end of world war 2 by jongordo


									              History and Background of the United Nations Council of Europe

At the end of World War II, much of Europe was left in shambles, countries were devastated by
communism, the economy was dwindling, and human suffering was at an all time high. Europe
was faced with the challenge of reconstructing not only their economic, but their social
development. The Council of Europe was created a few years following the war, in 1949, with
the idea of creating a united European nation. In coming years, the Council has established a
democratic doctrine intending to find solutions to the challenges facing European society. The
Council is based on the foundation of human rights as well as social and legislative
development. They have become the leading human rights organization in Europe. There are
47 states that make up the Council, as well as five observer countries, all of which ratified the
European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR). The ECHR is the building block of which
fundamental rights are not only stated, but thoroughly protected through the European Court.
Since its establishment the Council of Europe has protected democracy and human rights as
well as aided in promoting diversity and education.

       Eliminating Trafficking: The Campaign Opposing the Trade of Human Beings

The concept of slavery seems to be something that is seen only in history books. The very idea
of selling a human being is inconceivable to the educated mind. It is not only ethically
intolerable, but it is also legally prohibited in every country in the world. It is disturbing to learn,
however, that there are 27 million people around the world who are victims of a new form of
slavery called human trafficking. Trafficking is the illegal sale of human beings for the purpose of
exploitation. Threat, bribes, and corruption force people to be sold into labor, prostitution, or
even for the use of human organs. Governments around the world are educating citizens on the
reality of new slavery. There have been hundreds of new civil rights acts, conventions, and
campaigns protecting victims and punishing culprits of human trade.

Human trafficking strips a person of their basic human rights. The United Nations is in their
maximum effort to abolish trafficking around the world. The UN Office of Drugs and Crime
(UNODC) in a partnership with the United Nations Interregional Crime and Justice Research
Institute (UNICRI) has established a Global Programme against Trafficking in Human Beings
(GPAT). This programme provides awareness and support on an international level along with
the backing of the UN High Commission for Human Rights and the UN Economic and Social
Council. The United Nations Office for Drug Control and Crime Prevention (ODCCP) also
battles this modern day slavery by warning millions of potential victims about the dangers of
trafficking through its Global TV Campaign on Human Trafficking.

The issue of human trafficking is of great importance to Europe as it directly and severely
affects its nations. Every year, the number of victims continues to rise due to an unorganized
level of commitment to the issue. In a passionate effort, the Council of Europe established a
campaign to end trafficking. In 2006, the Campaign to Combat Trafficking in Human Beings was
introduced. It is estimated that 80% of exploited people are women and the UN Children’s Fund
(UNICEF) approximates that 50% of all human smuggling victims are children. These victims
are often transported outside their homeland and the crimes are scarcely reported despite it
being a profitable global business for the offenders. Since its promotion, Europe has already
seen a decrease in trafficking. A 2007 report showed that three European nations have already
progressed into the Tier 1 grouping of the United States cataloged tier system, meaning they
are doing the preeminent job of regulating human trafficking
The Campaign goal is to raise knowledge and understanding of trafficking to not only citizens
but to government authorities as well. Parts of the movement include training of law
enforcement personnel, including police and gendarmerie, on the realities and causes of human
trafficking. The goal is increased prosecutions of traffickers and protection of trafficked
individuals through expanded identification. Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) are a
prime source of support in the fight against trafficking, with the help of these established groups
a broader number of citizens are reached and the promotion of the campaign is heightened.
Trafficking in human beings challenges the moral principles on which the Council of Europe was
formed and with the help of governments, and victims, an end to this senseless act will result.

          Eradicating Violence – Combating Domestic Violence Against Women

“I object to violence; the evil it does is permanent,” proclaimed Mahatma Gandhi, India’s former
political and spiritual leader who held a firm philosophy on non-violence. Though his words
spoke of civil disobedience, the expression resounds a widely held belief on the power that
violence has on us all. Domestic violence is no exception to this belief. Violence against women
has risen to an all time high and has become a worldwide crisis in recent years. Domestic
violence can be defined as aggressive behavior that is used to maintain power and control over
a family member, spouse or loved one. This abuse can be emotional, physical or sexual and is
the cause of psychological or bodily harm.

Domestic violence has no preference, it occurs in all cultures. People of all ages, races, social
classes, education levels, and religions can be victims or offenders of this prevalent behavior.
Of these violent encounters, it is figured that 95% of the cases are against women, making
females five to eight times more likely than males to be victimized by someone in their
household. According to a UNICEF study, 20-50% of the female population of the world will
become the victims of domestic violence. At times these violent acts result lifelong health
problems or even death. The issue seems to be a never ending battle, yet education, support
groups, and legislature are making statistics more available, assistance more attainable, and
the acts more frequently punishable by law.

Every single member state in the Council of Europe deals with the issue of domestic violence
against women. Violence against women has catapulted to the most frequent of human rights
violations in the world. In the past decade, much has been done about defending this universal
human right through governing bodies and outreach programs. In 2006 the Council launched
the Campaign to Combat Violence against Women, including Domestic Violence. This
campaign objective focuses on the stripping of women’s rights through physical violent behavior
in society and in the home. It is making strides in both social and legislative awareness by
hosting national action plans and seminars throughout Europe.

Along with emotional and physical well being of a human life, key findings and economic studies
have shown that the cost of domestic violence on countries is yet another negative effect of
aggressive behavior. In a study documented by the University of Osnabruck in Germany,
the predicted the cost for the entire Council of Europe area was estimated at 33 billion Euros.
These expenditures were the most severe in the criminal justice and health sectors of each
country and the lower costs were associated with victim’s assistance.

Before the Council initiated the campaign, countries such as Germany and Denmark had not
adopted a national plan of action against domestic violence. The movement to bring violence
against women to the forefront has shed light on an important matter, and those countries,
along with others, began their plans of action during the summer of this year. Member states are
urged to make significant progress in all these areas, and will be monitored to assure
implementation. There is much to be said of the importance of this campaign, studies are
proving that the monies spent will not only benefit the victims of human rights violation but as
well as the economy. With further involvement from all member states in the departments of
education and social justice, we will be more able to embrace a better future and make better a
vast human rights issue.
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