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VIEWS: 160 PAGES: 17

									                                    19 oktober

Cal. Other Calendars
19.10. =New Year Era of Tyre #-0124* ;Note=125 BCE (geen jaar 0) {d}
Era of Tyre, 19 October, 125 B.C.
  http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/03738a.htm
October 19, 125 B.C. - Origin of Era of Tyre.
  Ken Polsson, 2008 October 16, Chronology of World History (2008 October 19)
  http://www.islandnet.com/~kpolsson/worldhis/

NL Romeinse feestdagen
19.10. =Armilustrium (Romeinse feestdag)
October 19, Armilustrium (Festival of Mars) - This second annual festival devoted to Mars,
  the Roman god of war, was set aside for purifying military weapons and storing them for
  the winter.
  http://www.celebratetoday.com/ctbook.html

Kon. Fam. België
19.10. =geb. Prins Laurent #1963 jaar geleden ;Note=1963, 3 e kind/2e zoon Prins Albert
  & Prinses Paola {d}
Laurent Benoît Baudouin Marie (19 oktober 1963), Prins van België, is het derde kind van
  koning Albert II, Koning der Belgen en koningin Paola
  In het najaar van 2002 verloofde hij zich met Claire Coombs, met wie hij op 12 april
  2003 in het huwelijk is getreden.
  Op 6 februari 2004 beviel zijn vrouw van prinses Louise Sophie Mary.
  http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prins_Laurent

België-gekende personen
19.10. =overl. Paul Snoek #1981 jaar geleden (dichter, 47j)* ;Note=Egem, [Edmond
  André Coralie Schietekat], 1981 {d}
Paul Snoek was het pseudoniem van Edmond André Coralie Schietekat (Sint-Niklaas, 17
  december 1933 - Tielt, 19 oktober 1981). Hij was één van de bekendste dichters van
  België. Hij eveneens auteur en schilder. Zijn pseudoniem is afkomstig van de naam van
  zijn moeder Paula Snoeck. Hij stierf in een auto-ongeluk in Egem. Hij werd begraven in
  Varsenare, in de grafkelder van zijn familie.
  http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paul_Snoek
Dichter Paul Snoeck reed zich te pletter tegen een kraanwagen (19.10.1981, de mooiste
  dood is sterven in een lichtblauwe racewagen, heeft Snoeck zelf ooit gezegd. Het was
  een zwarte Alfa)
  http://195.0.110.36/detailpagina.cfm?id=470&programma=memo

België-Brussel datums
19.10. =Brussel-Paleis Schone Kunsten - off. open. Grote Zaal voor Symfonische
  Concerten #1929 jaar geleden (>Henry Le Boeuf zaal)* ;Note=1929 {d}
PALEIS VOOR SCHONE KUNSTEN VAN BRUSSEL (BOZAR) - De inrichting, die
  ontstond onder impuls van de melomaan Henry Le Bœuf, heeft een zaal met een
  uitzonderlijke akoestiek, die tot de 4 of 5 beste ter wereld mag gerekend worden. De
  inwijding op 19 oktober 1929 ging gepaard met veel pracht en praal. Sindsdien hebben
  de grootste musici uit de 20e eeuw er opgetreden: Mengelberg, Horowitz,
  Rachmaninov, Walter, Menuhin, Stokowski, Prokofiev, Stravinsky...
  http://www.belgiumtouristguide.be/pdf/nl/BXLESCAPADES.pdf
                                      19 oktober
Paleis voor Schone Kunsten - De bekende Henry Le Boeuf zaal, oorspronkelijk Grote Zaal
  voor Symfonische Concerten genoemd, werd pas een jaar na de officiële opening
  ingehuldigd: 19 oktober 1929.
  http://www.monarchie.be/laurentclaire/nl/fine_arts/index.html

België-datums
19.10. =Brussel - laatste openingsdag 'Expo 58' #1958 jaar geleden (2e Brusselse
  Wereldtentoonstelling) ;Note=1958, sinds 17.4.1958 {d}
De Wereldtentoonstelling werd op 17 april 1958 geopend door koning Boudewijn, en liep
  tot 19 oktober.
  van Boudewijn tot Boudewijn, 10 eeuwen Vlaanderen - ISBN 90-5466-751-6 - wettelijk
  depot D/2002/5166/47, blz. 259
Expo 58 was een wereldtentoonstelling, georganiseerd in Brussel, in België, en vond
  plaats van 17 april tot 19 oktober 1958 in het Heizelpark.
  http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Expo_58
  http://users.skynet.be/rentfarm/expo58/

NL spoorweg-Intern.
19.10. =Manchester - publikatie 1e spoorweg-dienstregelingsboekje #1839 jaar geleden*
  ;Note=1839, George Bradshaw, 1e in krant 20.5.1830 {d}
George Bradshaw (July 29, 1801 - September 6, 1853) was an English cartographer,
  printer and publisher and the originator of the railway timetable.
  Bradshaw's name was already known as the publisher of Bradshaw's Maps of Inland
  Navigation, which detailed the canals of Lancashire and Yorkshire, when, on October
  19, 1839*, soon after the introduction of railways, the world's first compilation of railway
  timetables was published in Manchester. It cost sixpence and was a cloth-bound book
  entitled Bradshaw's Railway Time Tables and Assistant to Railway Travelling, the title
  being changed in 1840 to Bradshaw's Railway Companion, and the price raised to one
  shilling. A new volume was issued at occasional intervals, a supplementary monthly
  time-sheet serving to keep the book up to date. In December 1841, acting on a
  suggestion made by his London agent, William Jones Adams, Bradshaw reduced the
  price of his timetables to the original sixpence, and began to issue them monthly under
  the title Bradshaw's Monthly Railway Guide. From then on the book, in the familiar
  yellow wrapper, became synonymous with its publisher: for Victorians and Edwardians
  alike, a railway timetable was "a Bradshaw", no matter by which railway company it had
  been issued and whether Bradshaw had been responsible for its production or not.
  * The first issue of Bradshaw's railway timetable was published on 19 October 1839,
  but the date printed on it is 10th Mo. 19th, 1839 as Bradshaw was a Quaker and
  refused to use the usual names of the months because of their pagan origins.
  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_Bradshaw

