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					CLASS 9TH                                    CITIZEN                                        CIVICS

CITIZENS: - A citizen is a individual who is a member of a state and takes part in the process of
government. He enjoys all the political rights, which have been given him by the constitution, as
well as civil rights in return for the allegiance which he owes to it. He also has performed certain
duties towards the state. Historically, the term citizen is linked with the rise of democracy. The
word was coined after the rise of democratic government in the modern sense in countries like
England, France and the United States. The word citizen was made popularly by the French
Revolution of 1789.

  1. A good citizen should be loyal to his country and respect the constitution.
  2. He should obey laws of the land and perform his duties faithfully.
  3. He should be patriotic, co-operative, tolerant, disciplined and having high moral values.
  4. He should rise above self and not indulge in discriminations based on caste, community,
      colour, creed or religion.
  5. He should always be ready to serve the nation in whatever way he can.
  6. He should be aware about what is going on within and outside his country. He should
      thus be well educated.
  7. He abjures violence and works for peace governing process. He should use the power of
      his vote.

Natural born citizens are those citizens who are born on the territory of that country or whose
parents were born on the territory of that country. They live within the territory of that country.
They acquire the citizen of that country by birth.

They are those citizens who were not born in the country nor were their parents born in that
country. They apply for the citizenship of a country and after fulfilling certain requirements laid
down by the laws of that country; acquire the citizenship of that country.

Citizenship means the special association between the citizens and the government. A citizen
has certain duties towards the government whereas the government too provides certain rights
to the citizen.
Indian citizenship can be acquired by the following methods:-
a)      By Birth:- any one whose parents are Indian citizens gets the Indian citizenship naturally
even if child is born outside India to the Indian citizens, he gets the citizenship.
b)      By applying for citizenship: - An individual belonging to some foreign country can acquire
the citizenship of India after fulfilling certain conditions laid down by law. He can apply for Indian
citizenship and if he fulfils certain conditions, he can give citizenship.
c)      Adoption:- If Indian parents adopt the child of some foreigners, the adopted child
becomes Indian citizen.
d)      Recently, many prominent NRI’S have been given Indian citizenship under some special

In a feudal society, involvement in government was the privilege of few people. Only a few
sections of the societies controlled the activities of the government. They consisted of the
CLASS 9TH                                   CITIZEN                                        CIVICS

hereditary king, the nobles and the clergy. It was not deemed necessary to consult the people
who formed the majority and were affected by the work of the government. A government of
this kind was autocratic and tyrannical.

In this form of government, the power lies in the hands of people. It is elected by the people and
is, therefore, responsible to them. It is based on the idea, that politically, all people are equal.
The people exercise their power through the representatives who are elected by them for a
fixed tenure.

The government has a number of very important functions to perform. There have been
different opinions regarding the functions of government. One opinion is that the government’s
function is to take the coercive steps like controlling traffic, policing crimes, and fighting wars.
The others believe that the government has to enable like welfare activities of the citizens like
building roads, run schools and hospitals, set up industries, run medical services etc.
Thus, the functions of a democratic can be summed up as:-

      i. To maintain internal peace and security and to defend the country from foreign
     ii. To regulate traffic
    iii. To Catch criminals and maintain law and order.

       i. To build roads and canals.
      ii. To open schools, colleges and hospitals.
    iii. To under take the governing in planned way.
     iv. To set up industries for provide work to the citizens.
      v. To establish network of communication and transport.
     vi. To establish places for the intellectual development of its citizens.
    vii. To regulate currency and coinage.
   viii. To organize postal service.
     ix.  To send satellites into space.
      x.  To help in preserving art and culture.
     xi.  To start various welfare schemes for the betterment and uplift of the masses.
    xii. To ensure proper exploitation and development of its natural resources.

Every government of modern times has three basic parts. One of them would make and
announces laws. It is called the Legislature. Legislature is one of the most important of the
government’s functions. By giving a certain structure of laws, the state tries to force men’s
activities into some manageable and predictable patterns. After making laws, the government
has to see to it that they are implemented. Those organs of government, which implement or
administer laws, are called the executive. The cabinet, the council of minister and the
bureaucracy- all are part of the executive organ of the government. The third organ of the
government is the judiciary. It adjudicates in conflicts among citizens, between citizens and the
government or between parts of the government itself.
CLASS 9TH                                    CITIZEN                                        CIVICS

   1. To make laws: the most important function of the legislature is to make laws.
   2. Control over finance: the legislature has full control over the finances of the country. It
      passes the annual budget. The government cannot impose any tax or spend any more
      without the approval of the legislature.
   3. Control over executive: the council of ministers is responsible to the legislature.
   4. Amendment in the constitution: the legislature participates in the amendment of the
   5. Electoral functions: the legislature elects the president and vice-president in India.

