TRUST by pengxiang



Presentation by the Uniting Church in Australia
                            Queensland Synod
                                     July 2010

You may be deceived if you trust too much,
but you will live in torment if you do not
trust enough.

                Frank Crane
The Importance of Trust

   The need for trust arises from risk.

   Trust is essential for the development of
    and growth of relationships at an individual,
    group, church and country level.

   Individuals who trust more report having a
    better quality of life, including better health
    (physical and mental), longer longevity and
    lower mortality
The Importance of Trust

   The more trust there is between members of the group, the better
    functioning the group is.

   In societies where trust is limited to the nuclear family or kinship
    alone, people have lower levels of social capital and civic

   Overall, Nordic countries are substantially more trusting than other
    countries, as are countries with monarchies, while the populations in
    countries with a communist past are less trusting.

   Trust is found to be positively correlated to greater investment and
    grow per captia, resulting in greater overall individual wealth as
    measured by annual income.
The Importance of Trust

   54% of the Australian People surveyed strongly believe that most
    people can be trusted.

   30% of the Australian People surveyed strongly believe that most
    people cannot be trusted.

   The older a person gets, the more likely they are to believe that
    most people can be trusted.
   88.5% of the Australian People surveyed strongly believe that most
    doctors can be trusted

   76% of the Australian People surveyed strongly believe that most
    police can be trusted

   68.5% of the Australian People surveyed strongly believe that most
    hospitals can be trusted
Objectives of Presentation

   For persons to gain a            greater
    understanding of what trust is

   To explore what issues may be affecting
    the trust levels within the Group.

   To develop actions and strategies to
    further develop trust within the Group.
Topics Covered

   Introduction
   What is Trust?
   Religion & Trust
   Trust & Distrust
   Appropriate Trust
   Developing & Maintaining Trust
   Blocks to Developing Trust
   Breaking Trust
   Regaining Trust
   Conclusion
                       WHAT IS TRUST?

As soon as you trust yourself, you will know how to live.

          Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Faust
        German dramatist, novelist, poet, & scientist
                     (1749 - 1832)
              Activity 1 – What is Trust?
                  (10 minutes) (p4)
The purpose of this activity is for individuals to explore what trust
 means to them. Key questions to think about are:

 What  does trust mean to you?
 What beliefs and thoughts do you have about trust? (e.g. trust
  can only be earned, all non-Christians are untrustworthy, you
  can always trust your family)
 What behaviours are associated with trust for you?

 How do you know when you trust someone?

 How do you know when someone trusts you?
Refer to Handout p 4
     Model of Trust in Relationships (HO p4)
                           X trusts Y to do Z

Where :

X is the trustor – the one who trusts
Y is the trustee – one whom trust in is bestowed
Z is the object of the trust

Based on the following circumstances:

There is an ambiguous course for the future
The outcomes are dependent on the behaviour of others
The strength of a harmful event is greater than the beneficial event
    Refer to Handout p 4
       Lewicki & Banks, 1996) (HO p5)

    A few Relationship- Trust based common values, commitment &       L
                  Most Relationships- Trust based knowledge of past
                  experiences person is trustworthy
       Some relationships / New Relationships - Trust based Risk      S
       Calculations                                                   T

Trustee Behaviour which Enhances Trust
               (HO p6)


   Competence                 Reliability


   Openness                   Integrity


                 Consistency – the person will behave in
                  a manner which is the same across time
                  and meets expectations about behaviour

                 Accountability – the person is willing to
                  take responsibility for actions and to
                  make corrections as required.
Competence & Benevolence
 Requires the person to have the necessary knowledge, skill and / or
  competency to perform in the manner which is expected

 The trusted person is concerned
  enough about the interests of the
  other to either advance the interest
  or at least not impede them
   The person will engage in the behaviour, action etc which is
    consistent with code of ethics or a set of values.

   Congruence between the person’s word
    and deed.

   Based on consistency of past actions,
    credibility of communication,
    commitment of standards of fairness

             A component is the person’s reputation.

             The degree to which a person can be
              counted upon to represent a situation fairly.
   How freely a person shares information, ideas, thoughts, feeling,
    resources and reactions with another

   A willingness to be vulnerable
 Activity 2 - How Much do I Trust The Other
People in My Group ? How Trustworthy Am I?
                 (15 Minutes)
                    HO p7
         Refer to Handout p 8
                  RELIGION & TRUST

Really listening and suspending one's own
judgment is necessary in order to understand
other people on their own terms... This is a
process that requires trust and builds trust.

