Animal Blood Clotting and Blood Clotting Disorders by AmyHypnarowski

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									Blood Clotting

    Anna-Lisa Taylor
   Amy Hypnarowski
     Vet Science 229
Cal Poly, San Luis Obispo
               Blood – “Fluid of Life”
• Blood is:
   – Connective, liquid tissue
• General Function
   –   Transportation of Oxygen
   –   White blood cells used in immune system
   –   Deliver’s nutrients to organs and tissues
   –   Removes waste
   –   Carries hormones
   –   Regulates pH and iron composition of interstitial fluids
        • pH must remain between 6.8-7.4 or cells will be destroyed
   – Maintains acid/base metabolism
Blood Composition
          • Blood is composed
            – Red Blood Cells
              (RBCs) or
            – Platelets or
            – White blood cells or
            – Plasma
• A major factor in blood clotting.
• Colorless, irregularly shaped cell fragments
  with a sticky surface.
• Made in the bone marrow.
                Blood Clotting
• Blood clotting is a instantaneous response by
  the body to repair a torn blood vessel.
• 4 components of blood clotting:
  – Platelets
  – Clotting Factors (specialized proteins)
  – Fibrin (protein mesh)
  – Other cells (red/white blood cells)
         Four Step Clotting Process -
              Extrinsic Pathway

1. Vascular Constriction
2. “Platelet Plug”
   –   Platelets
   –   Clotting Factors
3. Fibrin Mesh
4. Clot Reinforcement
    Step 1 – Vascular Constriction
• This limits the flow of blood to the injury.
• Visual signs include:
  – Paleness
  – Increased blood pressure (if the wound is large
                 Step 2 – Platelet Plug
• First, platelets are activated by thrombin.
   – Thrombin is a specialized protein.
• Then, they bind to the exposed collagen on the broken blood vessel
• Platelets can change shape to accommodate shape of the plug.
              Step 2 – Platelet Plug
                      Clotting Factors
• Clotting factors are always
  present in the blood.
• They are activated when
  they pass by the site of a
  platelet plug.
• They attach to the plug to
  reinforce the seal.
• There are many different
  types of clotting factors.
           Step 3 – Fibrin Mesh

• A “fibrin web” forms
  when certain clotting
  factors weave together
  to form a net.
• Acts as “glue” to hold
  clot together.
               Step 4 – Clot Reinforcement
• Clots are reinforced by red and white blood cells that pass by
  the clot.
• If only platelets are present, the clot is called “White
• If red blood cells are present, the clot is called “Red

                        Red Thrombus
 When Blood Clotting Goes Wrong
• Blood clotting disorders result when blood clots too much.
• Other blood clotting conditions occur when blood fails to
  clot enough.
• May be the result of a disease, or after trauma.
   – May also be the result of certain toxins and cancer cells
     in the blood stream.
• A clotting problem can occurs when:
   – Platelets don’t stick (hemorrhaging)
   – Thrombin levels aren’t regulated (thrombosis)
   – Deficiency of certain blood clotting factors (hemophilia)
   – Abnormal proteins interfere with clotting
     (antiphospholipid syndrome)
                    Hemophilia in Dogs

• What is hemophilia?
   – Excessive or abnormal
• How is it caused?
   – Deficiency of certain blood
     clotting factors.
   – Abnormal platelet function
• How is hemophilia
   – Sex-linked disorder.
   – Females are carriers, but
     typically males are the
     ones affected
                    Hemophilia in Dogs (cont.)
•   Common Signs:
     – Excessive bleeding after trauma, or
     – Prolonged bleeding after loss of
        baby teeth
     – Bleeding under the skin (bruising)
     – Blood in diarrhea
•   Veterinary Signs
     – Acute blood loss anemia (caused by
        decrease in RBCs)
     – Unexplained sub-sutaneous masses
        (bleeding under skin)
     – Neurological disorders (bleeding into
     – Respiratory distress (bleeding into
        chest or lungs)
     – Lameness or soreness (associated
        with hemorrhaging in muscles or
                    Hemophilia in Dogs (cont.)
•   Treatment:
     – No permanent cure
•   Short-Term Clinical Treatment
     – Administer fresh plasma, fresh
        frozen plasma, cryoprecipitate
        (clotting factor VIII),
        cryosupernatant (clotting factor
     – Plasma has a short half-life, so
        it must be transfused every 8-
        12 hours until bleeding ceases

