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Animal Blood Clotting and Blood Clotting Disorders

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					Blood Clotting

    Anna-Lisa Taylor
   Amy Hypnarowski
     Vet Science 229
Cal Poly, San Luis Obispo
               Blood – “Fluid of Life”
• Blood is:
   – Connective, liquid tissue
• General Function
   –   Transportation of Oxygen
   –   White blood cells used in immune system
   –   Deliver’s nutrients to organs and tissues
   –   Removes waste
   –   Carries hormones
   –   Regulates pH and iron composition of interstitial fluids
        • pH must remain between 6.8-7.4 or cells will be destroyed
   – Maintains acid/base metabolism
Blood Composition
          • Blood is composed
            of:
            – Red Blood Cells
              (RBCs) or
              erythrocytes
            – Platelets or
              thrombocytes
            – White blood cells or
              leukocytes
            – Plasma
                  Platelets
• A major factor in blood clotting.
• Colorless, irregularly shaped cell fragments
  with a sticky surface.
• Made in the bone marrow.
                Blood Clotting
• Blood clotting is a instantaneous response by
  the body to repair a torn blood vessel.
• 4 components of blood clotting:
  – Platelets
  – Clotting Factors (specialized proteins)
  – Fibrin (protein mesh)
  – Other cells (red/white blood cells)
         Four Step Clotting Process -
              Extrinsic Pathway

1. Vascular Constriction
2. “Platelet Plug”
   –   Platelets
   –   Clotting Factors
3. Fibrin Mesh
4. Clot Reinforcement
    Step 1 – Vascular Constriction
• This limits the flow of blood to the injury.
• Visual signs include:
  – Paleness
  – Increased blood pressure (if the wound is large
    enough)
                 Step 2 – Platelet Plug
                              Platelets
• First, platelets are activated by thrombin.
   – Thrombin is a specialized protein.
• Then, they bind to the exposed collagen on the broken blood vessel
• Platelets can change shape to accommodate shape of the plug.
              Step 2 – Platelet Plug
                      Clotting Factors
• Clotting factors are always
  present in the blood.
• They are activated when
  they pass by the site of a
  platelet plug.
• They attach to the plug to
  reinforce the seal.
• There are many different
  types of clotting factors.
           Step 3 – Fibrin Mesh

• A “fibrin web” forms
  when certain clotting
  factors weave together
  to form a net.
• Acts as “glue” to hold
  clot together.
               Step 4 – Clot Reinforcement
• Clots are reinforced by red and white blood cells that pass by
  the clot.
• If only platelets are present, the clot is called “White
  Thrombus”
• If red blood cells are present, the clot is called “Red
  Thrombus”




                        Red Thrombus
 When Blood Clotting Goes Wrong
• Blood clotting disorders result when blood clots too much.
• Other blood clotting conditions occur when blood fails to
  clot enough.
• May be the result of a disease, or after trauma.
   – May also be the result of certain toxins and cancer cells
     in the blood stream.
• A clotting problem can occurs when:
   – Platelets don’t stick (hemorrhaging)
   – Thrombin levels aren’t regulated (thrombosis)
   – Deficiency of certain blood clotting factors (hemophilia)
   – Abnormal proteins interfere with clotting
     (antiphospholipid syndrome)
                    Hemophilia in Dogs

• What is hemophilia?
   – Excessive or abnormal
     bleeding
• How is it caused?
   – Deficiency of certain blood
     clotting factors.
   – Abnormal platelet function
• How is hemophilia
  inherited?
   – Sex-linked disorder.
   – Females are carriers, but
     typically males are the
     ones affected
                    Hemophilia in Dogs (cont.)
•   Common Signs:
     – Excessive bleeding after trauma, or
        surgeries
     – Prolonged bleeding after loss of
        baby teeth
     – Bleeding under the skin (bruising)
     – Blood in diarrhea
•   Veterinary Signs
     – Acute blood loss anemia (caused by
        decrease in RBCs)
     – Unexplained sub-sutaneous masses
        (bleeding under skin)
     – Neurological disorders (bleeding into
        brain)
     – Respiratory distress (bleeding into
        chest or lungs)
     – Lameness or soreness (associated
        with hemorrhaging in muscles or
        joints)
                    Hemophilia in Dogs (cont.)
•   Treatment:
     – No permanent cure
•   Short-Term Clinical Treatment
    Options:
     – Administer fresh plasma, fresh
        frozen plasma, cryoprecipitate
        (clotting factor VIII),
        cryosupernatant (clotting factor
        IX)
     – Plasma has a short half-life, so
        it must be transfused every 8-
        12 hours until bleeding ceases