NL spoorweg-Intern.
19.10. =overl. George Mortimer Pullman #1897 jaar geleden (66j) ;Note=Chicago, VS,
  1897, begraven in een Pullman-slaaprijtuig {d}
George Mortimer Pullman (March 3, 1831 - October 19, 1897) was an American inventor
  and industrialist.
  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_Mortimer_Pullman
                                    19 oktober
NL spoorweg-Intern.
19.10. =China - doorsteek Fenghuoshan spoortunnel #2002 jaar geleden* ;Note=2002,
  hoogste tunnel 1,338 km lang op 4905 m hoogte (door bevroren aarde) {d}
October 19 [2002] saw the successful liking up of Fenghuoshan Tunnel, the highest
  among frozen earth tunnels of the world, marking important progress in the construction
  of Qinghai-Tibet Railway. The 1,338 meter-long and 4,905-meter-high Fenghuoshan
  Tunnel is the highest one in the world.
  http://english.peopledaily.com.cn/200210/21/eng20021021_105435.shtml
Fenghuoshan Tunnel - October 19 2002 saw the successful liking up of Fenghuoshan
  Tunnel, the highest among frozen earth tunnels of the world, marking important
  progress in the construction of Qinghai - Tibet Railway. Due to the extreme lack of
  oxygen inside the drilling site, oxygen generation machines had to be installed inside
  the tunnel so as to provide builders with enough oxygen to keep the drilling process as
  scheduled.
  http://home.no.net/lotsberg/data/highest.html
The Fenghuoshan railway tunnel in the is the highest railway tunnel in the world. It is
  1,338 metres long, and stands 4,905 meters above sea level. It is part of the recently-
  completed Qingzang railway, linking China proper and Tibet. Fenghuoshan means wind
  fire mountain in Chinese.
  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fenghuoshan_tunnel

NL Intern. datums
19.10. =VS octrooi hoge octaan benzine #1948 jaar geleden* ;Note=1948, US patent
   2,451,804 {d}
High Octane Gasoline Patent Issued October 19, 1948
   Invention supported American air dominance in World War II and today is used to
   produce over half of the world's gasoline
   Donald Campbell, Homer Martin, Charles Tyson and Eger Murphree, four inventors
   working for Exxon, revolutionized the petroleum industry when they created the first
   efficient and continuous way to refine crude oil. Their invention, known as fluid cat
   cracking, was granted patent #2,451,804, and came on the heels of America's entry
   into World War II, meeting the military's need to increase the yield of high-octane
   aviation fuel. This invention is considered one of the most important chemical
   engineering achievements of the 20th century. In addition to producing gasoline, their
   invention is used to manufacture heating oil, propane, butane, and chemicals that are
   instrumental in products such as plastics and synthetic rubbers.
   http://www.uspto.gov/web/offices/ac/ahrpa/opa/kids/kidevents_press.html
Title: Method of and apparatus for contacting solids and gases
   Creator/Author: Campbell, D.L. ; Martin, H.Z. ; Murphee, E.V. ; Tyson, C.W.
   Publication Date: 1948 Oct 19
   Report Number(s): US 2451804
   Resource Type: Patent
   Resource Relation: Pat. File: Filed date 27 Dec 1940
   Subject: 020400 -- Petroleum-- Processing; ;PETROLEUM-- CATALYTIC CRACKING;
   CATALYSTS; REGENERATION; SEPARATION PROCESSES; SUSPENSIONS;
   VAPORS
   http://www.osti.gov/energycitations/product.biblio.jsp?osti_id=5052017
United States Patent 2451804 - Method of and apparatus for contacting solids and gases
   http://www.freepatentsonline.com/2451804.html
                                     19 oktober
Donald Campbell, Homer Martin, Eger Murphree and Charles Tyson, who were known for
  their development of a process still used today to produce more than half of the world's
  gasoline. These "Four Horsemen" were part of the Exxon Research Co. Their notable
  US Patent No. 2,451,804: A Method of and Apparatus for Contacting Solids and Gases
  describes their milestone invention. Over half the world's gasoline is currently produced
  by a process developed in 1942 by the "Four Horsemen" of Exxon Research and
  Engineering Company. The world's first commercial Fluid Catalytic Cracking facility
  began production for Exxon on May 25, 1942.
  http://www.nacatsoc.org/history.asp?HistoryID=8

Nederland-datums
19.10. =oprichting Vereeniging ter bevordering van de luchtscheepvaart #1907 jaar
  geleden (>Nederlandse Vereniging voor Luchtvaart' (NVvL))* ;Note=1907 {d}
Op 19 oktober 1907 werd de 'Vereeniging ter bevordering van de luchtscheepvaart'
  opgericht, waarvan de naam kort daarna werd gewijzigd in 'Nederlandse Vereniging
  voor Luchtvaart' (NVvL). De vereniging werd lid van de Fédération Aéronautique
  Internationale (FAI) en werd verantwoordelijk voor het uitgeven van brevetten en het
  organiseren van luchtvaartevenementen.
  De NVvL ontving op 14 november 1912 het predikaat 'Koninklijk' en staat sindsdien
  bekend als KNVvL.
  Luchtvaartgeschiedenis in woord en beeld - ISBN 906-120-8017, blz. 15

NL Duitsland
19.10. =Duitsland - inv. 2-cijfer postcode voor briefpost #1943 jaar geleden* ;Note=1943,
   pakjespost 25.7.1941 {d}
In Deutschland werden für den Postversand seit dem 1. Juli 1993 fünfstellige
   Postleitzahlen verwendet, welche von der Deutschen Post festgelegt werden.
   1941 wurden im Deutschen Reich zunächst zweistellige Postleitzahlen eingeführt,
   welche dann 1962 (damalige Bundesrepublik) bzw. 1965 (DDR) durch zwei
   unabhängige Systeme vierstelliger Postleitzahlen abgelöst wurden. Diese wurden dann
   wiederum 1993 durch das heutige System abgelöst.
   Am 25. Juli 1941 wurde in der Verfügung 407/1941 im Amtsblatt des
   Reichspostministeriums die Einführung von Leitgebieten bekannt gegeben. Diese
   galten zunächst für den Paketdienst. Es gab 24 Päckchenleitstellen mit Unterleitstellen,
   die von 1 bis 24 durchnummeriert werden. Die Gebiete entsprachen in etwa den
   Oberpostdirektionsbezirken. Diese wurden durch zweistellige, numerische PLZ
   gekennzeichnet (z. B. 21 für die Provinz Westfalen; unterteilt in 21a für Nordwestfalen
   (die Regierungsbezirke Münster und Minden) und 21b für Südwestfalen (den
   Regierungsbezirk Arnsberg) oder 22c für das westliche Rheinland).
   Allgemein verbindlich im zivilen Postverkehr eingeführt wurden die Postleitzahlen mit 32
   Leitgebieten am 19. Oktober 1943 mittels einer „Anweisung für den Briefverteildienst“.
   Seit 1944 wurde die Bevölkerung aufgefordert, die Zahlen zu nutzen. Außerdem
   wurden die Gebiete angepasst, so dass auch Kombinationen aus Zahlen und
   Buchstaben verwendet wurden, wie z. B. 5b für Ostpreußen.
   Nach dem Ende des Zweiten Weltkriegs hatte weiterhin die Regelung der Reichspost
   Gültigkeit. In den vier Besatzungszonen Deutschlands wurden die Postleitzahlen
   (zweistellig, numerisch mit einstelligem Buchstabenzusatz) in Abwandlung
   weitergeführt. Es gab geringe Änderungen und 28 Leitgebiete. So wurden zum Beispiel
   die 21 in 21a und 21b gegliedert, die 22 in 22a bis 22d, wobei 4 bis 9 und 12
   weggelassen wurden. Doch immer weniger Briefeschreiber hielten sich daran. Deshalb
                                     19 oktober
  wurde 1961 von dem damaligen Bundespostminister Richard Stücklen die Einführung
  des Postleitzahlensystems vorangetrieben und am 23. März 1962 eingeführt.
  Zum 1. Januar 1965 führte die Post der DDR ein eigenes vierstelliges
  Postleitzahlensystem ein.
  http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Postleitzahl_%28Deutschland%29

