AP World History Ch 26 Civilizations in Crisis_ The Ottoman Empire by hcj

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									    AP World History Study Guide Ch 26 Civilizations in Crisis: The Ottoman Empire, The Islamic Heartlands And Qing China

1) What were the weaknesses associated with the Ottoman Empire in the eighteenth century? 

2) Describe the Muslim economy at the beginning of the eighteenth century 

3) What European powers seized territories of the Ottoman Empire in the early decades of the eighteenth century? 

4) In the later 1700s what power became the main threat to the Ottomans' survival? 

5) The first region to successfully rebel and achieve independence from the Ottoman Empire was? 

6) By the 1870s, the Ottoman Empire what area had they been driven? 

7) What European nation supported the Ottoman Empire in order to prevent other European powers from gaining access to the
Mediterranean? 

8) What was the result of the reforms of Sultan Selim III (1789 - 1807)? 

9) What Ottoman Sultan successfully eliminated the Janissary corps as a military and political influence? 

10) What were the reforms of Mahmud II? 

11) What were the Tanzimat reforms in the Ottoman Empire? 

12) In what year was the revised constitution introduced as part of the Tanzimat reforms? 

13) What group within the Ottoman Empire actually suffered as a result of the Tanzimat reforms? 

14) Were there any actual improvement in women's status as a result of the Tanzimat reforms? 

15) What Ottoman Sultan attempted to roll back the Tanzimat reforms and reinstitute an absolute monarchy in 1878? 

16) In which areas did Sultan Abdul Hamid continue to press for increased Westernization? 

17) Which group was responsible for the overthrow of the Ottoman Sultanate in 1908? 

18) Which reform resulted from the coup in the Ottoman Empire of 1908? 

19) With what European power did the Ottomans contest the control of Libya just prior to World War I? 

20) Describe the relationships between the Young Turks and the Arabs of the Ottoman Empire after the 1908 coup? 

21) What nation's invasion of Egypt in 1798 signaled the beginning of European penetration of the Islamic heartland? 

22) What Islamic group ruled Egypt in 1798? 

23) By 1801 what ruler had succeeded in establishing his dominance over Egypt? 

24) What reforms were introduced in Egypt after 1801? 

25) What prevented Muhammad Ali from overthrowing the Ottoman Empire? 

26) Which of the reforms undertaken by Muhammad Ali failed? 



                       World Civilizations The Global Experience, Stearns et al…Advanced Placement Edition
27) With which group did Muhammad Ali ally himself? 

28) Muhammad Ali's successors as rulers of Egypt were referred to as? 

29) European financiers lent money to the profligate successors of Muhammad Ali because they desired access to Egypt's cheap
cotton and, by the 1850s, a share in the…? 

30) Who was an Islamic moderate in nineteenth century Egypt who urged the adoption of Western scientific knowledge and
technology? 

31) The Khedival government of Egypt was threatened in 1882 by a rebellion of Egyptian military officers under? 

32) What was the result of the rebellion by Egyptian army officers in 1882? 

33) What was the center of Egyptian administration in the Sudan? 

34) On what basis did Muhammad Achmad claim leadership of the Sudanic resistance to Egyptian rule? 

35) How did he successor to the Mahdi, Khalifa Abdallahi, die and where? 

36) Who was responsible for the unification of the Manchu tribesmen prior to the invasion of China in the seventeenth century?


37) The dynastic name taken by the Manchu dynasty was 

38) Who held most of the top jobs in the Manchu government, and was it an open or closed system? 

39) In what area did the Manchus attempt to take strong measures of reform? 

40) What accounts for the general failure of Manchu attempts at reform? 

41) The new groups of merchants that developed in China under the more relaxed commercial system of the Manchus were called?


42) What were the signs of dynastic decline were apparent in the Qing regime by the beginning of the nineteenth century?


43) How large was the Chinese population by 1850? 

44) Unhappy about the unfavorable terms of trade in China, British merchants hit on a possible solution to reverse the flow of bullion
in the form of …? 

45) What was the impact of the British opium trade on China? 

46) The Chinese official charged with eliminating the opium trade in the 1830s was ? 

47) What was the outcome of the Opium War? 

48) The semi-Christian rebellion that broke out in southern China in the 1850s and early 1860s was the ? 

49) What was the political and social position of the Manchu rulers at the end of the nineteenth century? 

50) In what year was the last emperor of China deposed in favor of a republican form of government? 




                       World Civilizations The Global Experience, Stearns et al…Advanced Placement Edition

								
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