•Short-Term Home Care Options
    - Remove possible sources of           Plasma contains all the dissolved
                                           components of blood, including ions (K,
    injury                                 Cl, S, etc) proteins and clotting factors
    - Limit breeding of positive
    carriers
                     Thrombosis
• What is thrombosis?
    - clotting of the blood in a blood vessel
• How is it caused?
   - Non-regulated activation of prothrombin to form
  thrombin
   - Failure of negative feedback loop to deactivate formation
  of thrombin from prothrombin
   - Failure of thrombin inhibitors:
        1. Antithrombin III
        2. α-2 Macroglobulin
        3. Heparin Cofactor II
        4. α-1 Antitrypsin
                    Thrombosis cont.
Non-Life Threatening Effects:
Vascular Thrombosis: caused
   from poor injection or
   catheterization techniques
Life Threatening Effects:
Thrombus (embolism) can
   travel through bloodstream
   to:
       •   Lungs: (pulmonary embolus)
       •   Heart: heart attack
       •   Brain: stroke
       •   Arteries and Veins     :
           Ischemia of affected tissues
                 Thrombosis in Cattle
Embolic Pneumonia: infection in the
    lungs caused by an embolus
                                           Embolic Pneumonia in a cow with
If an aneurysm occurs in pulmonary         Endocarditis syndrome
    arteries containing septic emboli,
    they may rupture and cause
    interpulmonary hemrraghing.
Signs:
    – Coughing
    – Dyspnea
    – Abnormal lungs sounds
Can Result in:
    – Epitaxis (hemorraghing from the
      nose)
    – Hemoptysis (coughing up blood)
    – Death                              Courtesy of Dr. Sameeh M. Abutarbush
       Thrombosis in Cattle cont.
Treatment of Embolic Pneumonia:
• Rest
• Long term antibiotics
• Intermittent administration of antipyretic and
  anti-inflammatory drugs
• Use culture and sensitivity results to decide on
  what antibiotics to use
Recovery:
• Prognoses for recovery is guarded.
• Performance is decreased.
                Did You Know




A vampire bats saliva contains a chemical that keeps the
                 blood from coagulating.



                     Aww so cute..
                    Question 1
What is the pH of the blood.
  a)   6.8 -7.4
  b)   5.0 – 6.0
  c)   1.25 – 2.8
  d)   5.9 – 6.7
                   Question 2
What is not a function of blood?
  a)   Deliver’s nutrients to organs and tissues
  b)   Removes waste
  c)   White blood cells transfer oxygen
  d)   Maintains acid-base metabolism
                    Question 3
What are platelets activated by to begin the
 formation of a clot?
  a)   Prothrombin
  b)   Thrombin
  c)   α-2 Macroglobulin
  d)   Heparin Cofactor II
                   Question 4
• What are signs of hemophilia?
  a)   Bleeding under the skin
  b)   Dyspnea
  c)   Blood in diarrhea
  d)   A and C
                   Question 5
How can you treat embolic pneumonia?
  a)   Antibiotics
  b)   Rest
  c)   Anti-Inflammatory drugs
  d)   All of the above
                                            Works Cited
About. "How the Blood Clots." The Heart Disease and Cardiology Home Page. Web. 04 Nov. 2010.
    <http://heartdisease.about.com/cs/heartattacks/a/clotting.htm>.

"Blood - Kinds of Blood Found in the Animal Kingdom, Plasma - The Composition of Human Blood." Science Encyclopedia. Web. 26
     Oct. 2010. <http://science.jrank.org/pages/965/Blood.html>.

"Blood: Red Blood Cells - The Human Heart: An Online Exploration from The Franklin Institute, Made Possible by Unisys." The
     Human Heart. The Franklin Institute. Web. 03 Nov. 2010. <http://www.fi.edu/learn/heart/blood/red.html>.

"Clotting Disorders, Blood Disorders, THE MERCK MANUAL OF HEALTH & AGING." Merck & Co., Inc. - We Believe the Most
      Important Condition Is the Human One. Web. 04 Nov. 2010.
      <http://www.merck.com/pubs/mmanual_ha/sec3/ch49/ch49d.html>.

"Hemophilia in Dogs." CIDD: Hemophillia. Web. 4 Nov. 2010.
    <http://www.upei.ca/cidd/Diseases/clinical%2520pathology/hemophilia.htm>

"Heparin-Coated Blood Oxygenators." Brown University. Web. 28 Oct. 2010. <http://biomed.brown.edu/Courses/BI108/2006-
    108websites/group01Heparin-coatedOxygenators/pages/Heparin_pharmacokinetics.htm>.

Kimball, John W. "Blood." Kimball's Biology Page. 06 Oct. 2010. Web. 20 Oct. 2010.
    <http://users.rcn.com/jkimball.ma.ultranet/BiologyPages/B/Blood.html>.

King, Michael W. "Blood Coagulation." The Medical Biochemistry Page. 27 Aug. 2010. Web. 03 Nov. 2010.
      <http://themedicalbiochemistrypage.org/blood-coagulation.html>.

"Vampire Bat." The Wild Ones. The Wildife Trust. Web. 03 Nov. 2010. <http://www.thewildones.org/Animals/vampire.html>.

"What Is Thrombosis? - SuTree." How to Videos, Video Tutorials. SuTree - Learn How to Do Anything on Video. Web. 03 Nov. 2010.
    <http://www.sutree.com/how-to/15571/What-Is-Thrombosis>.

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Description: A college student project describing basic blood anatomy, how blood clotting works, and common blood clotting disorders in animals (Hemophilia in Dogs, Thrombosis in cattle). Citations available at the end.