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					MULTIPLE FAILURES




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            .
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         LVD
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Lake Pontchartrain




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                MICHOUD B
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       BU
From poor design, to construction not matching plans, to levees not high enough to




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         LL
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           AR
withstand the storms they were designed for, man-made weaknesses in the hurricane




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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             EASTERN NEW ORLEANS
protection system failed metro New Orleans on August 29.




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       E  .
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              D   .




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       RE
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          BLV
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     NE




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          AD
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Lakefront                      HAY




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         CR




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             B
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Airport




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           OW




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             LV
                                                                                                                                                     London Avenue Canal                                                                                                                                                                          RD.




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               D.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            DER
                                                                                                                                                     levee breaches                                                                                                                                                                      S   ON
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     RRI                                                         .
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  MO                                                        BLVD




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                BLV
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     DOW
                                                 17th Street Canal                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                ST
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    UNO                                                                                                                                                       FORE
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       LAKE




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 D.
                                                 levee breach




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      NMA
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          . SIM               ON DR.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   LEON C




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         N RD
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            .
                                                                                                                                                                 .
                                                                                                                                              ROBERT E. LEE B LVD
                                                            BUCKTOWN
                           BLVD.




                                   WEST ESPLANADE AVE
                                                                 .
                                                                                                                                                             CITY




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              PRESS D
    SEVERN AVE.




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              WY.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      NTEUR H
                  CAUSEWAY




                                                                                                                                                             PARK                                                                                                                                                                       CHEF ME                     E.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              TER AV




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Indus
                                   METAIRIE                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               NAS
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        MO




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     R.
                                                                                                               VD.




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        FRANKLIN AVE.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      AL
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      BLVD.
                                                                                                           WEST END BL




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            trial
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   LY                                                                                                                                                          rway
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Intracoastal Wate
                                        VETERANS MEM.
                                                      BLVD.
                                                                                                                         LAKEVIEW                                   St. John                                                    TIL
                                                     VD.




                                                                                                                                                                                                                            N
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          GE




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  C
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 anal
                                          BONNABEL BL




                                                                                                                                      .




                                                                                                                                                                                                                             ELYSIAN FIELDS AV
                                                                                                                            CANAL BLVD




                                                                                                                                                                                      GENTILLY
                                                                                   n Parish




                                                                                                                                                                      u
                                                                                              Parish




                                                                                                                                                                  Bayo




                                                             OLD                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Floodwater entered
                                                           METAIRIE                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Wetlands                               eastern New Orleans
                                                                                                                                                                                              ST .
                                                                              Jefferso
                                                                                         Orleans




                                          ROAD
                                     IRIE                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           and St. Bernard from
                                                                                                                                                                                                  BER


                                   TA                                                                                         CITY PARK AVE.


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              E.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    the Mississippi
                                                                                                                                                                                                     NA
                         ME




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    River-Gulf Outlet
                                                                                                                                                                                                       RD




                                                                                                                                     MID-CITY                                     ES
                                                                                                                                                                                    PL
                                                                                                                                                                                                          AVE




                                                                                                                                                                                      AN
                                                                                                                                                                                         AD
                                                                                                                                                                                                             .




                                                   AIRLINE DR.                                                                                                                             EA                                                                            N. CL
                                                                                                                                                                                             VE                                                                                  AIBO
                                                                                                                                      E.




                                                                                                                                                                                                       .                                                                             RNE
                                                                                                                                                                                  D
                                                                                                                                   AV




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          AVE.
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                                   EARHART EXPWY.                                                                                                                                                                                                                       ST. C
                                                                                                                                                              CA
                                                                                                                              N




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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 AUD
                                                                                                                            TO




                                                                                                                                                                NA                                                                                                                  E AV
 JEFFERSON                                                                                                                                           TUL                                                                                                                                 E.
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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 ris
                                                                                                                                                            VE.
                                                                                                                                                                                                             MP




                  JEFFERSON HWY.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 LOWER 9TH




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       rna Paris
                                                                                                               CA




                                                                                                  RH
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                                                                                                     AR




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                                                                              S.                       TB                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      GE
                                                                                   CL                                LV                                                                                       FRENCH                                                                                                                                              PE




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                                                                                       BO                                                                                                                    QUARTER                                              Industrial Canal                                                                    ARABI                  DR.
                                                                                                                                          ING




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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              IS R
                                                                                          R        NE                                                                                                                                                             levee breaches
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Mis
                                                                                                                                             T ON




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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    St.
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                                                             CARROLLTON                                                                                                   Superdome                        CBD                                                    ALGIERS                                               pi                                                            CHALMETTE
                                                                                                                                                     .