NL Duitsland
19.10. =München - 1e deel 1e metrolijn in dienst #1971 jaar geleden
  (Kieferngarten<>Goetheplatz)* ;Note=1971 {d}
Op 1 februari 1965 werd met de uitvoering van de metrowerken begonnen. .. Op 6 juli
  1967 werd een eerste, 2 km lang gedeelte tussen Freiman en de Schenkendorfstrasse
  (nu U-Bf. Nordfriedhof geheten) voor proefritten met het nieuwe metromaterieel in
  gebruik genomen. .. Met de indienststelling van de U6 op 19 oktober 1971 werd
  München metrostad.
  Metro's in Europa - ISBN 90 6013 011 1, blz. 55
U6 (blauw) Frötmaning - Klinikum Großhadern, 18,8 km; in gebruik genomen:
  Kieferngarten - Goetheplatz op 19 oktober 1971, Goetheplatz - Harras op 22
  november 1975, Harras - Holzapfelkreuth op 16 april 1983, Holzapfelkreuth - Klinikum
  Großhadern op 22 mei 1993, Fröttmaning - Kieferngarten op 28 juni 1994.
  Metro's in Europa - ISBN 90 6013 011 1, blz. 56

NL Spanje
19.10. =feitelijke personele unie Aragón & Castilië #1469 jaar geleden* ;Note=1469, huw.
   Ferdinand II (erfprins van Aragón) & Isabella (Erfprinses van Castilië), eff. 20.1.1479,
   >Spanje 14.3.1516 (Karel I koning van Spanje) {d}
Isabella's huwelijk met Ferdinand van Aragón werd voltrokken te Valladolid op 19 oktober
   1469. Isabella was toen achttien jaar oud, haar echtgenoot zeventien. Voor dit huwelijk
   was pauselijke dispensatie nodig, omdat beiden neef en nicht van elkaar waren. Deze
   toestemming liet lang op zich wachten, doordat diverse partijen bezwaren uitten tegen
   dit huwelijk.
   http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Isabella_I_van_Castili%C3%AB
The fervent Isabella would not agree to marriage until the dispensation was granted. With
   the help of Rodrigo Borgia (later Alexander VI) Isabella and Ferdinand were presented
   with a supposed Papal Bull by Pius II in their favor and Isabella agreed to the marriage.
   Isabella managed to escape the court with the excuse of visiting her brother‟s tomb in
   Ávila. Ferdinand, on the other hand, crossed Castile in secret disguised as a merchant.
   Finally, on 19 October 1469 they married in the Palacio de los Vivero in the city of
   Valladolid. Once Henry found out about the marriage he quickly urged the Pope to
   dissolve the marriage using the grounds of Isabella and Ferdinand‟s kinship as second
   cousins by descent from John I of Castile. But Pope Sixtus IV resolved this matter by
   dispensing Isabella and Ferdinand with a Papal Bull.
   http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Isabella_I_of_Castile
1479-1516 Ferdinand II (de Katholieke) van Aragon. Door zijn huwelijk met Isabella van
   Castilië (1469) vereniging van Aragon en Castilië en voorbereiding van de eenwording
   van Spanje (bond van kroon en steden tegen de adel).
   Lexicon Wereldgeschiedenis - ISBN 90 274 1267 7 - wettelijk depot D 1983/0265/252,
   blz. 69
Ferdinand II (Sos, 10 maart 1452 - Madrigalejo, 23 januari 1516) was koning van Aragon
   van 1479 tot 1516, samen met zijn vrouw, Isabella, heerser over Castilië van 1474 tot
   1504 (als Ferdinand V), koning van Napels (als Ferdinand III), van 1504 tot 1516 en
                                     19 oktober
  sinds 1471 koning van Sicilië. .. Ferdinand wordt ook wel Ferdinand de Katholieke
  genoemd, in het Spaans: Fernando el Católico. In 1469 huwde hij Isabella van Castilië,
  halfzuster en erfgename van koning Hendrik IV van Castilië. Ferdinand en Isabella
  gingen de geschiedenis in als de 'katholieke koningen' (Spaans: los Reyes Católicos),
  vanwege het religieuze beleid dat werd gevoerd. Het huwelijk leidde op termijn tot de
  eenwording van Spanje. .. Na de dood van koningin Isabella (1504) en van zijn
  schoonzoon (regent) Filips de Schone (1506) werd Ferdinand tijdens de
  minderjarigheid van zijn kleinzoon Karel regent van Castilië in plaats van zijn dochter
  Johanna de Waanzinnige. De latere Karel V, die ondertussen koning van Castilië was
  geworden, erfde na de dood van Ferdinand eveneens de kroon van Aragon.
  http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ferdinand_II_van_Aragon
Ferdinand II of Aragon - Ferdinand II the Catholic (Spanish: Fernando de Aragón "el
  Católico", Catalan: Ferran d'Aragó "el Catòlic", Aragonese: Ferrando II d'Aragón "lo
  Catolico"; March 10, 1452 – January 23, 1516) was king of Aragon (1479–1516),
  Castile, Sicily (1468–1516), Naples (1504–1516), Valencia, Sardinia and Navarre and
  Count of Barcelona. He married Infanta Isabella, the half-sister and heiress of Henry IV
  of Castile, on October 19, 1469 in Valladolid and became king consort of Castile when
  Isabella succeeded her brother as Queen of Castile in 1474. When Ferdinand
  succeeded his father as King of Aragon in 1479, the Crown of Castile and the various
  territories of the Crown of Aragon were united in a personal union creating for the first
  time since the 8th century a single political unit which might be called Spain, although
  the various territories were not properly administered as a single unit until the 18th
  century. After Isabella's death, her kingdom went to their daughter Joanna. Ferdinand
  served as the latter's regent during her absence in the Netherlands, ruled by her
  husband Archduke Philip. Ferdinand attempted to retain the regency permanently, but
  was rebuffed by the Castilian nobility and replaced with Joanna's husband, who
  became Philip I of Castile. After Philip's death in 1506, with Joanna mentally unstable,
  and her and Philip's son Charles of Ghent was only six years old, Ferdinand resumed
  the regency, ruling through Francisco Cardinal Jimenez de Cisneros, the Chancellor of
  the Kingdom.
  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ferdinand_II_of_Aragon

