Docstoc

Importance of Paralanguage in Mu

Document Sample
Importance of Paralanguage in Mu Powered By Docstoc
					    Importance of
   Paralanguage in
Multicultural Education
      Tara Chapman
       Spring 2008
           Important because…
   the diversity in today’s classrooms
   educator’s need to understand differences in
    order to address the needs of all students
                       Overview
   Background Information
   Paralanguage
    • Verbal aspects that express emotions
    • Body language – the unspoken word
          Difference in cultures
          Difference between genders
         What is Paralanguage?
   Paralanguage is the non-verbal aspects of
    communication and is used to express emotion
    such as hand gestures, eye contact, touching,
    and many others.
   The study of paralanguage, also known as
    paralinguistic’s, has opened up avenues to
    understand aspects of cultures that some may
    have not understood in the past.
     How often is paralanguage used?

   Communication is essential in our classrooms
    yesterday, today, and tomorrow and consists
    of much more than speech and/or writing.
   According to O’Neill, up to 70% of
    communication, face to face with others, is
    done through paralanguage.
   Paralanguage is said to be so important
    because people are less likely to lie or try to
    cover up emotions due to the difficulty in
    doing so.
         Importance of Paralanguage

   Expression carries more importance than what is
    actually being said.
    • For example, the tone of voice a person is using.
   Non-verbal communication is very important; however,
    there is a cultural attitude where we only listen to
    what is being said and not to how it is being delivered,
    meaning “hear what I say, and don’t notice the way I
    say it”.
     Verbal Aspects of Paralanguage
   Inflection
    • the rising, falling or flatness of the voice
   Pacing
    • the speed of the voice whether it is rapid, slow or changing
   Intensity
    • the strength in which something is because expressed
      whether it is loud, soft or breathy (which means powerfully
      stated)
   Tone
    • whether is the voice is nasally, whining, growling, etc.
   Pitch
    • the changes in the voice from high, medium or low
   Pauses
    • means if one is disorganized, shy, hesitant, etc.
Body Language – The Unspoken Word
   Kinesics
    • gestures and other movements of the body, including facial
      expressions, movements of the eyes, and posture
   Proxemics
    • social distance
   Haptics
    • arm and hand movements
   Paraverbal features
    • nonlexical aspects of verbal communication, such as pitch, variation,
      the use of silence, how space is filled in a conversation (e.g., uh in
      English, este for many Spanish speakers)
   Chronism
    • monochromic use of time in a linear mode in Western cultures, with
      sequential scheduling and tasks completed one at a time;
      polychronistic use of time in a cyclical mode in non-Western
      cultures, with less precise time commitments
                      Kinesics

   most important characteristic of paralanguage
   better known as body language
   body movements tend to speak louder than words
   interpreted different across cultures
       Kinesics & African Americans

   Use eye contact more when speaking than when
    listening
   Tend to use simple and concise wording
     • African American Vernacular English
   Regard manners to be affective, emotional and
    interpersonal
   Will interrupt or take a turn at speaking when they
    can
        Kinesics & American-Indians
   Feel that silence is sacred
    • Needed to reflect on their world
   Use an abundance of words
   Manners of expression to be understated and indirect
   Place a greater emphasis on community fabric and
    kinship rather than the individual
   Cherish their individual place in the entire natural
    world
    • Needed in order to be validated
   Express themselves through humor
   Seldom provide cues to encourage the speaker
                Kinesics & Asians

   View silence as a show of respect
   Use abundance of words
   Manners of expression to be understated and indirect
   Seldom provide cue to encourage the speaker
   Listen with significant nonverbal engagement
   Place a greater emphasis on community fabric and
    kinship rather than the individual
         Kinesics & White Americans

   Tend to use more eye contact when spoken to then
    when they are speaking
   Tend to feel uncomfortable with silence
   Use fewer words for expression
   Are objective and task-oriented
   Nod to indicate listening or agreement
   Some emphasize individualism, competition, taking
    actions, rational linear thinking, Christian principles
    and a Protestant work ethic
              Kinesics & Hispanics

   Manners of expression to be understated and indirect
   Place a greater emphasis on community fabric and
    kinship rather than the individual
   Less competitive not to overshadow another
   Stand close to others, touch a lot more than other
    cultures
   Make less eye-contact
       Differences between Genders
   interruptions in conversations
   vocabulary and language
   patterns of inequality in speech and conversation
   cultural images of men and women
   differences in movement and kinesics
   communication changes are needed by individuals who
    undergo a change from one gender to another
   communication patterns
                 Social Distance

