pokerface_new.ppt - Slide 1 by wuyunyi


                    November 10
                    11-11:50 AM
                    Room 302

Dr. Nouna Bakhiet   MESA Lecture Series   Dr. Lukas Buehler, Presenter
BETSI Director                            1st day of school
                               Swiss pre-history

                             •Archeology shows that Stone Age hunters have been
                             living in Switzerland already before the last Ice Age
                             (approximately 350'000 B.C.).
                             •The majority of Switzerland's "native“ population
                             settled during the Germanic Migration of Nations that
                             set an end to the Roman Empire in Western Europe at
                             about 400 A.D.

•Switzerland's official latin name "Confoederatio
Helvetica" goes back to a Celtic tribe called the
Helvetians They belonged to a family of nations that has
been designated as Indo-Europeans because of
evidently common roots in their languages that
distinguish them from Asian, African or Semite (Arab,
Hebrew) languages. Among the Indo-Europeans we find
the Greeks, the Romans, Germanic and Slawonian
tribes but as well parts of the Persian and Indian
population. It has been assumed that the Indo-European
tribes all came from the prairies of Southern Russia.
                                         Switzerland has written
                                         historic records from he
                                         celtic Helvetians who
                                         spoke a celtic language and
                                         the Rhetians who where
                                         not Romans but have
                                         adopted the Roman
                                         language (Latin) before they
                                         left any written traces. While
                                         the Rhetians, living in the
                                         alpine valleys of
                                         southeastern Switzerland,
                                         were able to preserve their
                                         language (Rumantsch) and
                                         culture to our days, the
                                         original celtic population
                                         has left almost no traces in
                                         Switzerland except from a
                                         few geographical names.
National Geographics ‘Genographics’ project
Genetic markers on the Y chromosome

      Markers used on Y chromosome are ‘Short tandem
      repeats’ or STRs, which are usually located between
      genes and have no known physiological effect
Number of repetitions within marker region
                         My genetic journey
                     The Y chromosome

M168: My Earliest Ancestor                          50,000 years ago

M89:   Moving Through the Middle East               45,000 years ago

M9:    The Eurasian Clan Spreads Wide and Far       40,000 years ago

M45:   The Journey Through Central Asia             35,000 years ago

M207: Leaving Central Asia                         30,000 years ago

M173: Colonizing Europe The First Modern Europeans 30,000 years ago

M343: Direct Descendants of Cro-Magnon             30,000 years ago
My genetic journey as seen by the Y chromosome
Mitochondrial tree


               Cambridge reference sequence
Genetic markers on the mitochondrial chromosome (mtDNA)

                Hyper Variable Region-1 non-coding sequence of
                    440 nucleotides contains single nucleotide
                                       polymorphisms (SNPs)
Y chromosome   mt DNA

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