             Mary Field Belenky
  Activity 2 – How much Trust is within your
          Congregation? (10 minutes)
From your own perspective how would you currently rate the degree of
trust which exits between:

Congregational  members overall?
Congregational members and the leaders of the Church?

Congregational members and the Minister?

Leaders of the Church and the Minister?

Participants are to first think about how they would rate the degree of
trust using the scale in the hand book.

Optional - Participants are to physically place themselves on a
continuum on the floor of the training area.
Research Findings
   Person who attend church regularly (once a
    week) trust others slightly more than people
    who did not attend church. However, who
    the regular church attendees trusts depends
    on the denomination itself.

   Membership within liberal churches is
    associated with greater trust levels in general
    both within and external to the church

   Membership within fundamental churches is
    associated with lower trust levels with people
    external to the congregation but greater trust
    within the congregation
   Regardless        of       denomination,
    increased church attendance results
    in greater levels of trust.

   Perceptions of servant leadership
    correlated positively with both leader
    trust and congregational trust.

   Churches perceived as servant-led
    exhibited higher levels of both leader
    trust and congregational trust than
    churches perceived as non-servant-
Factors which contribute to Trust within

   Modest size of congregation making it
    easier for people to interact and to get
    to know one another.

   The sharing of sets of basic religious
    and moral beliefs that held in common
    by virtue of people’s membership in
    the congregation.
   Many       congregations   are   also
    characterized      by    ethnic    or
    socioeconomic homogeneity.       The
    greater this homogeneity, the greater
    the trust levels

   Low      levels of  turnover    in
    congregation membership results in
    greater trust
These characteristics result in

1.   The fostering of a relatively high level of value consensus and
     attitude similarity among most members.
2.   The promotion a longstanding familiarity among members,
3.   A high level of predictability on interactions within the group

all of which contribute to the development of trust.
         Activity 4 – Trust and the Group
                    (15 minutes)
The purpose of this activity is for the training group to explore what trust
    means its members. The key questions are:

1.   How does the group know when there is trust among the

2.   What behaviours, beliefs, attitudes and emotions are displayed
     which indicate that trust exist between members?

3.   What group characteristics contribute towards the development of
     trust amongst its members?
                   TRUST & DISTRUST

But thus do I counsel you, my friends:
distrust all in whom the impulse to punish
is powerful!

            Friedrich Nietzsche,
     Also Sprach Zarathustra, Chapter 29
      German philosopher (1844 - 1900)
   It is possible to both trust and distrust a
    person simultaneously.

   A person may trust another in a set of
    circumstances but distrust them in other.

   Distrust and trust are therefore not
    opposite along a continuum but two
    different concepts.

   Distrust may be defined as ―…the
    expectation     of   harmful    behaviour,
    specifically where such expectation can be
    justified by some evidence.‖ (Cofta, 2006,
    p 251)
     Factors which create Distrust (Cofta,
              2006) (HO p11)
   Continuity – The person(s) continues to engage in a manner which
    is contrary to what is considered acceptable to the other person.

   Competence – The person has displayed the competency to engage
    in behaviour which is harmful to the other person.

   Motivation – The person has the motivation or desire top engage in
    behaviours which are harmful to the other person.
 Lewicki, R J; McAllister, D J & Bies, R J
 (1998) (HO p 12)
                          •High Value Congruence          •Trust but verify
High Trust – hope,        •Interdependence Promoted       •Relationships highly
faith, confidence,        •Opportunities Pursued          segmented & bound
assurance, initiative     •New Initiatives                •Opportunities pursued & down
                                                          side / risks constantly monitored
                         •Casual Acquaintances            •Undesired eventualities
                         •Limited Interdependence         expected & feared             3
Low Trust – no hope,
                         •Bounded arms length             •Harmful motives assumed
no faith, no confidence,
                         interactions                     •Interdependent managed
passivity, hesitancy
                         •Professional Courtesy           •Pre-emption – best offence is a
                                                          good defence
                                                     1    •Paranoia
                        Low Distrust – No fear, absence   High Distrust – fear, scepticism,
                        of scepticism & cynicism, low     Cynicism, wariness, vigilance
                        monitoring, no vigilance          watchfulness
According to Lewicki et al (1998) people's interactions start off in cell 1
– little trust and little distrust. The persons involved have not had
sufficient interactions to determine the degree of trust / distrust which is

Over time, depending on the interactions, they may move to one of the
3 other cells.

