Blood Clotting Anna-Lisa Taylor Amy Hypnarowski Vet Science 229 Cal Poly, San Luis Obispo Blood – “Fluid of Life” • Blood is: – Connective, liquid tissue • General Function – Transportation of Oxygen – White blood cells used in immune system – Deliver’s nutrients to organs and tissues – Removes waste – Carries hormones – Regulates pH and iron composition of interstitial fluids • pH must remain between 6.8-7.4 or cells will be destroyed – Maintains acid/base metabolism Blood Composition • Blood is composed of: – Red Blood Cells (RBCs) or erythrocytes – Platelets or thrombocytes – White blood cells or leukocytes – Plasma Platelets • A major factor in blood clotting. • Colorless, irregularly shaped cell fragments with a sticky surface. • Made in the bone marrow. Blood Clotting • Blood clotting is a instantaneous response by the body to repair a torn blood vessel. • 4 components of blood clotting: – Platelets – Clotting Factors (specialized proteins) – Fibrin (protein mesh) – Other cells (red/white blood cells) Four Step Clotting Process - Extrinsic Pathway 1. Vascular Constriction 2. “Platelet Plug” – Platelets – Clotting Factors 3. Fibrin Mesh 4. Clot Reinforcement Step 1 – Vascular Constriction • This limits the flow of blood to the injury. • Visual signs include: – Paleness – Increased blood pressure (if the wound is large enough) Step 2 – Platelet Plug Platelets • First, platelets are activated by thrombin. – Thrombin is a specialized protein. • Then, they bind to the exposed collagen on the broken blood vessel • Platelets can change shape to accommodate shape of the plug. Step 2 – Platelet Plug Clotting Factors • Clotting factors are always present in the blood. • They are activated when they pass by the site of a platelet plug. • They attach to the plug to reinforce the seal. • There are many different types of clotting factors. Step 3 – Fibrin Mesh • A “fibrin web” forms when certain clotting factors weave together to form a net. • Acts as “glue” to hold clot together. Step 4 – Clot Reinforcement • Clots are reinforced by red and white blood cells that pass by the clot. • If only platelets are present, the clot is called “White Thrombus” • If red blood cells are present, the clot is called “Red Thrombus” Red Thrombus When Blood Clotting Goes Wrong • Blood clotting disorders result when blood clots too much. • Other blood clotting conditions occur when blood fails to clot enough. • May be the result of a disease, or after trauma. – May also be the result of certain toxins and cancer cells in the blood stream. • A clotting problem can occurs when: – Platelets don’t stick (hemorrhaging) – Thrombin levels aren’t regulated (thrombosis) – Deficiency of certain blood clotting factors (hemophilia) – Abnormal proteins interfere with clotting (antiphospholipid syndrome) Hemophilia in Dogs • What is hemophilia? – Excessive or abnormal bleeding • How is it caused? – Deficiency of certain blood clotting factors. – Abnormal platelet function • How is hemophilia inherited? – Sex-linked disorder. – Females are carriers, but typically males are the ones affected Hemophilia in Dogs (cont.) • Common Signs: – Excessive bleeding after trauma, or surgeries – Prolonged bleeding after loss of baby teeth – Bleeding under the skin (bruising) – Blood in diarrhea • Veterinary Signs – Acute blood loss anemia (caused by decrease in RBCs) – Unexplained sub-sutaneous masses (bleeding under skin) – Neurological disorders (bleeding into brain) – Respiratory distress (bleeding into chest or lungs) – Lameness or soreness (associated with hemorrhaging in muscles or joints) Hemophilia in Dogs (cont.) • Treatment: – No permanent cure • Short-Term Clinical Treatment Options: – Administer fresh plasma, fresh frozen plasma, cryoprecipitate (clotting factor VIII), cryosupernatant (clotting factor IX) – Plasma has a short half-life, so it must be transfused every 8- 12 hours until bleeding ceases •Short-Term Home Care Options - Remove possible sources of Plasma contains all the dissolved components of blood, including ions (K, injury Cl, S, etc) proteins