   1. Administrative functions: the executive runs the administration or the country.
   2. Enforcement of laws: the most important function of the government is to execute the
   3. Conduct of foreign affairs: the foreign policy framed by the executive. Ambassadors to
      other countries are appointed by the executive. The right to declare war and to enter
      into treaties states also lies with the executive.
   4. Appointments: all major appointments – Prime Ministers, judges, Governors, Members
      of UPSC, and attorney General etc, are made by the president.

     I. Settlement of disputes: the most important function of the judiciary is to settlement
        of disputes among the individual citizens and between the citizens and the
    II. Production of fundamental Rights: the judiciary protects the fundamental rights of
        the citizens are granted to them by the constitution.
   III. To give advice: the supreme court of India gives advice to the president on legal and
        constitutional matters.

Rights are certain facilities or privileges which a state or society gives to its citizens for the
development of their personalities. Rights refer to civil, political, social, economic and cultural
aspects of life.

The Indian constitution gives a number of rights to its citizens. These rights are called
fundamental rights. The constitution of India guarantees the following fundamental rights.

1.      Rights to Equality:-
        The rights includes:-
   I.   Equality before law.
  II.   Prohibition of discrimination against any citizen on grounds of race, religion, caste, sex or
        places of birth.
 III.   Equality of opportunity in matter of appointment to public offices.
 IV.    Abolition of untouchability.
  V.    Abolition of titles.

CLASS 9TH                                    CITIZEN                                         CIVICS

2.      Rights of Freedom: several rights are clustered under right to freedom. It includes
    I. Freedom of speech and expression.
   II.  Freedom to assembly peacefully and without arms.
  III.  Freedom to form association.
 IV. Freedom to move freely throughout the territory in any part of India.
   V. Freedom to reside and settle in any part of India.
 VI. Freedom to practice any profession or trade.
3 .Rights against Exploitation: this right prohibits trade in human beings. No children under the
age of 14 years can be employed in any industry.
4. Rights to Freedom of Religion: India is a country of diversity religions. All the citizens are free
to profess, practice and propagate any religion. Every section can maintain its institutions for
religious purposes.
5 .Cultural and Educational Rights: This right gives to every community the right to protect its
language, script and culture. It allows the minorities to establish educational institutions.

RIGHTS TO CONSTITUTIONAL REMEDIES: - under this right, the citizens enjoy the rights to move
the courts against the encroachment of their fundamental rights. This is a about rights.
DUTIES: a democratic society fulfils many needs of an individual. The state ensures many rights
to its citizen and in the return a citizen has many duties to perform. Infact, rights and duties are
inter-related. Fundamental duties have been added the Indian constitution by the 42 nd
amendment in 1976. These duties are:
    1. To abide the constitution and respect its ide3als and institutions, the National flag and
         the national Anthem.
    2. To cherish and follow the noble ideals which inspired out national struggle for freedom.
    3. To uphold and protect the sovereignty, unity and integrity of India.
    4. To defend the country and render national service when called upon to do so.
    5. To promote hormone and the sprit of common brotherhood amongst all the people of
         India transcending religious linguistic and regional or sectional diversities to renounce
         practice derogatory to the dignity of women.
    6. To value and preserve the rich heritage of our composite culture.
    7. To protect and improve the natural environment including forests, lakes, rivers, and
         wildlife, and to have compassion for living creatures.
    8. To develop the scientific temper, humanism and the spirit of inquiry and reform.
    9. To safeguard public property and to abjure violence.
    10. To solve towards excellence in all sphere of individual and collective activity so that the
         nation constantly rises to higher levels of endeavor and achievement.

     Alien:- A person who temporarily comes to reside in some state but owes allegiance to
     some other state remains an alien. Alien is a person who enjoys only civil rights and not
     political rights.

     Status of alien:- He receives protection in personal property, Freedom of moment, of
     speech, right to sue in court etc. During the period of his temporary sojourn in a foreign
     state. In return for the grant of civil rights, an alien must obey the laws of the state in which
     he is temporarily residing even though they happen to be quite different from the laws that
     prevail in his own country, and must pay taxes to the state.



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