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articles on multimedia in education

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									Proc. of the 10th Workshop on Multimedia in Physics Teaching and Learning (EPS - MPTL 10), Berlin 2005

Trends in Multimedia Physics Education: Review of Literature Database
Zbigniew Meger z@meger.pl, zmeger@wste.pl Abstract Many issues of multimedia teaching and learning can be found in numerous sources. To effectively outline these issues are used new methods of gaining and accumulating information. In this way, scientific investigations can be covered and described at length on the one hand, and on the other, both unexplored und well-know fields can be highlighted. Contemporary efforts at collecting scientific materials should not only encompass traditional sources such as books and articles in scientific magazines. Multimedia sources and Internet websites with scientific publications are also very important. All the materials were included in a database LiDa, where are possible different processing of data. In this way, were investigated Trends in multimedia physics teaching and learning. 1. Introduction Issues of multimedia teaching and learning can be found in numerous sources. To effectively outline these issues, new methods of gaining and accumulating information are used. In this way, scientific investigations can be covered and described at length on the one hand, and on the other, both unexplored and well-known fields can be highlighted [2]. Contemporary efforts at collecting scientific materials should not only encompass traditional sources such as books and articles in scientific magazines. Multimedia sources and Internet websites with scientific publications are also very important [5]. Traditional literature sources and present electronic sources can be administered through a common platform. Individual use of such a database facilitates an advanced searching for any given reference as well as organizing a database in such a way that we can easily reach our objectives. If we want e.g. to write a book about e-learning, we can organize our literature in the bank in such a way that the applied structure will be a copy of following chapters in any publication on hand. If we want to find deficiencies in investigations of multimedia, a different kind of division is necessary. 2. Literature Database “LiDa” A database named LiDa, which is accessible in three languages (in English: LiteratureDatabase, in German: Literatur-Datenbank and in Polish: Literatura-Dane) was prepared to effectively manage collecting information. Thus formed databank includes the traditional paper source, electronic media and indications to multimedia sites. Sources are recorded in the form of single files, among others as scanned images and PDF files. The whole database is administered through a program in database management system. Standard XML was applied for the basic databases. It assures, in practical use, a wide compatibility with different hardware platforms and in particular, a possibility of Fig. 1 A Windows view of LiDa database. 1

use in different database management systems [3]. Fig. 1 presents the LiDa database in Windows environment. This external shell (user interface) in database management system Access is quite popular and well-known by many users. Hence, service and application of such a system should not be difficult. A very large quantity of accessible function assures the possibility of elastic adaptation of the created databank to our needs. It is possible not only to prepare new divisions on particular issues, but also to choose only these literature sources, which will be required in our current work. In many cases we can use here full sources, which can be applied (e.g. while writing a book) at every moment in the process of developing scientific work. The literature database LiDa is available also in the form of Internet sites - Fig. 2. To this purpose, the ground structure of XML language was used. An external shell was prepared in PHP language, which assures that the processing of data is going directly in the server. This solution guarantees a quick presentation of results as well as access to many functions, which otherwise could be not attainable [4]

Fig. 2 A view of LiDa database in an Internet browser accessible in the Internet.
Today, the LiDa database contains mainly books (57%) and articles (42%). There are also classified some Internet sites with research content. Illustration 3 presents this feature in detail. Fig. 3 Content of LiDa database
The main research areas in the whole database are represented in illustration 4. We see that the most popular areas in investigations are Internet and multimedia applications. Each research area can be investigated separately. Fig. 4 Main research areas in database LiDa

www 1% articles 42% books 57%

psychology 7%

other 13%

Internet 34%

interaktivity 15% multimedia 25%

individual learning 2% didactics 4%

3. Trends in Literature The LiDa database covers not only the newest sources from literature within the range multimedia in physics education but also other relevant topics. At the same time different factors such as the year of publication, field of research, topic etc. can be taken into account.

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On the one hand, one can find areas in which to locate a great many sources of literature. It is done simply by counting the number of publications year by year and on this basis, determine strong fields of any research. On the other hand, one can define ranges of multimedia physics instruction which are today not popular and perhaps, need more attention. All of this can help us to identify future trends in investigations and formulate questions, which can be addressed in further work and in further learning research.

200 180 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005

Fig. 5 Trends in literature – all sources in database Sources of literature can be arranged by the criterion of year of publication. Illustration 5 shows all sources in the LiDa database organized according to the years of publication. We see a large growth in 2004, never noted before (the data in the year 2005 are still not complete). It is interesting what underlines this growth.

Number of publications Number of publications

70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004
Fig. 6 Trends in literature – e-learning

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It is also possible to arrange the sources of literature in different subsections according to years of publication. Illustration 6 shows only these sources which concern e-Learning and Web applications in education. One can see that in 2004 the number of publications in this area grew noticeably. This illustration is similar to the previous picture and the interest in e-learning explains the general growth of literature sources.

18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004

Fig. 7 Trends in literature – general statements of didactics There are two example ranges: general statements of didactics and interactivity are presented in illustrations 7 and 8. Here the tendencies are not so clearly visible as in the case of elearning.

Number of publications Number of publications

35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004
Fig. 8 Trends in literature – Interactivity We can also present other illustrations in different areas of computer supported instruction. For example, figure 9 presents how seriously technical problems of computer teaching and learning were treated in literature. This issue is often strongly connected with e-learning 4

applications. Illustration 10 shows how often typical physical and experimental applications are presented in literature in following years. This subject is also less connected with e-learning applications.

70 Number of publications 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004
Fig. 9 Trends in literature – technical problems

12 Number of publications 10 8 6 4 2 0 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004
Fig. 10 Trends in literature – typical physical applications

The analysis of the number of publications in following years in different subjects shows mostly a weakly rising tendency, but with no dramatic increase in one year. Only in the area of e-learning and other related issues, do we observe a sharp increase in publications. This confirms the thesis about the growing position of e-learning and web-based instruction..

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4. Review We can verify the presented trends in a different way - using a search machine. According to literature data, we could find about 1,000,000 web pages with the term "e-Learning" in the year 2002 by a search machine Google [1]. The more recent results for January, June and September 2005 are presented in illustration 11. We see a sharply rising trend in the e-learning range. It will certainly be reflected in sources of literature in the next years. The main tendency of today's teaching and learning is confirmed in this way.

70 000 000 60 000 000 50 000 000 40 000 000 30 000 000 20 000 000 10 000 000 0 2002 2005 2005'06 2005'09

Fig. 11 Number of web sites with the term “e-learning” found with Google search machine. Besides, there are also other issues of computer supported instruction not as strongly represented in literature as e-learning. Only the branches which relate to e-learning are more emphatically exemplified in scientific literature in recent years. All of this indicates the growing position of e-learning and other related issues. References [1] Baumgartner Peter, Häfele Hartmurt, Meier-Häfele Kornelia, 2002, E-Learning Praxisbuch. Auswahl von Lernplatformem. Marktübersicht - Funktionen - Fachbegriffe, Studien Verlag [2] Klaner Andreas, 2004, Lernen Online. Vorteile und Besonderheiten des Online-Lernens. Geeignete Lerntechniken, Humboldt [3] Meger Zbigniew, 2005, Analysis of E-learning Literature through Use of Authors System of LiDa Database, I Konferencja Nowe technologie w kształceniu na odległość [4] Oldenettel Frank, 2004, Integration digitaler Bibliotheken in Learning-ManagementSysteme, disseration.de [5] Steinmann Uwe, 2002, Anwendungsentwicklung für die Aus- und Weiterbildung auf Basis eines Hypermedia-Systems, Logos Verlag Berlin

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