AP World History Ch 26 Civilizations in Crisis_ The Ottoman Empire by hcj


									    AP World History Study Guide Ch 26 Civilizations in Crisis: The Ottoman Empire, The Islamic Heartlands And Qing China

1) What were the weaknesses associated with the Ottoman Empire in the eighteenth century? 

2) Describe the Muslim economy at the beginning of the eighteenth century 

3) What European powers seized territories of the Ottoman Empire in the early decades of the eighteenth century? 

4) In the later 1700s what power became the main threat to the Ottomans' survival? 

5) The first region to successfully rebel and achieve independence from the Ottoman Empire was? 

6) By the 1870s, the Ottoman Empire what area had they been driven? 

7) What European nation supported the Ottoman Empire in order to prevent other European powers from gaining access to the
Mediterranean? 

8) What was the result of the reforms of Sultan Selim III (1789 - 1807)? 

9) What Ottoman Sultan successfully eliminated the Janissary corps as a military and political influence? 

10) What were the reforms of Mahmud II? 

11) What were the Tanzimat reforms in the Ottoman Empire? 

12) In what year was the revised constitution introduced as part of the Tanzimat reforms? 

13) What group within the Ottoman Empire actually suffered as a result of the Tanzimat reforms? 

14) Were there any actual improvement in women's status as a result of the Tanzimat reforms? 

15) What Ottoman Sultan attempted to roll back the Tanzimat reforms and reinstitute an absolute monarchy in 1878? 

16) In which areas did Sultan Abdul Hamid continue to press for increased Westernization? 

17) Which group was responsible for the overthrow of the Ottoman Sultanate in 1908? 

18) Which reform resulted from the coup in the Ottoman Empire of 1908? 

19) With what European power did the Ottomans contest the control of Libya just prior to World War I? 

20) Describe the relationships between the Young Turks and the Arabs of the Ottoman Empire after the 1908 coup? 

21) What nation's invasion of Egypt in 1798 signaled the beginning of European penetration of the Islamic heartland? 

22) What Islamic group ruled Egypt in 1798? 

23) By 1801 what ruler had succeeded in establishing his dominance over Egypt? 

24) What reforms were introduced in Egypt after 1801? 

25) What prevented Muhammad Ali from overthrowing the Ottoman Empire? 

26) Which of the reforms undertaken by Muhammad Ali failed? 

                       World Civilizations The Global Experience, Stearns et al…Advanced Placement Edition
27) With which group did Muhammad Ali ally himself? 

28) Muhammad Ali's successors as rulers of Egypt were referred to as? 

29) European financiers lent money to the profligate successors of Muhammad Ali because they desired access to Egypt's cheap
cotton and, by the 1850s, a share in the…? 

30) Who was an Islamic moderate in nineteenth century Egypt who urged the adoption of Western scientific knowledge and
technology? 

31) The Khedival government of Egypt was threatened in 1882 by a rebellion of Egyptian military officers under? 

32) What was the result of the rebellion by Egyptian army officers in 1882? 

33) What was the center of Egyptian administration in the Sudan? 

34) On what basis did Muhammad Achmad claim leadership of the Sudanic resistance to Egyptian rule? 

35) How did he successor to the Mahdi, Khalifa Abdallahi, die and where? 

36) Who was responsible for the unification of the Manchu tribesmen prior to the invasion of China in the seventeenth century?

37) The dynastic name taken by the Manchu dynasty was 

38) Who held most of the top jobs in the Manchu government, and was it an open or closed system? 

39) In what area did the Manchus attempt to take strong measures of reform? 

40) What accounts for the general failure of Manchu attempts at reform? 

41) The new groups of merchants that developed in China under the more relaxed commercial system of the Manchus were called?

42) What were the signs of dynastic decline were apparent in the Qing regime by the beginning of the nineteenth century?

43) How large was the Chinese population by 1850? 

44) Unhappy about the unfavorable terms of trade in China, British merchants hit on a possible solution to reverse the flow of bullion
in the form of …? 

45) What was the impact of the British opium trade on China? 

46) The Chinese official charged with eliminating the opium trade in the 1830s was ? 

47) What was the outcome of the Opium War? 

48) The semi-Christian rebellion that broke out in southern China in the 1850s and early 1860s was the ? 

49) What was the political and social position of the Manchu rulers at the end of the nineteenth century? 

50) In what year was the last emperor of China deposed in favor of a republican form of government? 

                       World Civilizations The Global Experience, Stearns et al…Advanced Placement Edition

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