.
    The disease spread through the crowd, in close contact with the
media. Virus via saliva, herpes fluid, excreta and other pollution,
hand towels, handkerchiefs, teeth, glass, toys, food, milk products,
as well as bed linen and underwear cause indirect contact; patients
with sore throat secretions and saliva of viruses via droplets;
contact with contaminated water through water infection; cross-
infection and out-patient dental instrument disinfection failed is
one of the causes of the spread.
    The crowd on foot and mouth disease caused by enteroviruses
generally susceptible to infection can get immunity. Due to the
different type of pathogen infections after the antibody lack cross-
protection force, so the crowd can be repeated infections. Most
adults have been infected through implicit obtaining the appropriate
antibody, foot and mouth disease in patients mainly for preschool
children, in particular the ≤ 3-year-old age group had the highest
incidence. According to foreign literature reported that every 2 ~ 3
years you can pop in the crowd.
    Foot and mouth disease widely distributed, no obvious regional;
the four seasons can be illness, summer and autumn. The disease
usually after an outbreak occur sporadically in; during a pandemic,
kindergarten and nursery prone to infection, family or group can
occur aggregation phenomena of onset. The disease is contagious and
strong, complex, and within a short period of time could cause a
pandemic.
   4 clinical manifestations

4.1 typical case: the incubation period is usually 2 to 7 days,
there is no obvious prodrome, most patient suddenly afford medical
treatment. About half of the patient prior to the onset of 1-2 days
of onset of fever, mostly in 38 ℃, 2 ~ 3 days, a small number of
patients more than 3 to 4 days. Have central nervous system
complications of almost all have a fever, and lasted for a long time.
Some patients have mild sense on the early symptoms, such as cough,
tears, nausea, vomiting, and so on. Because of the pain of oral
mucosal ulcers, children have antifeedant salivation. Oral mucous
membrane eruption appeared earlier, mainly located in the tongue and
cheek, wanna be prevalent for side also. Hand, foot, and so far the
spot papules or herpes. Spot 5 days in a papule is dimmed, then fade;
Herpes round or flat oval raised, there are cloudy liquid, aspect
and the skin texture to consistency, as the size of the bean. Foot
and distal parts of the leaf papules and herpes pain-free and in
General, the more it is. In the same patient hand, foot and mouth
disease is not necessarily all appear.

4.2 atypical, dissemination of case: rash only in a body part, spot
papule or Herpes sparse and atypical, it is often difficult and rash
and fever disease, etiologic and serum tests.

4.3 complications: some may be combined with myocarditis and
encephalitis, meningitis, remittent palsy, pulmonary edema, and so
on, but to aseptic meningitis, myocarditis.

5 laboratory

5.1 blood tests of the total number of cells generally normal or
higher, the higher classification when lymphocytes, neutrophils are
low.

5.2 with neurological complications, CSF cell number may increase in
protein.

5.3 after faecal, throat gargle separation or related viruses
detected.

5.4 Herpes from cerebrospinal fluid or liquid separation or related
viruses detected.

5.5 from early detection in serum IgM antibodies associated viruses.

5.6 neutralizing antibody in convalescent serum than acute period ≥
4 x increase.



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?Papule, checking, cases, vomiting, the maximum

								
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