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					    Society Challenge and Change
   What is Social Change:
       Social change refers to changes in the way society
        is organized and in the beliefs and practices of the
        people who live in it

       Social Scientists try to understand the nature of
        social change and what forces drive it rather then
        predict the future.
What are the Social Sciences?                               Social Science is the
                                                            study of humans in
                                                            their social, economic
                                                            and political relations.


Goods & Services
                                                               Human behaviour is so
                                                               varied, that social
                                                               sciences have been
                                                               organized into specialties
                                                               according to areas of
                        The Social Sciences                    concern.
                                                               Each area asks different
                                                               questions when trying to
                        Human Behaviour                        account for human
   Anthropology – the
    study of the unity and
    diversity of humanity
    (and related primates)
    and of human culture
    and society from a
    comparative and global
   Psychology – the study of thought processes
    and the behaviour of humans
   Sociology – the study of human social life,
    groups and societies

  How Do The Experts Compare and
      Contrast Social Change?
Anthropology focuses What are the known basic mechanisms of social change?
on what causes an        What ideas or explanations can we use to describe what causes
entire culture to change cultures to change?
                         How adequate are these ideas or explanations when we apply
                         them to the modern world?
                         What are the implications for anthropology?

Psychology focuses on    What must people do to successfully change their behaviours?
behaviours of            What factors make behaviour-modification programs successful?
individuals              Do most people need help in making behavioural changes or can
                         they be self-changers?
Sociology focuses on     What are the massive shifts in the behaviours and attitudes of
changes in a society.    groups and whole society?
                         How does social change come about?

                         What are the patterns of social change?
 The study of people, whether it is through
anthropology, sociology, or psychology, helps
       us to learn what drives people.
   What is
   What makes humans different from other animals?
   Is there such a thing as human nature, and if so, what
    is it like?
   How and why do human groups differ, both
    biologically and culturally?
   Why have humans changes so much in the last 10,000
   How are people who live in urbanized nations
    different from “traditional” or “indigenous” people?
Anthropologists are interested in all human
beings – whether living or dead.
No place or time is too remote to escape the
notice of anthropologists.
No dimension of humankind from skin color to
dress customs falls outside the anthropologist’s
Anthropology is made up of
    five sub-divisions

       Let’s get started…
Physical Anthropology

  A.K.A. Biological Anthropology
   Biological (also called Physical) anthropology is concerned
    with the anatomy and behavior of monkeys and apes, the
    physical variation between different human populations,
    and the biological evolution of the human species.

   The specialization of primatology studies the evolution,
    anatomy, adaptation, and social behavior of primates, the
    taxonomic order to which humans belong.

   We humans or Homo sapiens sapiens share 98% of our
    genes with chimpanzees.
   Another important goal of biological anthropology
    is to understand how and why the human species
    evolved from prehuman, apelike ancestors.

   The specialization that investigates human
    biological evolution is known as

   Paleonanthropologists have reconstructed the
    history of how humans evolved anatomically.
   Through analyzing fossils, comparing DNA
    sequences and other methods, the outlines
    of human evolution are becoming clear.

   Many scholars agree that the evolutionary
    line leading to modern humans split from
    those leading to modern African apes,
    chimpanzees and gorillas around 5 to 6
    million years ago.
Cultural Anthropology
       Cultural Anthropology…
   Is the study of contemporary and historically
    recent activities and cultures
   Is the studying firsthand and reporting about
    the ways of living in particular groups
   Is understanding the causes and consequences
    of cultural change
   Is enhancing public understanding and
    appreciation of cultural differences and
    multicultural diversity
          Cultural Anthropology

   Culture
   Emotions and behaviors
   Languages and communication
   Religion
   Technology
   Political systems
   Social control
   Economic patterns
   Kinship
   Sex and marriage
   Socialization
   Class
   Ethnicity
   Gender
   Culture change
   Ethnocentrism
Prehistoric Archaeology is the study of
ancient pre-literate cultures—those that
never kept written records of their
activities, customs and beliefs.
Although prehistoric peoples lacked
writing, some information about their way
of life can be recovered from tools, pottery,
ornaments, bones, plant pollen, charcoal
and other materials they left behind, in or
around the ground.
Through careful excavation and laboratory
analysis of such material remains,
prehistoric archaeologist reconstruct the
way people lived in ancient times and trace
how human cultures have changed over
centuries and even over millennia.
   Contrary to the impression given by much
    North American media, the main goal of
    digging a particular site is not to recover
    valuable treasures and other artifacts.

   The goal is to understand how people of a
    particular place lived long ago.
   Many archaeologists today are employed
    not in universities but in museums, public
    agencies, and for profit corporations.

