Events Leading to the Revolutionary War Sugar Act (1764) This Act put a threecent tax on foreign refined sugar and increased taxes on coffee, indigo, and certain kinds of wine. It banned importation of rum and French wines. These taxes affected only a certain part of the population, but the affected merchants were very vocal. Besides, the taxes were enacted (or raised) without the consent of the colonists. This was one of the first instances in which colonists wanted a say in how much they were taxed. Stamp Act (1765) First direct British tax on American colonists. Instituted in November, 1765. Every newspaper, pamphlet, and other public and legal document had to have a Stamp, or British seal, on it. The Stamp, of course, cost money. The colonists didn't think they should have to pay for something they had been doing for free for many years, and they responded in force, with demonstrations and even with a diplomatic body called the Stamp Act Congress, which delivered its answer to the Crown. Seeing the hostile reaction in the colonies, the British government repealed the Stamp Act in March 1766 but at the same time passed the Declaratory Act, which said that Great Britain was superior (and boss of) the American colonies "in all cases whatsoever." The Stamp Act gave the colonists a target for their rage. Indeed, the Sons of Liberty was formed in response to this Act. The Stamp Act Congress also gave the colonists a model for the Continental Congress. Townshend Acts (1767) Series of 1767 laws named for Charles Townshend, British Chancellor of the Exchequer (Treasurer). These laws placed new taxes on glass, lead, paints, paper, and tea. Colonial reaction to these taxes was the same as to the Sugar Act and Stamp Act, and Britain eventually repealed all the taxes except the one on tea. In response to the sometimes violent protests by the American colonists, Great Britain sent more troops to the colonies. Boston Massacre (1770) Shooting of five American colonists by British troops on March 5, 1770. One person, an AfricanAmerican man named Crispus Attacks, was killed. Nearly every part of the story is disputed by both sides. Did the colonists have weapons? The British say rocks and other such weapons were hurled at them. But the British had guns, and they did open fire. The Boston Massacre deepened American distrust of the British military presence in the colonies. Boston Tea Party (1773) Angry and frustrated at a new tax on tea, American colonists calling themselves the Sons of Liberty and disguised as Mohawk Native Americans boarded three British ships and dumped 342 whole crates of British tea into Boston harbor on December 16, 1773. Similar incidents occurred in Maryland, New York, and New Jersey in the next few months, and tea was eventually boycotted throughout the colonies. The Continental Congress (1774) Two groups of people from all over the 13 Colonies who came together to discuss liberty. The First Continental Congress was a group of 56 delegates from 12 colonies (all except Georgia) who met in Philadelphia in September of 1774. They came together to act together in response to the Intolerable Acts. They met in secret because they didn't want Great Britain to know that they were united. The Second Continental Congress met in 1775, when the Revolutionary war had started. Things were going badly, and the armed forces were disorganized. The Continental Congress created the Continental Army and named George Washington as commanderinchief. The Congress continued through the summer. Out of the discussions came the Declaration of Independence. Your Assignment: Draw a comic strip to illustrate the events described above. Think of the six events as a chain of events that is building up to something big (i.e. the Revolutionary War!!). Citation <http://www.socialstudiesforkids.com/articles/ushistory/revolutionarywartimeline.htm> Target Skill § I can define the Sugar Act, Stamp Act, and Townshend Acts. § I can summarize the events of the Boston Massacre and Boston Tea Party. § I can explain the significance of establishing the Continental Congress. § I can explain the causes of the Revolutionary War. § I can validate the Colonist’s desire for independence. Curriculum Unit Essential Question What were the causes and effects of Revolution/Independence? Local Standards 213.01: Students will know and understand struggles to uphold the principles of the Declaration of Independence and Constitution. § 213.01A: Students will identify the causes and effects of Revolution/Independence. 213.03: Students will know and understand the history of American foreign policy and its implications. State Standards 14A.J.6: Evaluate the equity of forms of taxation. 14E.J.6: Analyze patterns of conflict and compromise related to international affairs (e.g., examples of nations that have fought wars or settled disagreements through treaties over such matters as disputed borders and the resources and land along such lines of conflict). 14F.I.1: Describe significant historical events and processes that brought about changes in the political ideas and traditions of the United States. 16A.I.4: Explain why significant historical events have multiple causes.