NL Verenigde Staten
19.10. =VS-Yorktown - „Yorktown Day‟* ;Note=end Battle of Yorktown #1781 years ago
  {d}
USA-Virginia VA
19.10. =Yorktown - Yorktown Day* ;Note=end Battle of Yorktown #1781 years ago {d}
Yorktown Day is a holiday celebrated in Yorktown, Virginia annually on October 19.
  The holiday celebrates the surrender of the British forces on that date in 1781, ending
  the Battle of Yorktown and bringing about the end of the American Revolutionary War.
  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yorktown_Day
October 19, Yorktown Day: This is the anniversary date hosted in Yorktown, Virginia that
  celebrated the surrender of British forces in 1781 that ended the Battle of Yorktown. It
  was because of this date that the American Revolutionary War ended. On this date in
  Yorktown, speeches are conducted, reenactments are done, wreaths are laid over
  certain graves and a parade is done.
  http://www.associatedcontent.com/article/420391/holidays_on_earth_today_october_19
  .html
October 19, Yorktown Day, observed in commemoration of the surrender on October 19,
  1781, of Cornwallis and his troops to General George Washington; the day has been
                                     19 oktober
  celebrated by the people of Yorktown, Virginia, every year since 1881; special patriotic
  services are also conducted by the National Park Service at the Yorktown Monument.
  Anniversaries and Holidays (Fourth Edition, 1983) - ISBN 0-8389-0389-4, blz. 134
Yorktown Day is a holiday celebrated in Yorktown, Virginia, United States annually on
  October 19. The holiday celebrates the surrender of the British forces on that date in
  1781, ending the Battle of Yorktown and bringing about the end of the American
  Revolutionary War. Typical events during the day include a parade, speeches from
  groups such as the Daughters of the American Revolution, wreath-laying at several
  gravesites in the area, and reenactments of the Battle and subsequent surrender.
  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Minor_American_Revolution_holidays

NL luchtvaart
19.10. =New York - 1e landing Concorde #1977 jaar geleden ;Note=1977 {d}
October 19 - The Concorde (supersonic jet) landed in New York City for the first time on
  October 19, 1977.
  http://www.butlerwebs.com/holidays/october.htm
October 19, 1977 - Supersonic Concorde jet's 1st landing in New York City
  http://www.brainyhistory.com/events/1977/october_19_1977_150145.html
1977 - October 19 - Concorde 201 begins proving flights into New York‟s John F Kennedy
  International Airport.
  1977 - November 22 - Air France and BA begin simultaneous scheduled services to
  New York from Paris and London.
  http://www.aviation-news.co.uk/concordeChronology.html
10/19/1977 - Beginning in New York Kennedy air wearing of tests Beginning of a series of
  measurement of noise in New York to takeoff.
  http://www.salon-de-l-aviation.com/concorde_history.htm
When the U.S. ban on JFK Concorde operations was lifted in February 1977, New York
  banned Concorde locally. The ban came to an end on 17 October 1977 when the
  Supreme Court of the United States declined to overturn a lower court's ruling rejecting
  the Port Authority's efforts to continue the ban (The noise report noted that Air Force
  One, at the time a Boeing VC-137, was louder than Concorde at subsonic speeds and
  during takeoff and landing.). Scheduled service from Paris and London to New York's
  John F. Kennedy Airport began on 22 November 1977.
  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Concorde
22 novembre 1977, premier vol régulier du Concorde à destination de New York qui fait
  suite à une longue polémique avec les États-Unis.
  http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Concorde
October 19, The supersonic Concorde made its first landing in New York City in 1977. It
  made its first landing in Washington DC on May 24, 1976. The New York City landing
  was delayed due to noise pollution opposition.
  http://www.celebratetoday.com/ctbook.html

NL jaarl. meteoor regens
19.10. =Orionids meteoor regen (sterrenbeeld Orion, ±20/uur, 5/11d)

NL Christoffel Columbus
19.10. =1e reis Columbus - 'Isabela' in zicht #1492 jaar geleden ;Note=Fortune Island,
  Bahamas
1492, October 19 Columbus sites "Isabela" (Fortune Island, Bahamas)
  http://1492columbus.blogspot.com/2006/04/1492-in-history.html
                                      19 oktober



                                 afzonderlijke bestanden

USA-dates
19.10. =Yorktown - last military activity American Revolutionary War on land #1781 years
  ago* ;Note=1781, Lord Cornwallis's army surrenders to George Washington {d}
1781, Oct 19: Lord Cornwallis's army surrenders to George Washington; ends the
  American War of Independence
  http://www.johnowensmith.co.uk/histdate/
The American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), also known as the American War of
  Independence, began as a war between the Kingdom of Great Britain and thirteen
  united former British colonies on the North American continent and ended in a global
  war between several European great powers.
  The northern, southern, and naval theaters of the war converged in 1781 at Yorktown,
  Virginia. In early September, French naval forces defeated a British fleet at the Battle of
  the Chesapeake, cutting off Cornwallis' escape. Washington hurriedly moved American
  and French troops from New York, and a combined Franco-American force of 17,000
  men commenced the Siege of Yorktown in early October. For several days, the French
  and Americans bombarded the British defenses. Cornwallis' position quickly became
  untenable, and he surrendered his entire army of 7,000 men on October 19, 1781.
  With the surrender at Yorktown, King George lost control of Parliament to the peace
  party, and there were no further major military activities on land. The British had
  30,000 garrison troops occupying New York City, Charleston, and Savannah. The war
  continued at sea between the British and the French fleets in the West Indies.
  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/American_War_of_Independence
1781, October 19 Cornwallis surrenders at Yorktown at 2 PM; Revolutionary War ends.
  Ken Polsson, 2008 October 16, Chronology of World History (2008 October 19)
  http://www.islandnet.com/~kpolsson/worldhis/

USA-Maryland MD
19.10. =Annapolis - burning of the ship Peggy Stewart with its cargo of tea #1774 years
   ago (Annapolis Tea Party)* ;Note=1774, punishment for contravening the boycott on
   tea imports {d}
In 1692, Maryland became a royal colony with the Church of England as the established
   religion. Marylanders were taxed to support this church. To protest against another
   British tax, the ship Peggy Stewart with its cargo of tea was burned in the Annapolis
   harbor on Oct. 19, 1774. Peggy Stewart Day is still celebrated in Maryland.
   https://edit.britannica.com/getEditableToc?tocId=204311
The Peggy Stewart was a Maryland cargo vessel burned on October 19, 1774, in
   Annapolis as a punishment for contravening the boycott on tea imports which had been
   imposed in retaliation for the British treatment of the people of Boston following the
   Boston Tea Party. This event became known as the "Annapolis Tea Party".
   .. They arrived at Annapolis on the morning of 14 October 1774, and Anthony Stewart
   was notified of the tax payable on one small part of the cargo. .. Only four of the
   committee were available for a meeting that afternoon, so they invited the public to
   contribute to the discussion, and it was decided that all the cargo except the tea could
   be unloaded, 12 supervisors being appointed by the meeting to ensure that this
   stipulation was adhered to. A full committee meeting was then arranged for the morning
                                      19 oktober
  of the following Wednesday, 19 October, and over five days, a great deal of politics
  occurred. On the one hand, Stewart and the two Williams brothers met with committee
  chairman Charles Carroll and formulated an agreement that they would burn the tea,
  publish an apology in the Maryland Gazette, etc. The offer to burn the Peggy Stewart
  was enough to satisfy the mob, so the brig was moved to a convenient spot "with her
  sails and colours flying", and, after reading out a statement apologising for their conduct
  (which was subsequently published in the Gazette), Anthony Stewart, Joseph Williams
  and James Williams jointly set the vessel and the tea alight. Within a few hours, "in the
  presence of a great number of spectators" Peggy Stewart had burned down to the
  waterline. The event has since become known as the "Annapolis Tea Party".
  The burning is honored each year by a ceremony in Annapolis.
  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peggy_Steward




                                             ???