For Cell 2, there is high trust and minimal distrust. Any violations of
trust are minimized and there is attempt to work through the issues.
For Cell 3, there is minimal trust and high
distrust resulting in a difficult relationship
where people tend to avoid one another. If
they do have contact, there will be
considerable monitoring of the other
behaviours in an attempt to pre-empt actions
which might be harmful.

For Cell 4, individuals have high trust in
another under certain circumstances but
distrust them in others.
              Activity 5 – Trust & Distrust
                 (5 minutes) (HO p12)
Think of two (2) or three (3) members of your family or close friends.

   What are some circumstances in which you have complete trust in

   What are the times in which you know that they are less trustworthy
    or that you would distrust them?

Relationships of trust depend on our
willingness to look not only to our own
interests, but also the interests of others.

              Peter Farquharson
Trust & Risk
   Trust involves risk.

   It involves exposing one’s self to
    another person.

   Further, you can never fully know
    another person, so therefore there
    is always the possibility of being
    hurt by another after exposing
    one’s self
Appropriate Levels of Trust
   Appropriate trust involves a reasonable attempt to gain information
    about another and assess its accuracy.

   Trust needs to be appropriate – Never trusting and always trusting
    are inappropriate.

   Appropriate levels of trust should
    be appropriate to the context and
    may range from complete trust to
    not trusting at all.
Appropriate Trust Example from Hill
In many areas of the country, you will find items for sale along the
road—fresh fruit and vegetables, honey, jams and jellies, cut flowers,
etc. Many of the individuals offering these items for sale are not in fact
monitoring their tables. A stand with very large quantities of goods for
sale is often monitored but a stand with a small quantity of goods may
well be left unattended. Interestingly, even those farmers and
beekeepers willing to trade on an honour system take steps to protect
their proceeds. A jar of jelly can be easily swiped, but the cashbox
typically has a very narrow slit that prevents the money from being
taken out. Moreover, that box is often affixed to the table or stand to
prevent easy theft. These farmers and beekeepers are acting in ways
that indicate that neither complete trust nor complete distrust would
serve their interests.
Appropriate trust occurs when a person
    has determined that:

1.   The other person will behave in a
     way which will be beneficial rather
     than harmful, and / or

2.   The other person will not exploit his
     or her vulnerability
            TRUST (HO p 14)
Once upon a time a man whose axe was missing
suspected his neighbour’s son. The boy walked like
a thief, looked like a thief and spoke like a thief.

But the man found his axe while digging in the
valley, and the next time he saw his neighbour’s
son, the boy walked, looked and spoke like any
other child.

                  (604 – 531 BC
Diagram – Factors which result in Level
of Trust in Others (Jeffries, 2002)

   Dispositional         Trust Level of
      Trust                  Other

   Perception of
   Subjective Norms – The situational
    parameters in which the trust occurs

   Perception of Others’ Behaviours –
    The history of interaction which has
    occurred between the trustee and
    trustor involved.

   Dispositional Trust – The degree to
    which a person is generally trusting of
Depositional Trust Levin, D Z; Cross, R
& Abrams, L C (2002) p 13
“Definitionally, a person has dispositional trust if s/he has a consistent
tendency to trust across a broad spectrum of situations and persons.

There are two types of reasoning that underly dispositional trust.

The first is that one assumes that others are generally trustworthy
people--hence, one should usually trust others.

The second is that one assumes that irrespective of whether people
are good or not, one will obtain better outcomes by trusting them--
hence, one should trust them.”
  Activity 5 : How Trusting Are You?
              (20 minutes)

Complete Questionnaire – How Trusting are You?


           SCORES              PERCE
     MEN              WOMEN
OT   ET      RE     RE    ET
81   63      45     63    54    85
77   57      41     61    53    70
69   50      36     56    49    50
61   43      31     51    45    30
54   37      26     46    41    15
    Situational Factors
   The degree of interdependence between the people involved.
    Interdependence refers to the degree to which the completion of an
    activity, task etc is dependent on the activities of a number of persons.
    The greater the interdependence, the more likely people are to trust
    one another.

   Homophily – The more a person is demographically perceived as
    similar the more likely a person is to trust them until proven otherwise.
   Commonality of interests – Generally,
    the greater the similarity of interests
    and set goals, the greater the trust
    between individuals.

   Social Norms – Social norms dictate
    how a person should be behave in a
    situation. People will generally trust
    that others will behave in the
    expected manner.
   Culture – Different cultures have inherently different trust levels.
    The culture of the United States is considered more open and
    trusting than of the French who are perceived as viewing others as
    distrustful until proven otherwise.

