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          What’s in a Name?

                VARY ACROSS
•   Systems Workload.
•   Programming model.
•   Ownership model.
•   Architectural trade-offs.
  what is cloud computing, particularly in
      the context of the enterprise?

• Cloud computing is an IT delivery model
  that offers large-scale, shared infrastructure
  and computing resources as a service
  through self-service pay per-use access.
  Although it leverages recently developed
  technology, cloud computing is a business,
  not a technical, trend.
                       Cloud Computing

•                     situation in
    A definition refers to any
    which computing is done in a
    remote location (out in the
    clouds), rather than on your
    desktop or portable device.
•   You tap into that computing power over an
    Internet connection.

"The cloud is a smart, complex, powerful computing
   system in the sky that people can just plug into."
      Web browser pioneer Marc Andreessen

         Features of cloud computing
• Infrastructure sharing –Cloud computing enables dynamic
   sharing of these resources so that demands can be met
   cost effectively.
• Scalability – To handle ever increasing workload demands
   and support the entire enterprise, Scalability and flexibility
   allow the cloud provider to fulfill the IT services on demand.
• Self service – Cloud computing provides customers with
   access to IT resources through service-based offerings. The
   details of IT resources and their setup are transparent to the
• Pay-per-use – Because cloud resources can be added and
   removed according to workload demand, users pay for only
   what they use and are not charged when their service
   demands decrease.
The cloud computing architecture parts: the front end and the
back end. The front end is the side at which the client himself is able
to access. This involves the client’s network or his computer and
the programs that he uses to access the database / servers for the
data. The back end of the cloud computing architecture is the cloud
itself, which is the collection of all related information saved in the
servers that the client wishes to have access to.
           Paths to cloud computing
• VM to cloud – For users already running applications
  hosted in VMs (virtual machines), their virtual servers
  can be brought together to form a VM cluster with
  basic VM management (sharing resources & allocating
  automatically among VM Clusters). This approach leads
  to implementing a private cloud run by the
  organization’s internal IT department.

• Grid to cloud – Some organizations are already running
  grids. These are distributed systems often harnessed
  together to run a parallel application. By deploying cloud
  management software, grids can be generalized to
  support more types of applications. Incorporating VM
  technologies and provisioning tools allows IT to transform
  an enterprise grid into a private cloud.
• Desktop   to cloud – Applications can be moved from
    their dedicated servers to a shared infrastructure
    and accessed from client devices. (web-browser)

•   An organization may choose any of these paths, or
     even several at the same time for different applications
     or parts of its business. To ensure success, the
     adoption of cloud computing should follow a
     sequence of evolutionary steps rather than an
     overnight revolution. Progress is driven by the
     requirements of specific applications for scalability and
     cost-effectiveness, or by the needs of capabilities such
     as business process automation.
                    Clouds Versus Grids
•   Clouds and Grids are distinct in some features.

• Cloud
    –   Full private cluster is provisioned
    –   Individual user can only get a tiny fraction of the total resource pool
    –   No support for cloud federation except through the client interface
    –   Opaque with respect to resources.

• Grid
    – Built so that individual users can get most, if not all of the resources
      in a single request
    – Middleware approach takes federation as a first principle
    – Resources are exposed, often as bare metal.

• These differences mandate different architectures for each.
Virtualization is “something which is not REAL,
but displays the full qualities of the REAL”. EX :- A software
implementation of a machine that executes programs like a real
machine is a virtualization.
Services Provided by Cloud Computing
Cloud Service Models
               Software as a Service
   Defined as service-on-demand, where a provider will license
    software tailored. To use the provider’s applications running on a
    cloud infrastructure, The applications are accessible from various
    client devices through a thin client interface such as a web browser
    (e.g., web-based email).

   The consumer does not manage or control the underlying cloud
    infrastructure including network, servers, operating systems, storage,
    or even individual application capabilities,with the possible exception
    of limited user-specific application configuration settings.
             Platform as a Service
• Provides all the facilities necessary to support the complete
  process of building and delivering web applications and services,
  that are available over the internet.
  This provides a means to deploy onto the cloud infrastructure
  consumer-created or acquired applications created using
  programming languages and tools supported by the provider.

• Customers can utilize greater computing power while saving on the
            – Cost
            – Space
            – Power Consumption
            – Speed
• The consumer does not manage or control the underlying cloud
  infrastructure including network, servers, operating systems, or
  storage, but has control over the deployed applications and
  possibly application hosting environment configurations.

• Infrastructure providers can transparently alter the platforms for their
  customers’ unique needs

• Google App Engine, Heroku, Mosso, Engine Yard, Joyent or (SalesForce platform) are few of the examples of service
           Infrastructure as a Service
   Defined as delivery of computer infrastructure as a
    Fully outsourced service so the businesses do not have to
     purchase servers, software, storage devices or equipment.
• This capability provides consumer to processing, storage, networks,
  and other fundamental computing resources where the consumer is
  able to deploy and run arbitrary software, which can include
  operating systems and applications.
   Infrastructure providers can dynamically allocate
    resources for service providers.
       Service providers offer this service to end users.
       Allows cost savings for the service providers, since they do not
        need to operate their own datacenter.
       Ad hoc systems allow quick customization to consumer demands.
   Amazon’s EC2, GoGrid, RightScale and Linode are
    few of the examples of service providers.