Bettara-Ichi, or 'Sticky-Sticky Fair', Tokyo, Japan (Oct 19 - 20) - This pickled radish fair
  honours Ebisu, one of seven Shinto good luck gods, from noon to 9:30 pm on both
  days. Traditionally, children run through the streets swinging radishes at friends,
  shouting "bettara" in warning, for bettara is what the radishes are called in Japan.
  Today, people buy from street stalls (mainly in the Kodemmacho area, mostly in the
  Takarada Ebisu Jinja shrine) good luck charms and religious images as well as bettara
  on straw ropes.
  wilsonsalmanac@yahoogroups.com
19 October - On this day, an annual fair called Bettara-Ichi ("Sticky-Sticky Fair")is held in
  Tokyo, Japan near the sacred shrine of the God Ebisu. Children carry sticky pickled
  radishes tied to straw ropes through the streets in order to chase away evil spirits and
  to receive blessings from the seven Shinto gods of good luck.
  grannymoon@verizon.net

19 octobre - A Bruxelles la seconde des deux foires franches, que Maximilien accorda à
  la ville, devait commencer le jour après la Saint-Luc. Ces foires qui avaient lieu sur la
  Grand'Place, furent transférées en 1833 au Grand Sablon et abolies en 1840 toutes les
  deux. Sous le directoire (an VII) une foire du 18 octobre jusqu'au 4 novembre devait
  remplacer celles existant antérieurement.
  Traditions et légendes de la Belgique, Tome second (Juillet-Décembre), 1870, Le
  Baron de Reinsberg-Düringsfeld

19.10. =Intern. Credit Union Day
  http://www.gone-ta-pott.com/OctoberCalendar.html

October 19, 2007 - United States: New Friends Day: This day always reminds me of the
  song "Make New Friends" by Sue Lynch. The lyrics are "make new friend by keep the
  old one, one is silver and one is gold..." This is a great day to get out into the world and
  talk it up with a new person. It is the perfect reason to make new friends.
                                      19 oktober
  http://www.associatedcontent.com/article/420391/holidays_on_earth_today_october_19
  .html

October 19, 2007 - United States: Evaluate Your Life Day: This day is a holiday to reflect
  on the negative and positive things in your life. It is a day to review over the things that
  are going wrong and make a game plan for the future.
  http://www.associatedcontent.com/article/420391/holidays_on_earth_today_october_19
  .html
October 19, 2010: Evaluate Your Life Day
  JohnKremer@BookMarket.com

October 19, 2007 - United States: National Mammography Day: This is the date setup to
  educate women about the importance of early breast cancer detection. Some people
  state that the senate started this date to be celebrated on October 21st however other
  people say it is celebrated today. I think it is an important health issue so why not just
  celebrate it on both dates.
  http://www.associatedcontent.com/article/420391/holidays_on_earth_today_october_19
  .html

October 19, 2007 - International: Dress Like a Dork Day: This holiday allows everyone to
  dress up like a dork. There were no resources dating why it was setup.
  http://www.associatedcontent.com/article/420391/holidays_on_earth_today_october_19
  .html

October 19, 2010: High School USA Day
  JohnKremer@BookMarket.com

October 19, 2010: Love Child Day
  JohnKremer@BookMarket.com

October 19, 2010: Check Bouncing Day
  JohnKremer@BookMarket.com

October 19, 2010: Our Lord of Miracles Day
  JohnKremer@BookMarket.com

October 19, 2010: Feast of the Fork
  JohnKremer@BookMarket.com

October 19, 2010: Yorktown Day
  JohnKremer@BookMarket.com

Scipio versloeg Hannibal in de slag bij Zama (19.10.202vC)
  http://195.0.110.36/detailpagina.cfm?id=470&programma=memo
The Battle of Zama, fought around October 19 of 202 BC, marked the final and decisive
  end of the Second Punic War. A Roman army led by Scipio Africanus defeated a
  Carthaginian force led by Hannibal. Soon after this defeat on their home ground, the
  Carthaginian senate sued for peace, ending the 17-year war.
  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Zama
                                       19 oktober
October 19, Dinner forks first made their appearance in 1098 in the land now known as
  Italy. On this day, use your hands to eat your food.
  http://www.celebratetoday.com/ctbook.html

???
Na honderdenelf jaar eindigde de honderdjarige oorlog (19.10.1453)
  http://195.0.110.36/detailpagina.cfm?id=470&programma=memo
La guerre de Cent Ans couvre la période de 116 ans (1337 à 1453) pendant laquelle
  s‟affrontent la France et l‟Angleterre lors de nombreux conflits, entrecoupés de trêves
  plus ou moins longues. La guerre commence lorsque Édouard III d‟Angleterre envoie
  un défi (déclaration de guerre) au roi de France Philippe VI de Valois. Le traité de paix
  définitif, signé le 29 août 1475 à Picquigny en Picardie, en marque officiellement la fin.
  Cependant, on retient plutôt l'année 1453, date à laquelle les Anglais sont totalement
  chassés de France (sauf Calais). Une bataille est livrée le 17 juillet 1453, à Castillon,
  aucune paix n‟est conclue, mais ils subissent une difficile guerre civile et il n'y a plus de
  combats sur le continent entre les deux pays après cette date qui marque, pour
  beaucoup d'historiens, la fin du conflit.
  http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Guerre_de_Cent_Ans

Het huwelijk tussen Isabella van Castilië en Ferdinand van Aragón vond plaats op 19
   oktober 1469. Het was een kleine bruiloft in aanwezigheid van slechts een handvol
   zorgvuldig gekozen gasten. .. Omdat Ferdinand en Isabella neef en nicht waren, moest
   paus Paulus II het huwelijk goedkeuren, maar in de haast om de ceremonie te
   organiseren was er geen tijd meer geweest om zijn toestemming te krijgen. De brief
   met zijn instemming die de aartsbisschop van Toledo tijdens de plechtigheid voorlas,
   was een vervalsing. Gelukkig voor het paar gaf de paus later met plezier en
   terugwerkende kracht zijn toestemming.
   Verrassende Verhalen uit de geschiedenis - ISBN 978 90 6407 814 9 - wettelijk depot
   D-2008-0621-33, blz. 384
Isabella I, bijgenaamd la Católica (de Katholieke) (Ávila, 22 april 1451 - Medina del
   Campo, 26 november 1504), was koningin van Castilië van 1474 tot aan haar dood. In
   het Spaans heet ze Isabel, in het Nederlands ook wel Elisabeth. Hendrik IV werd op 19
   september 1468 gedwongen Isabella als opvolgster te erkennen, in het nadeel van zijn
   eigen dochter Johanna (bijgenaamd la Beltraneja, wier legitimiteit overigens betwijfeld
   werd). Isabella's huwelijk met Ferdinand van Aragón werd voltrokken te Valladolid op
   19 oktober 1469. Zij besteeg de troon op 11 december 1474, als opvolgster van
   Hendrik IV. Toen haar echtgenoot Ferdinand in 1479 koning van Aragón werd, was de
   feitelijke vereniging van beide koninkrijken tot stand gekomen.
   http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Isabella_I_van_Castili%C3%AB