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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              er                                                    NAR
                                                                                                                                          NAPOLEON




                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Crescent City                                                                                                                                                  D   HW
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Y   .
       MAXIMUN                                                                                                                                                                                                            Connection                                                                West Bank
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   never flooded
       FLOODWATER
                                                                        AY




                                                                                                                                            AVE.




       LEVELS                                                                      ST
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                      Over 10 feet                                                                 LES                      UPTOWN                                              GARDEN                                                                                                               GE
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        N   .D
                                                                                                                                                             NA




                                                                                                          AV
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  WY.




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 EG
                                                                     AUDUBON
                                                                                                                E.                                                             DISTRICT                                                                                                                            AU                             1 mile
                      8-10 feet
                                                                                                                                                                A




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      LLE
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 EXP
                                                                                                                                                                  VE.




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   GRETNA                                 O
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              rl                            DR
                                                                       PARK                                                                                                                                                                                                          J      ea                                .
                      6-8 feet
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              A NK




                                                                                                          MAGAZINE ST.                                                                                                                                                             Pa eff      ns
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      ri er       Pa
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          TB




                      4-6 feet                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          sh so        ri
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         ES




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          W                   n         sh                                        Staff graphic by Dan Swenson
                      2-4 feet                                         1                                                                                                                                                                            2
                      0-2 feet
                      Not available
                                                                             EARLY MORNING, MONDAY                                                                                                                                                        MID-MORNING, MONDAY
                                                                             A towering storm surge ahead of Katrina channeled down the                                                                                                                   At two points along the London Avenue Canal and one point along the 17th Street Canal, concrete walls
                                                                             MR-GO, gaining speed and height as it made its way into St.                                                                                                                  atop earthen berms were simply pushed aside by the pressure of the water backing into the canals from
                                                                             Bernard Parish and the Lower 9th Ward. The earthern levees                                                                                                                   Lake Pontchartrain. Evidence suggests that too-shallow pilings were driven into soft, peaty soils, allowing
       OTHER KEYS                                                            that line the MR-GO were overtopped by a surge far higher                                                                                                                    water to undermine the levees from below.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Lake Pontchartrain
                     Levee breach                                            than was anticipated for a Category 3 storm, while the




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        London Avenue
                                                                             concrete walls along the Industrial Canal were breached.




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     ELYSIAN FIELDS AVE
                     Storm surge/                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Floodwall

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Avenue Canal
                     water flow
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Street Canal

                                                                                                                           EASTERN                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    METAIRIE
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Orleans
                     Levees topped                                                                                       NEW ORLEANS

                     with concrete
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   CAUSEWAY BLVD.
                                                                              Indus al




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Canal
                                                                                                                     al
                                                                                                           Intracoast
                                                                                 Can




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        .
                     floodwalls                                                                              Waterway                                                            STORM SURGE                                                                                              Canal                                                                                                                                                              ES
                                                                                   trial




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    s o n 17th




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               PL                                           1 mile
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   AN
                     Earthen levees                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Levee                                                                                                                                                                                             AD
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         E.




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        E
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Sheet piling               SOIL                                                                                              CA
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       AV




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            AV
                                                                                                                                                                                  Mi                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         NA                E
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   ON




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       .
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    s




                                                                                                                                                                                     ss                                                                                                                                                                  HEAVE                                                                                                 L
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        CA l e a n
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              fer



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                LT




                                                                              NEW                                                                                                      .R
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             OL




Note: Maximum water levels at specific points                                                                                                                                                                     Lake
                                                                            ORLEANS                                                                                                         ive
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Jef


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          RR
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Or




may vary greatly as topography can change
drastically, for example from any given street to                                                                                                                                              r-                Borgne
                                                                                               M is                                                                                               Gu
any given house foundation.                                                                        s. R                     CHALMETTE                                                                  lf                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    NEW
Sources: C&C Technologies Survey Services,                                                                  iv e                                                                                            Ou                                                                                                                           Pushed soil                                                                                       ORLEANS
www.mapper.cctechnol.com/floodmap.php, LSU                                                    5 miles           r                                                                                                t le
Hurricane Center                                                                                                                                                                                                     t

				
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posted:5/15/2009
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