• The consumer does not manage or control the
  underlying cloud infrastructure but has control over
  operating systems, storage, deployed applications,
  and possibly limited control of select networking
  components (e.g., host firewalls).
    Types Of Cloud Architectures
      (or) Deployment models

• Public Clouds
• Private Clouds
• Hybrid Clouds
                          Public Clouds
Public cloud. The cloud infrastructure is made available to the general public
or a large industry group and is owned by an organization selling cloud
services.Public clouds are run by third parties, and applications from
different customers are likely to be mixed together on the cloud’s
servers, storage systems, and networks.

Benefits of public clouds is that they can be much larger than a company’s
private cloud might be,offering the ability to scale up and down on demand,
and shifting infrastructure risks from the enterprise to the cloud provider.
                         Private Clouds
Private cloud. The cloud infrastructure is operated solely for an organization.
It may be managed by the organization or a third party and may exist on
premise or off premise.

Private clouds are built for the exclusive use of one client, providing the
extreme control over data, security, and quality of service.
The company owns the infrastructure and has control over how applications
are deployed on it. Private clouds may be deployed in an enterprise data
centre, and they also may be deployed at a co-location facility.
                Community cloud

Community cloud. The cloud infrastructure is shared by
several organizations and supports a specific community
that has shared concerns (e.g., mission, security
requirements, policy, and compliance considerations).

It may be managed by the organizations or a third party
and may exist on premise or off premise.
                        Hybrid Clouds
This cloud infrastructure is a composition of two or more clouds (private,
community, or public).They can help to provide on-demand, externally
provisioned scale. The ability to augment a private cloud with the
resources of a public cloud can be used face the rapid workload
fluctuations. This is most often seen with the use of storage clouds to
support Web 2.0 applications. A hybrid cloud also can be used to handle
planned workload spikes. Sometimes called “surge computing,” a public
cloud can be used to perform periodic tasks that can be deployed easily on
a public cloud.
           Software and Hardware

• The cloud computing technology requires specific
  software and hardware for it to function the way its
  users want it to be. For large-scale businesses, the cloud
  computing technology eliminates the need to buy an
  additional number of hardware and software for all
  employees, since all data needed would be easily
  accessible through the individual computers. Installing
  software in every computer would no longer be
  necessary: because the cloud computing platform
  would be able to do the job.
 “Azure”
   – Internet-scale cloud computing and services platform hosted in
     Microsoft data centers
   – Provides a range of functionality to build applications that span
     from consumer web to enterprise scenarios
   – Designed to help developers quickly and easily create,
     deploy, manage, and distribute web services and
     applications on the internet.
• Microsoft has released online software called Windows Live for
  photo-sharing, file storage, and other applications served from new
  data centers.
• The software giant runs its consumer search and communications
  services on large cloud computing data centers. Just now, it's
  launching new cloud services for businesses, including e-mail and
  collaboration, under the Microsoft Online brand.
     Major Service Providers of Cloud Computing

   Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud “Amazon EC2”.

   A web service interface that provides resizable computing
    capacity in a cloud.
    – designed to make web-scale computing easier for
    – reduces the time required to obtain and boot new server
      space from weeks to minutes.
    – allows developers to pay only for capacity that they
      actually use.
   “Google 101”
    – Network made up of millions of cheap servers, that
      would store staggering amounts of data, including
      numerous copies of the world wide web
    – Makes search faster, helping ferret out answers to
      billions of queries in a fraction of a second.

   Google invests more than $2 billion a year in data
    centers for cloud computing.

   Google App Engine.
• was found in 1999 by former
  Oracle executive Marc Benioff as a company
  specializing in SaaS software.
• They are best known for their Customer
  Relationship Management (CRM) products,
  which it delivers to businesses over the internet
  using the SaaS model.
• SaaS
• Platform
• Web Services
•   IBM is developing cloud computing applications
    for the everyday user called CloudBurst.

•   IBM also offers “private” cloud computing
    services using IBM blue services software.
     – Instead of putting information out on the
       internet it makes the companies data center
       into its own cloud. This cloud is blocked off
       from the internet using firewalls.
Commercial Cloud Formation
            Real time applications
1.   Quote NY Times example
2.   Starbucks Example(
3.   U.S. Army Example (
4.   Playfish (social gaming)
5.   DigitalChalk (educational site)
6.   Livemocha
7.   Second Life (virtual game)
8.   Weather Information (prediction)
9.   Simulation of crucial projects (Air plane designing)
                          Cloud Users

• Starbucks: using the platform to create its new My Starbucks
  Idea Web site as an online community.

• Rapper 50 Cent: using Ning service to set up a custom-designed site for
  200,000 fans

• The U.S. Olympic Committee: using AT&T services to handle a busy traffic
  during the games

• Individual programmers and users: using Facebook or Amazon’s data centers
  to run own applications, blogs, data

•   Rachael King (2008, 4, 8). How cloud computing is changing the world. Business Week.
    Retrieved August 6, 2008, from
•   Steve Hamm (2008, April, 24). Cloud Computing: Eyes on the Skies. Business Week. Retrieved
    August 6, 2008, from
•   Aaron Ricadela (2007, November 16). Computing Heads for the Clouds. Business Week.
    Retrieved August 6, 2008, from
•   Andrew Lavallee (2008, August 5). AT&T to be provider of cloud computing. Wall Street Journal.
    Retrieved August 6, 2008, from
•   Martin LaMonica (2008, March 25). Is cloud computing more than just smoke? Cnet
    Retrieved August 6, 2008, from            
       THANK YOU …..


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