??? 1742 - 1752
June 10 - In 1752, by flying a kite in stormy weather, Benjamin Franklin proved that
  lightening is electricity. There is some debate about Franklin having actually done the
  experiment. He first reported the experiment on October 19, 1742, in his "Pennsylvania
  Gazet
  http://www.celebratetoday.com/ctbook.html

Slag van Leipzig - 14-19 oktober 1813 - het oosten van Duitsland
   Geallieerden onder bevel van prins Karl Philipp von Schwarzenberg* <> Fransen onder
   bevel van keizer Napoleon
                                      19 oktober
  In de vroege uren van 14 oktober stuitte de voorhoede van Schwarzenberg bij het
  dorpje Liebertwolkwitz op de troepen van Murat, die onmiddellijk een tegenaanval
  inzette die de hele ochtend duurde. De eigenlijke slag vond plaats op 16 oktober.
  Napoleon wist te ontkomen en trok zich terug in Frankrijk totdat een overweldigend
  aantal geallieerde troepen hem op 11 april 1814 dwong troonafstand te doen.
  De Zeventig Grootste Veldslagen aller Tijden - ISBN 90-77699-03-1 - wettelijk depot
  D/2005/45/256, blz. 188-192
The Battle of the Nations (or Battle of Leipzig or German: Völkerschlacht bei Leipzig) on
  16 - 19 October, 1813 was one of the most decisive defeats suffered by Napoleon
  Bonaparte.
  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Leipzig
De Slag bij Leipzig (16 oktober - 19 oktober 1813), ook bekend als de Volkerenslag, was
  een van de zwaarste nederlagen van Napoleon Bonaparte.
  http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Slag_bij_Leipzig
La bataille de Leipzig (16 - 19 octobre 1813), aussi appelée la Bataille des Nations, fut la
  plus grande confrontation des guerres napoléoniennes, et la plus grande défaite subie
  par Napoléon Ier.
  http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bataille_de_Leipzig

October 19 - United States: Star Spangled Banner: This date marks the first time that the
  national anthem was sung in 1814. The song was written by Francis Scott Key in 1814.
  ((?? 14.9.1814 geschreven))
  http://www.associatedcontent.com/article/420391/holidays_on_earth_today_october_19
  .html

Kolonel Nypels die pas uit het Hollands leger was getreden, werd tot brigadegeneraal
  benoemd en op 5 oktober [1830] tot opperbevelhebber aangesteld.
  Hij had de leiding over twee colonnes, aangevoerd door Mellinet en Niellon.
  De Hollanders, na uit Brussel te zijn verdreven, hadden zich teruggetrokken en onder
  bevel van Prins Frederik, een afwachtigsstelling ingenomen rond Antwerpen.
  Vertrokken uit Leuven stak Niellon op 15 oktober [1830] in Aarschot de Demer over.
  Heist-op-den-Berg werd op 16 en Lier op 18 oktober [1830] ingenomen.
  Mellinet nam Mechelen in op 18 oktober, Duffel op 19 en Walem op 20 en 21 oktober
  [1830]. Hij rukte meteen op tot Kontich.
  Op 24 oktober [1830] voegden de twee colonnes zich bij elkaar in Oude God (Mortsel)
  en leverden ze die dag en de twee daaropvolgende dagen slag in Berchem.
  Op 26 oktober [1830] brak in de stad opstand uit.
  De vijand moest zich terugtrekken in de citadel, na eerst met de bevolking een
  wapenstilstand gesloten te hebben.
  De 27e drongen onze troepen de metropool binnen.
  Geschiedenis van het Belgisch leger, deel 1 van 1830 tot 1919 - wettelijk depot
  D/1982/2916/10, blz. 27-29

Dynamite was invented by Alfred Nobel and was the first safely manageable explosive
  stronger than black powder. Nobel obtained patents for his invention: in England on 7
  May 1867; and in Sweden on 19 October 1867. He originally sold dynamite as "Nobel's
  Blasting Powder".
  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dynamite
>>Zweden 19.9.1867
                                       19 oktober
The Papal States covered central Italy including Rome. It was part of the Roman Republic
  from 1798 until the Papal States were restored on March 24, 1814. The Papal States
  were incorporated into Italy on October 19, 1870. Vatican City was established on June
  7, 1929.
  https://www.globalfinancialdata.com/index_tabs.php?action=showghoc&country_name=
  Vatican

Noting that the first public exhibition of projected motion pictures in the United States was
  at Koster and Bial's Music Hall on 34th Street in New York City on April 23, 1896, the
  first "storefront theater" in the US dedicated exclusively to showing motion pictures was
  Vitascope Hall, established on Canal Street, New Orleans, Louisiana June 26, 1896: it
  was converted from a vacant store. The crucial factor was Edison's decision to sell a
  small number of Vitascope Projectors as a business venture in April-May 1896. In the
  basement of the new Ellicott Square Building, Main Street, Buffalo, New York, Mitchell
  Mark and his brother Moe Mark added what they called Edison‟s Vitascope Theater
  (entered through Edisonia Hall), which they opened to the general public on Monday,
  19 October 1896 in collaboration with Rudolph Wagner, who had moved to Buffalo
  after spending several years working at the Edison laboratories: this 72 seat, plush
  theater was designed from scratch solely to show motion pictures.
  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Movie_theater