   Provincial highway agencies employ
    archaeologists to conduct surveys of
    proposed new routes in order to locate and
    excavate archaeological sites that will be
Linguistic Anthropology

      Applied Linguistics
           Linguistic Anthropology

• The human communication process focusing
•   the importance of socio-cultural influences
•   nonverbal communication
•   the structure of language
•   The function of language
•   The history of languages, dialects, pidgins, and
          Applied Linguistics…
   Is the ability to communicate complex
    messages with greater efficiency

   Is concerned with the complex relations
    between language and other aspects of human
    behaviour and thought e.g.
   How is language used in various social
    contexts? How does one order a drink in
   What style of speech might one use with
    people of a higher social order?
   Does the language we learn while growing up
    have any important effects on how we view the
    world or how we think and feel?
Applied Anthropology

 Now we now about it…what do we
          do with it?
   Applied Anthropologist are problem solvers.
   They solve problems drawing upon the cultural
    context for clues about how to address a problem
    in ways that will make sense to the people of that
   Today, hundreds of anthropologists hold full time
    positions that allow them to apply their expertise
    in government agencies, nonprofit and for profit
    organizations, and international agencies.
   Applied anthropologists can be medical
    anthropologists—investigate the complex
    interactions among human health, nutrition, social
    environment and cultural beliefs and practices.

   Also development anthropologists—apply their
    expertise to the solutions of practical human
    problems especially in the developing world—
    development anthropologists provide information
    about communities that help agencies adapt
    projects to local conditions and local needs.
   Development anthropologists working for
    the World Bank, United Nations
    Development Program provide policy
    makers with knowledge of local-level
    ecological and cultural conditions, so that
    projects will avoid unanticipated problems
    and minimize negative impacts.
Research Methods Used
  by Anthropologists
 Just how do they find out about this
• Anthropologists have learned that the best way to
  really get to know another society and its culture is
  to live in it as an active participant rather than
  simply an observer.

• By physically and emotionally participating in the
  social interaction of the host society it is possible
  to become accepted as a member.
• Dian Fossey believed that in
  order to study gorillas effectively
  she had to immerse herself with
  them in an effort to get them to
  accept her presence

• She was murdered in her cabin
  at Karisoke on December 26,
  1985. Her death is a mystery yet
• Intuition is believing something to be true because a
  person’s emotions and logic support it

• Intuition is not proof of fact – this is why we need
  anthropologists – they prove or disprove what we
  BELIEVE to be true
  Anthropology & Family
     One of the major functions of an
 Anthropologists is to help us increase our
  knowledge regarding “What it is to be
human?” by noting and comparing cultural
     One of the ways that this is done is
    by examining how different cultures
             view “FAMILY”.
• Kinship is a family relationship based on what a culture
  considers a family to be.
   • The family unit can vary depending on the culture in which
     the family lives
   • Through study Anthropologists have concluded that
     human cultures define the concept of kinship in three
      • Mating – (marriage)
      • Birth – (descent)
      • Nurturance (adoption)
• Patrilineal – Method of tracing and organizing families
  through the father's line

• Matrilineal – Method of tracing and organizing families
  through the mother's line.

• Patriarchy – A place in history designed for the
  convenience of men, and structured according to rules
  that men find comfortable. Consisting in society male
  dominate institutions that oppress women.
• The theoretical school of Functionalism considers a
  culture as an interrelated whole, not a collection of
  isolated traits.

• The Functionalists examined how a particular cultural phase
  is interrelated with other aspects of the culture and how it affects the
  whole system of the society.

• The method of functionalism was based on fieldwork
  and direct observations of societies.
• Structuralism assumes that cultural forms are based on
  common properties of the human mind.
• This theory states that humans tend to see things in terms
  of two forces that are opposite to each other - e.g.. night
  and day.
• The goal of Structuralism is to discover universal
  principles of the human mind underlying each cultural
  trait and custom.
• This theoretical school was almost single handedly
  established by Claude Levi-Strauss.
• Technological and economical factors are the most
  important ones in molding a society – known as

• Determinism – states that the types of technology and
  economic methods that are adopted always determine
  (or act as deciding factors in forming) the type of
  society that develops.
Schools of Thought
               Functionalism           Structuralism              Cultural Materialism

Similarities   Attempts to             Attempts to understand     Attempts to understand
               understand cultures     cultures                   cultures

Differences    Investigates the        Seeks out and explains     Explores members’ decisions
               social functions of     rules that are based on    regarding human reproduction
               institutions            binary opposites           and economic production

Criticisms     Presents societies as   Overemphasizes logic       Tries to establish laws that
               being more stable       and stability in human     apply to all cultures and
               than they are a and     societies; societies       development; observes
               downplays the           wouldn’t die out if they   cultures through biased eyes
               negative results of     always met the needs
               some practices          of their members