    The Japanese depend more on assurance relations than Americans,
    while Americans rely more on general trust.

    White non-Southerners of the US have higher levels of general trust
    than (white) Southerners.
   Group membership – People who have in
    common a group membership tend to trust
    each other more than people who do not
    belong to the same group.

   Power of the respective parties – A more
    powerful party does not have a trust a less
    powerful party as they have the resources to
   ―punish‖ if the other group do not comply.

    A less powerful party has to ‖trust‖ that the more powerful party will
    not abuse its power. However, the less powerful party is less trusting
    of the more powerful party because of the fear of punishment.
Other factors which Contribute to the
Development of Trust
   Time – The general expectation is that as time evolves so does the
    degree of trust.

   Mood of the person – Generally, the expectation is that if events
    which have high negative emotional content occurring when a
    relationship is developing, the level of trust which develops will be
   World View – The degree to which
    a person sees the world as safe
    and friendly versus unsafe and
    unfriendly. Generally, the more a
    person sees the world as safe and
    friendly, the greater the level of
    trust the person has of others

   Communication Skills
Communication Skills
   Active Listening
   Listening with an open heart and mind
   Allowing the speaker to finish his/her thoughts and sentences, even
    when we feel impatient to speak
   Accepting that the speaker feels what he/she feels, no matter what
    we think, and refraining from ―correcting‖
   The speaker’s feelings
   Listening with no agenda other than to
    be a sounding board for someone who
    needs to speak
   Imagining that we are speaking and
    listening to ourselves
   Listening without trying to solve/fix a
    problem, unless feedback or advice is
Trust Rules
   To build a relationship, 2 people need to establish a mutually
    acceptable level of trust.

   To maintain the trust, need to adhere to the trust rules that are
    explicit and implicit.

   Relationships develop trust rules.

   Issues with rules of trust
     Who sets the rules?

     How realistic are the rules

     What is the role of conscious?
         Activity 7 – Exploring Trust Rules
              (10 minutes) (HO p16)
In small groups for 5 minutes, discuss the following questions:

 What are some of the implicit and explicit rules associated with
  developing trust?
 Do they differ from situation to situation?

 Does the gender of the people involve affect the rules.

After the 5 minutes, come back together for a whole of group
Developing Trust – Self Understanding

To enable trust to develop, a person needs to be able to disclose him
   or herself to others. This involves:

   Being aware of who you are.
   Accepting who you .
   Be willing to disclose personal information.
   Being aware that the disclose is a
   Being prepared to deal with the
    negative consequences (ridicule,
    rejection) of the risk.
Covey (2001) suggests activities to develop self trust should include:

   Clarifying for yourself why you are doing something. Are your
    intentions pure?

   ―Listening‖ to your thoughts. Are they pre-programmed or are they
    your own, based on your own experience?

   Trusting your inner wisdom. Listen
    to your ―voice‖ inside yourself.
Other Activities to Develop Trust
   Acceptance of the other person.

   Support the other person by recognising
    that he or she has the strengths and
    competencies to deal with the situation
    they are in.

   Cooperation, not competition.

   Reciprocating the other person’s self disclosure.

   Maintaining confidentiality.
   Being trust worthy ie Not using the
    information provided by the person to
    harm or disadvantage them.

   Sharing control, engaging in
    collaboration and joint decision

   Acting consistently and

   Communicate effectively and ensure
    message sent is consistent.
   Do what is right regardless of the
    personal risk.

   Develop shared goals and visions.

   Create a common language and
    meaning by discussing concepts and

   Clarify what behaviours are
    considered trusting and what will
    break down trust.

   Actively listen to others.
          Refer to Handout p 17
                 (HO p17)
     Activity 8 – Actions which Develop Trust
                   (30 minutes)
1.   Divide into groups of 3 to 5 persons.

2.   Discuss together what are the most important things persons can
     do to develop trust within the Elders Group. Develop a list of 10
     top things to develop trust.

3.   Share the results of the discussions cross the groups.

4.   As a whole, determine the 10 most important things people can do
     to develop trust within your situation.
Blocks to Developing Trust
The most valuable things in life are not
measured in monetary terms. The really
important things are not houses and lands,
stocks and bonds, automobiles and real state,
but friendships, trust, confidence, empathy,
mercy, love and faith.

           Bertrand Russell V. Delong
   Act and speak inconsistently

   Seek personal gain rather than shared

   Withhold information

   Lie or tell half truths

   Be closed minded.