Alberto Santos-Dumont vloog als eerste rond de Eifeltoren.
   De mecenas Henry Deutsch de la Muerthe had in april 1900 honderdduizend Franse
   francs beloofd voor "l'aeronaute capable d'effectuer le trajet aller et retour entre le siège
   de l'Aero-Club de France à Saint-Cloud et la Tour Eifel, soit dix kilomètres, en moins de
   trente minutes." Op 19 oktober 1901 is Alberto Santos-Dumont daarin geslaagd.
   Hij deed dat met een dirigeable, een ballon met een motor. Eigenlijk was hij 40
   seconden te laat, maar het publiek joelde: geef hem de prijs. De jury had er veertien
   dagen bedenktijd voor nodig en gunde hem dan toch het geld. Een kwart deelde
   Santos-Dumont uit aan zijn helpers, drie kwart verdeelde hij onder de Parijse armen.
   http://195.0.110.36/detailpagina.cfm?id=470&programma=memo
Alberto Santos-Dumont (July 20, 1873 - July 23, 1932) was an early pioneer of aviation.
   He was born and died in Brazil. He spent most of his adult life in France. Santos-
   Dumont, besides building the first plane, designed, built, and flew the first practical
   dirigible balloons. In doing so he became the first person to demonstrate that routine,
   controlled flight was possible. This "conquest of the air", in particular winning the
   Deutsch de la Meurthe prize on October 19, 1901 on a flight that rounded the Eiffel
   Tower, made him one of the most famous people in the world during the early 20th
   century. In addition to his pioneering work in airships, Santos-Dumont made the first
   public European flight of an airplane in Paris on October 23, 1906.
   http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alberto_Santos-Dumont
1901, October 19 Santos-Dumont proves airship maneuverable by circling Eiffel Tower.
   Ken Polsson, 2008 October 16, Chronology of World History (2008 October 19)
   http://www.islandnet.com/~kpolsson/worldhis/

De eerste slag om Ieper begon (19.10.1914)
  http://195.0.110.36/detailpagina.cfm?id=470&programma=memo
?? >> 18.10.1914
Eerste Slag om Ieper - Datum: 19 oktober - 22 november 1914
  http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eerste_Slag_om_Ieper
                                      19 oktober
The First Battle of Ypres, also called the Battle of Flanders, was the last major battle of the
  first year of World War I (1914). This battle and the Battle of the Yser marked the end
  of the so-called Race to the Sea. This battle was the first battle of Ypres. Actually a
  series of battles, the battle starting on 19 October the battle finishes according to the
  various histories on 13 November (France), 22 November British and 30 November for
  the Germans.
  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/First_Battle_of_Ypres

1918, October 19 - The American Engineering Standards Committee (AESC) is formed
  by the American Institute of Electrical Engineers (now IEEE), the American Society of
  Mechanical Engineers (ASME), American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE), the
  American Institute of Mining and Metallurgical Engineers (AIMME) and the American
  Society for Testing Materials (ASTM). Its purpose is to establishing a national body to
  coordinate standards development and to serve as a clearinghouse for the work of
  standards developing agencies. The U.S. Departments of War, Navy and Commerce
  are invited to join this organization. AESC will become the American National Standards
  Institute (ANSI) in 1969.
  http://www.historyofscience.com/G2I/docs/timeline/timeline_1910_1919.shtml

???
19 October 1926 - Australia, New Zealand, Canada and South Africa are recognised as
  autonomous. In 1923, a dominion's right to make a treaty with a foreign power had
  been accepted. The Imperial Conference in London went further towards legally
  defining a dominion by recognising that the dominions (Canada, Australia, New
  Zealand and South Africa) were autonomous and equal in status, a decision that was
  later affirmed by the 1931 Statute of Westminster.
  http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/timeline/worldwars_timeline_noflash.shtml
The Balfour Declaration of 1926, named after the British Lord President of the Council
  Arthur Balfour, Earl of Balfour, was the name given to a report resulting from the 1926
  Imperial Conference of British Empire leaders in London. It states of the United
  Kingdom and the Dominions: "They are autonomous Communities within the British
  Empire, equal in status, in no way subordinate one to another in any aspect of their
  domestic or external affairs, though united by a common allegiance to the Crown, and
  freely associated as members of the British Commonwealth of Nations."
  The inter-imperial relations committee, chaired by Balfour, drew up the document
  preparatory to its approval by the imperial premiers on November 15.
  The conclusions of the conference were restated by the 1930 conference and
  incorporated in the December 1931 Statute of Westminster by which the British
  Parliament renounced any legislative authority over dominion affairs except as
  specifically provided in dominion law.
  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Balfour_Declaration_of_1926
INTER-IMPERIAL RELATIONS COMMITTEE - REPORT, PROCEEDINGS AND
  MEMORANDA
  .. We were appointed at the meeting of the Imperial Conference on the 25th October,
  1926, to investigate all the questions on the Agenda affecting Inter-Imperial Relations. ..
  Signed of behalf of the Committee, BALFOUR, Chairman - 2, Whitehall Gardens,
  S.W.1, - November 18, 1926.
  http://www.foundingdocs.gov.au/resources/transcripts/cth11_doc_1926.pdf
Dominion status was officially defined in the Balfour Declaration (1926) and in the Statute
  of Westminster (1931), which recognized these territories as "autonomous
                                      19 oktober
  Communities within the British Empire," establishing these states as equals to the
  United Kingdom, making them essentially independent members of the Commonwealth
  of Nations.
  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dominion

De eerste reis over land van Engeland naar Australië per auto was een prestatie van
  Francis Birtles in een 14pk Bean.
  Hij verliet Londen op 19 oktober 1927 en arriveerde in Sydney op 15 juli 1928.
  Het Groot Guinness Auto Boek (bijgewerkt tot 1980) - ISBN 90-245-0670-0, blz. 224
Francis Edwin Birtles (7 November 1881 in Fitzroy, Melbourne - 1 July 1941 in Sydney)
  was the third child of David Edwin Birtles and Sarah Jane Bartlett. Francis was an
  Australian adventurer who set many long-distance cycling and driving records, including
  becoming in 1927 the first man to drive a car from England to Australia. He departed
  from Australia House in London on 19 October 1927. In an era when there were few
  roads and gasoline supplies sparse, the epic eight month journey carried him across
  mountains, deserts and through tropical jungles and included a number of sea voyages
  - the last being from Singapore to Darwin. He travelled via Europe, Egypt, Persia (now
  Iran), India, Burma and Malaya. On arrival in Darwin, his car was seized by customs
  officials demanding import duty, until direct intervention by the Prime Minister Stanley
  Bruce averted the situation. He continued south via Brisbane and Sydney to the official
  finishing point of the journey at the General Post Office on Elizabeth Street, Melbourne.
  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Francis_Birtles

19 oktober 1932 - koning Gustaaf Adolf van Zweden & prinses Sibylla von Sachsen-
  Coburg;
  http://royalehuwelijken.web-
  log.nl/royalehuwelijken/wie_zijn_er_getrouwd_in_de_maand/index.html

The Long March was a massive military retreat undertaken by the Red Armies of the
  Chinese Communist Party (CCP), the forerunner of the People's Liberation Army, to
  evade the pursuit of the Kuomintang (KMT or Chinese Nationalist Party) army. There
  was not one Long March, but several, as various Communist armies in the south
  escaped to the north and west. The most well known is the march from Jiangxi province
  which began in October 1934. Although the literal translation of the Chinese Cháng
  Zhçng is “Long March”, official publications of the People's Republic of China refer to
  "The Long March of the Red Army". The Long March most commonly refers to the
  transfer of the main group of the First (or Central) Red Army, which included the
  leaders of the Communist Party of China, from Yudu in the province of Jiangxi, to
  Yan'an in Shaanxi. In this sense, the Long March lasted from 16 October 1934 to 19
  October 1935. In a broader view, the Long March included two other forces retreating
  under pressure from the Kuomintang: the Second Red Army and the Fourth Red Army.
  The retreat of all the Red Armies was not complete until 22 October 1936, when the
  three forces linked up in Shaanxi.
  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Long_March