   Gender
    • same sex tend to have less social distance
    • opposite sex tend to have more social distance
   Race
    • same race tend to have less social distance
    • opposite race tend to have more social distance
                    Useful Websites
   About Nonverbal Communications Part 1: General Considerations.
    • http://www.blatner.com/adam/level2/nverbal1.htm
    • This website gives examples of the types of nonverbal
      communication, including cultural differences.
    • The information is useful for any profession that deals with people
      on a daily basis.
   Gender and Communication: Male-Female Differences in
    Language and Nonverbal Behavior
    • http://www.berkleymedia.com/resources/app/top/pdf/comm05.pdf
    • This website is a summary of an online video that shows the
      differences in male and female interaction.
    • The information could be used by parents, teachers, psychologists
      and youth leaders.
            Useful Websites (cont’d)
   Hidden Aspects of Communication
    • http://anthro.palomar.edu/language/language_6.htm
    • This website reported on the different verbal aspects of
      paralanguage. It gives statistics concerning the usage of
      paralanguage. There are also examples for the workplace.
    • The information from this source can be used by parents, teachers,
      psychologists, employers and other community leaders.
   Paralanguage
    • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paralanguage
    • This website defines paralanguage, its different components and
      paralinguistics.
    • This site could be informative for everyone, including the general
      public.
            Useful Websites (cont’d)
   Potential Cross-Cultural Pitfalls and Dangers
    • http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/ovc/publications/inforces/restorative_ju
      stice/96522-multicultural/multi6.html
    • This website informs about the different communication styles and
      how to deal with cross-cultural issues.
    • The information could be used by parents, teachers, psychologists
      and youth leaders.
                     Useful Articles
   Understanding and Counseling Hispanic American Children\
    • Baruth, L. & Manning, M.
    • The article discusses the cultural differences between Hispanics
      and others.
    • The information could be used by parents, teachers, psychologists
      and youth leaders.
   The use of humor as a counselor strategy with Native American
    Indian children
    • Herring, R. & Meggert, S.
    • The article discusses the cultural differences between Native
      American Indian children and others.
    • The information could be used by parents, teachers, psychologists
      and youth leaders.
             Useful Articles (cont’d)
   Children’s use of social distance: The effects of race and gender
    • Holmes, R.
    • This article informs about the social distance used by children of
      different genders and different races.
    • The information could be used by parents, teachers, psychologists
      and youth leaders.
   All Children Read, Teaching For Literacy In Today’s Classroom
    (2nd edition)
    • Temple, C., Ogle, D., Crawford, A., & Freppon, P.
    • This graduate level textbook charts the different types of
      paralanguage and explains its importance in today’s schools.
    • The information could be used by educators, psychologists and
      youth leaders.
                     Conclusion

   An educator must recognize…

    • all culture represented in their classroom
    • comprehend and grasp the fundamentals of a
      multicultural education
    • understand the significance of paralanguage in
      today’s society and classrooms
                          References
   Baruth, L., & Manning, M. (1992, December). Understanding and counseling
    Hispanic American children. Elementary School Guidance & Counseling, 27(2),
    113. Retrieved February 19, 2008, from Education Research Complete
    database.
   Blatner, A. M.D. (2002). About Nonverbal Communications Part 1: General
    Considerations. Retrieved February 15, 2008, from
    http://www.blatner.com/adam/level2/nverbal1.htm
   Gender and Communication: Male-Female Differences in Language and
    Nonverbal Behavior. (n.d.). Retrieved February 9, 2008, from
    http://www.berkleymedia.com/resources/app/top/pdf/comm05.pdf
   Herring, R., & Meggert, S. (1994, October). The use of humor as a counselor
    strategy with Native American Indian children. Elementary School Guidance &
    Counseling, 29(1), 67. Retrieved February 19, 2008, from Education Research
    Complete database.
                 References (cont’d)
   Holmes, R. (1997). Children's use of social distance: The effects of race and
    gender. Child Study Journal, 27(2), 129. Retrieved February 19, 2008, from
    Education Research Complete database.
   O’Neill, D. (2007). Hidden Aspects of Communication. Retrieved February
    10, 2008, from http://anthro.palomar.edu/language/language_6.htm
   Paralanguage. (2008). Retrieved February 15, 2008, from
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paralanguage
   Potential Cross-Cultural Pitfalls and Dangers. (2007). Retrieved February 15,
    2008, from
    http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/ovc/publications/inforces/restorative_justice/965
    22-multicultural/multi6.html
   Temple, C., Ogle, D., Crawford, A., & Freppon, P. (2008). All Children Read,
    Teaching For Literacy In Today’s Classroom (2nd ed.). Boston: Allyn and
    Bacon.

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Tags:
Stats:
views:512
posted:11/5/2010
language:English
pages:24