•Short-Term Home Care Options
    - Remove possible sources of           Plasma contains all the dissolved
                                           components of blood, including ions (K,
    injury                                 Cl, S, etc) proteins and clotting factors
    - Limit breeding of positive
• What is thrombosis?
    - clotting of the blood in a blood vessel
• How is it caused?
   - Non-regulated activation of prothrombin to form
   - Failure of negative feedback loop to deactivate formation
  of thrombin from prothrombin
   - Failure of thrombin inhibitors:
        1. Antithrombin III
        2. α-2 Macroglobulin
        3. Heparin Cofactor II
        4. α-1 Antitrypsin
                    Thrombosis cont.
Non-Life Threatening Effects:
Vascular Thrombosis: caused
   from poor injection or
   catheterization techniques
Life Threatening Effects:
Thrombus (embolism) can
   travel through bloodstream
       •   Lungs: (pulmonary embolus)
       •   Heart: heart attack
       •   Brain: stroke
       •   Arteries and Veins     :
           Ischemia of affected tissues
                 Thrombosis in Cattle
Embolic Pneumonia: infection in the
    lungs caused by an embolus
                                           Embolic Pneumonia in a cow with
If an aneurysm occurs in pulmonary         Endocarditis syndrome
    arteries containing septic emboli,
    they may rupture and cause
    interpulmonary hemrraghing.
    – Coughing
    – Dyspnea
    – Abnormal lungs sounds
Can Result in:
    – Epitaxis (hemorraghing from the
    – Hemoptysis (coughing up blood)
    – Death                              Courtesy of Dr. Sameeh M. Abutarbush
       Thrombosis in Cattle cont.
Treatment of Embolic Pneumonia:
• Rest
• Long term antibiotics
• Intermittent administration of antipyretic and
  anti-inflammatory drugs
• Use culture and sensitivity results to decide on
  what antibiotics to use
• Prognoses for recovery is guarded.
• Performance is decreased.
                Did You Know

A vampire bats saliva contains a chemical that keeps the
                 blood from coagulating.

                     Aww so cute..
                    Question 1
What is the pH of the blood.
  a)   6.8 -7.4
  b)   5.0 – 6.0
  c)   1.25 – 2.8
  d)   5.9 – 6.7
                   Question 2
What is not a function of blood?
  a)   Deliver’s nutrients to organs and tissues
  b)   Removes waste
  c)   White blood cells transfer oxygen
  d)   Maintains acid-base metabolism
                    Question 3
What are platelets activated by to begin the
 formation of a clot?
  a)   Prothrombin
  b)   Thrombin
  c)   α-2 Macroglobulin
  d)   Heparin Cofactor II
                   Question 4
• What are signs of hemophilia?
  a)   Bleeding under the skin
  b)   Dyspnea
  c)   Blood in diarrhea
  d)   A and C
                   Question 5
How can you treat embolic pneumonia?
  a)   Antibiotics
  b)   Rest
  c)   Anti-Inflammatory drugs
  d)   All of the above
                                            Works Cited
About. "How the Blood Clots." The Heart Disease and Cardiology Home Page. Web. 04 Nov. 2010.

"Blood - Kinds of Blood Found in the Animal Kingdom, Plasma - The Composition of Human Blood." Science Encyclopedia. Web. 26
     Oct. 2010. <>.

"Blood: Red Blood Cells - The Human Heart: An Online Exploration from The Franklin Institute, Made Possible by Unisys." The
     Human Heart. The Franklin Institute. Web. 03 Nov. 2010. <>.

"Clotting Disorders, Blood Disorders, THE MERCK MANUAL OF HEALTH & AGING." Merck & Co., Inc. - We Believe the Most
      Important Condition Is the Human One. Web. 04 Nov. 2010.

"Hemophilia in Dogs." CIDD: Hemophillia. Web. 4 Nov. 2010.

"Heparin-Coated Blood Oxygenators." Brown University. Web. 28 Oct. 2010. <

Kimball, John W. "Blood." Kimball's Biology Page. 06 Oct. 2010. Web. 20 Oct. 2010.

King, Michael W. "Blood Coagulation." The Medical Biochemistry Page. 27 Aug. 2010. Web. 03 Nov. 2010.

"Vampire Bat." The Wild Ones. The Wildife Trust. Web. 03 Nov. 2010. <>.

"What Is Thrombosis? - SuTree." How to Videos, Video Tutorials. SuTree - Learn How to Do Anything on Video. Web. 03 Nov. 2010.

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