Streptomycin is an antibiotic drug, the first of a class of drugs called aminoglycosides to
   be discovered, and was the first antibiotic remedy for tuberculosis. It was first isolated
   on October 19, 1943 by Albert Schatz, a graduate student, in the laboratory of Selman
   Abraham Waksman at Rutgers University.
   http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Streptomycin
                                     19 oktober
Albert Schatz (2 February 1922 - 17 January 2005) was a scientist who was eventually
   named the discoverer of streptomycin, an antibiotic remedy used to treat tuberculosis
   and a number of other diseases. In 1943 Schatz returned to graduate school and took
   the dangerous job of looking for an antibiotic for tuberculosis, working alone in a
   basement laboratory at Cook College in Rutgers University. After 3 months Schatz
   isolated two strains of Actinobacteria, which could effectively cease the growth of
   several penicillin-resistant bacteria, on October 19, 1943. Originally, the discovery of
   streptomycin was credited only to Schatz's supervisor, Selman Waksman, who would
   later receive a Nobel Prize in 1952 for this work. Schatz, however, strongly contested
   the crediting and in 1950 brought litigation against Waksman, requesting recognition as
   streptomycin's co-discoverer and a portion of streptomycin royalties. Schatz's requests
   were eventually granted in an out-of-court settlement.
   http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Albert_Schatz_(scientist)

End of state of war with Germany was granted by the U.S. Congress on 19 October 1951,
  after a request by president Truman on 9 July. In the Petersberg Agreement of
  November 22, 1949 it was noted that the West German government wanted an end to
  the state of war, but the request could not be granted. The U.S. state of war with
  Germany was being maintained for legal reasons, and though it was softened
  somewhat it was not suspended since "the U.S. wants to retain a legal basis for
  keeping a U.S. force in Western Germany".
  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_World_War_II_%281945%29

October 19, 1965 - Puma-Schuhfabrik Rudolf Dassler KG registered "Puma" trademark
  (sport shoes);
  http://www.kipnotes.com/RetailApparel.htm
October 19, 1965 - registered "Puma" trademark (sport shoes)
  http://www.kipnotes.com/footwear.htm

1967, 7 Mar - First landing of North Sea gas.
  1970, 19 Oct - British Petroleum (BP) makes major oil find in UK sector of the North
  Sea.
  1972, 7 Aug - Esso-Shell confirms discovery of major North Sea oilfield off Shetlands.
  1975, 10 Jun - UK's first oil from North Sea starts to flow.
  http://www.bized.co.uk/dataserv/chron/kf5579.htm

June 30, In 1973, a solar eclipse, predicted as the longest for 1,000 years, was observed
  by British, French and American scientists aboard the French prototype Concorde 001
  supersonic aircraft on a flight from Las Palmas, Canaries to Fort Lamy, Chad. The path
  of totality crossed the Atlantic, the Sahara Desert and East Africa. The moon's shadow
  travelled at over 3,000 km per hour. Flying at 55,000 feet, the jet's speed made
  possible a continuous view of the solar eclipse for 74 minutes, ten times longer than
  could be seen by an observer on the ground. Four months later, Concorde 001, the first
  prototype to fly, was retired on 19 Oct 1973, to the French Air Museum at Le Bourget
  Airport. It had made 225 supersonic flights in a total of 397.
  http://www.todayinsci.com/6/6_30.htm

zie 27.5.1972, 30.9.1972, 24.9.1975, 19.10.1975
19.10. =Frankrijk - laatste SNCF stoomtreinrit #1975 jaar geleden (gehuurde trein)*
   ;Note=1975, Lyon<>Veynes via Grenoble, 141 R 1187 {d}
                                     19 oktober
En France, en quelle année a-t-on remplacé les locomotives à vapeur ?
  Dernier train assuré par la SNCF (affrètement pour une association) en vapeur, 19
  octobre 1975, par la 141 R 1187 du dépôt de Vénissieux, en assurant un train spécial
  aller et retour entre Lyon et Veynes via Grenoble et la ligne des Alpes.
  Dernier train vapeur en France par la CFTA (pour le compte de la SNCF) le 20
  novembre 1975 avec la 140 C 38 du dépôt de Gray.
  D'autres locomotives à vapeur ont continué à circuler dans le nord de la Lorraine entre
  Bouzonville et les aciéries de Dillingen en Allemagne, tractés par des 150 DB jusqu'en
  1976.
  http://fr.answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20100127073416AAb3oyr
La Mikado 141 R fut un type de locomotive à vapeur dit « unifié » de la SNCF qui fut
  largement utilisé sur l'ensemble du réseau français de 1945 à 1974. .. Seuls des trains
  spéciaux de voyageurs ont eu lieu à partir de 1972 à 1975 avec des locomotives
  appartenant encore à la SNCF, comme avec la 141 R 1126 du dépôt de Narbonne et
  les 141 R 1244 et 1187 du dépôt de Vénissieux. C'est le 19 octobre 1975 que circula
  la dernière 141 R encore en service à la SNCF, la 141 R 1187 du dépôt de Vénissieux,
  en assurant un train spécial aller et retour entre Lyon et Veynes via Grenoble et la ligne
  des Alpes.
  http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/141_R
Quelques exemples qui montrent que la vapeur n'a pas connu de fin absolue :
  - après le dernier train voyageur en traction vapeur SNCF il y a eu des tractions par
  machines non SNCF
  - après le dernier marchandises en traction vapeur SNCF, il y a eu des tractions vapeur
  de train(s) désherbeur(s)
  - après le dernier train désherbeur en traction vapeur, il y a eu des déplacements de
  machines seules
  En 1977 le temps de la traction fut définitivement clôt avec le dernier déplacement
  d'une machine à vapeur (pour transfert). Mais l'année suivante connut la première
  circulation de train touristique à vapeur, et il se produisit sur ligne SNCF.
  http://tvnp.railfrance.org/webm.pass_vide.html

Night of the Proms is een muziekfestival die jaarlijks georganiseerd wordt in Europa.
  Geïnspireerd door de Proms met de Last Night of the Proms in Londen, organiseerden
  twee studenten, Jan Van Esbroeck en Jan Vereecke, op 19 oktober 1985 een Night of
  the Proms in het sportpaleis in Antwerpen. De volgende jaren werden er meer avonden
  ingelast en trokken ze de grens over. In 1990 vond er een try-out plaats in Apeldoorn.
  Sinds 1991 vindt de Night of the Proms jaarlijks in Ahoy' in Rotterdam plaats. Vanaf
  1994 is er Night of the Proms in Duitsland en vanaf 1999 ook in Oostenrijk, Frankrijk,
  Zwitserland, Spanje en Denemarken. In 2003 werden 63 concerten gegeven.
  http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Night_of_the_Proms

								
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