and clotting factors - Limit breeding of positive carriers Thrombosis • What is thrombosis? - clotting of the blood in a blood vessel • How is it caused? - Non-regulated activation of prothrombin to form thrombin - Failure of negative feedback loop to deactivate formation of thrombin from prothrombin - Failure of thrombin inhibitors: 1. Antithrombin III 2. α-2 Macroglobulin 3. Heparin Cofactor II 4. α-1 Antitrypsin Thrombosis cont. Non-Life Threatening Effects: Vascular Thrombosis: caused from poor injection or catheterization techniques Life Threatening Effects: Thrombus (embolism) can travel through bloodstream to: • Lungs: (pulmonary embolus) • Heart: heart attack • Brain: stroke • Arteries and Veins : Ischemia of affected tissues Thrombosis in Cattle Embolic Pneumonia: infection in the lungs caused by an embolus Embolic Pneumonia in a cow with If an aneurysm occurs in pulmonary Endocarditis syndrome arteries containing septic emboli, they may rupture and cause interpulmonary hemrraghing. Signs: – Coughing – Dyspnea – Abnormal lungs sounds Can Result in: – Epitaxis (hemorraghing from the nose) – Hemoptysis (coughing up blood) – Death Courtesy of Dr. Sameeh M. Abutarbush Thrombosis in Cattle cont. Treatment of Embolic Pneumonia: • Rest • Long term antibiotics • Intermittent administration of antipyretic and anti-inflammatory drugs • Use culture and sensitivity results to decide on what antibiotics to use Recovery: • Prognoses for recovery is guarded. • Performance is decreased. Did You Know A vampire bats saliva contains a chemical that keeps the blood from coagulating. Aww so cute.. Question 1 What is the pH of the blood. a) 6.8 -7.4 b) 5.0 – 6.0 c) 1.25 – 2.8 d) 5.9 – 6.7 Question 2 What is not a function of blood? a) Deliver’s nutrients to organs and tissues b) Removes waste c) White blood cells transfer oxygen d) Maintains acid-base metabolism Question 3 What are platelets activated by to begin the formation of a clot? a) Prothrombin b) Thrombin c) α-2 Macroglobulin d) Heparin Cofactor II Question 4 • What are signs of hemophilia? a) Bleeding under the skin b) Dyspnea c) Blood in diarrhea d) A and C Question 5 How can you treat embolic pneumonia? a) Antibiotics b) Rest c) Anti-Inflammatory drugs d) All of the above Works Cited About. "How the Blood Clots." The Heart Disease and Cardiology Home Page. Web. 04 Nov. 2010. <http://heartdisease.about.com/cs/heartattacks/a/clotting.htm>. "Blood - Kinds of Blood Found in the Animal Kingdom, Plasma - The Composition of Human Blood." Science Encyclopedia. Web. 26 Oct. 2010. <http://science.jrank.org/pages/965/Blood.html>. "Blood: Red Blood Cells - The Human Heart: An Online Exploration from The Franklin Institute, Made Possible by Unisys." The Human Heart. The Franklin Institute. Web. 03 Nov. 2010. <http://www.fi.edu/learn/heart/blood/red.html>. "Clotting Disorders, Blood Disorders, THE MERCK MANUAL OF HEALTH & AGING." Merck & Co., Inc. - We Believe the Most Important Condition Is the Human One. Web. 04 Nov. 2010. <http://www.merck.com/pubs/mmanual_ha/sec3/ch49/ch49d.html>. "Hemophilia in Dogs." CIDD: Hemophillia. Web. 4 Nov. 2010. <http://www.upei.ca/cidd/Diseases/clinical%2520pathology/hemophilia.htm> "Heparin-Coated Blood Oxygenators." Brown University. Web. 28 Oct. 2010. <http://biomed.brown.edu/Courses/BI108/2006- 108websites/group01Heparin-coatedOxygenators/pages/Heparin_pharmacokinetics.htm>. Kimball, John W. "Blood." Kimball's Biology Page. 06 Oct. 2010. Web. 20 Oct. 2010. <http://users.rcn.com/jkimball.ma.ultranet/BiologyPages/B/Blood.html>. King, Michael W. "Blood Coagulation." The Medical Biochemistry Page. 27 Aug. 2010. Web. 03 Nov. 2010. <http://themedicalbiochemistrypage.org/blood-coagulation.html>. "Vampire Bat." The Wild Ones. The Wildife Trust. Web. 03 Nov. 2010. <http://www.thewildones.org/Animals/vampire.html>. "What Is Thrombosis? - SuTree." How to Videos, Video Tutorials. SuTree - Learn How to Do Anything on Video. Web. 03 Nov. 2010. <http://www.sutree.com/how-to/15571/What-Is-Thrombosis>.
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