   Acts more concerned about own
    welfare than anything else
   Avoids taking responsibility for
    actions – passes the buck, blames
    others and makes excuses

   Suspicion of another’s motivation
            Activity 9: Overcoming Blocks
               (20 minutes) (HO p 19)
1.   Divide into groups of 3 to 5 persons.

2.   Discuss together, what are some of the blocks which exist within
     the Group which might be preventing trust from developing.
     Determine what action(s) could overcome the blocks to
     developing trust.

3.   Share the results of the discussions cross the groups.

4.   As a whole, the group determines what are the key action(s) can
     be implemented overcome the blocks to developing trust within
     the Group.
                       BREAKING TRUST

The only way to make a man trustworthy is to trust him.

                    Henry Stimson
               US politician (1867 - 1950)
When trust violations occur, not only is trust reduced but the person
experiences emotionally distress.

The person feels betrayed and hurt.

The hurt in turn can result in anger.

Feelings of hurt and anger may result
in the person displaying behaviours
of revenge.

If the breach of trust was seen as outside
of the control of the individual, then forgiveness
and re-establishment of trust is more likely.
Revenge is more likely to occur if the person perceives that the other
individual deliberately acted in a manner which breached the trust.
Violation severity will be dependent upon:

1.   Magnitude of the offence – refers to the
     seriousness of the consequence incurred
     by the person whose trust was breached.

2.   Number of prior violations –

3.   Specific dimension of trust that was
When trust is broken, 3 options:

   Consider the breach of trust will lead to
    the end of the relationship.

   Deal with the breach, work through the
    issues and repair the relationship.

   Activate inappropriate reactions such as
    persistent and angry blaming which
    weakens the relationship and may
    contribute to the eventual dissolution of
    it or a pattern of feuding.
Behaviours which decrease trust include:

   Rejecting, ridiculing or disrespecting
    a person in response to a person’s

   Not reciprocating openness

   Refusing to disclose thoughts, information, feeling and reactions
    after the other person has indicated acceptance, support and co-

   Reacting in a competitive manner after other person has indicated
    acceptance, support and co-operation
   Exploiting another’s vulnerability

   Being dishonest,      inconsistent     and

   Blaming others      instead    of    being

   Not following through         on     stated
    behaviours or actions

   Not meeting expectations
          Activity 10 – Breaking Trust
             (5 minutes) (HO p 21)

 In general, what actions would result in you going from
            trusting to not trusting someone?

 Within the context of the Group, what actions would result
in you going from trusting to not trusting another member?
            Refer to Handout p 21
                REGAINING TRUST

Trust men and they will be true to you; treat
them greatly, and they will show themselves

          Ralph Waldo Emerson,
     Essays, First Series: Prudence, 1841
      US essayist & poet (1803 - 1882)
Refer to Handout p 21
Process for Regaining Trust (Lewicki &
Tomlinson, 2003)
               No                      Deterioration

  Trust      Willing to
Violation   Reconcile?

                            Trust                 Trust
                          Restoring             Restoration
           Activity 11 – Establishing Trust
                     (5 minutes)
Think of specific time when you tired to re-establish trust between
   yourself and someone else.

   How do you go about that?

   What was successful and unsuccessful?

   What would you have done differently on reflection?
6 Steps to Restoring Trust (Hilton, 2006)

1.   Observe and acknowledge the events which have contributed to the
     breakdown of trust and resulting hurt.

2.   Allow the feelings to surface without negative outcomes for the

3.   Create a structure of support to
     assist people to work from being
     hurt to constructively re-building trust.

4.   Reframe the experience to one of
     opportunity rather than loss.
5.   Persons take responsibility to rebuild the trust, looking at solutions
     and implementing them.

6.   Forgiveness which involves letting go of the burden of hurt and
     moving on.
   Refer to Handout p 23
     Activity 12 – Developing a Process for
        Re-Establishing Trust (40 mins)
1.   Within your small group, think of actions and detail them in a
     process where trust could be re-established trust (if it was broken)
     amongst the group members.

2.   Share the results of the discussions across the groups.

3.   As a whole, determine the important things and the processes
     people can do to re-establish trust within your situation.

Sometimes the measure of friendship isn't your
ability to not harm but your capacity to forgive the
things done to you and ask forgiveness for your
own mistakes.

                Randy K. Milholland,
          Something Positive Comic, 11-07-05
                  Webcomic pioneer
 Review objectives of the training session to determine if
  they have been achieved.

 Provide group with the Evaluation Form to obtain
  feedback on the session.

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