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CULTURAL COMPETENCY

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CULTURAL COMPETENCY Powered By Docstoc
					CULTURAL COMPETENCY

          Presented By:

          Cathy Anderson
           Brandi Miller
     Jewish Vocational Service

         Wichita, Kansas
DAY ONE


February 22, 2005

Wichita, Kansas
Jewish Vocational Service

History: established in 1949 to resettle
 holocaust survivors and other refugees

MISSION: to assist any individual with
 barriers to become more self-reliant by
 providing employment, training, personal
 development, and support services.
Jewish Vocational Service

Refugee/Immigration/Lang. & Cult.Svcs. Dept.
  includes refugee employment services, refugee
  resettlement, immigration counseling



Language and Cultural Services Dept. includes
  Interpreter Development Services, Cultural Competency
  training, Occupational Spanish classes, Title VI training,
  Provider training
Setting the Tone

Expectations
Training Goals
Ground Rules
Introductions
Trainer Expectations

 Show respect by listening to each other and not
  interrupting.
 Participate actively in the training.
 Maintain strict confidentiality by not identifying
  specific individuals or clinics or anything else that could
  identify a client or provider and not sharing outside the
  classroom any of the personal stories that are told.
 Give feedback in appropriate ways by starting feedback
  with a positive comment; avoid blaming; identify
  individual opinions as such.
Training Goals

Increase awareness of diversity
Expand definition of cultural competency
Improve service quality for diverse populations
Work more effectively with interpreters
Understand Title VI and Basic Components of
 Office for Civil Rights policy guidance
Improve cross-cultural communication and
 decrease potential misunderstandings
Your Goals

What do you hope to learn from this
 training?
Icebreaker

 Your name and what you do in your
 organization.
 Who is your community?
Cultural Competency
Self-Assessment Checklist




Self-Assessment Checklist




         – Tamara D. Goode, Georgetown University Center for Child and
           Human Development
Welcome to a Changing
World

Demographics
Health disparities
Culture
Life by the Numbers

•   3 billion : People in the world that live on less than $2 per day

•   3: How many of the world‘s top 10 wealthiest people it would take to
    exceed the gross domestic product of the world‘s 48 poorest nations

•   1 billion: People who entered the 21st century unable to read a book or
    sign their name

•   86: Percent of the world‘s goods consumed by 20 percent of the
    population in developed nations

•   790 million: People in the developing world who are chronically
    undernourished
                                              Source: www.globalissues.org
If the world were a village of
100 people...

   52 female; 48 male; 33 children; 6 over age of 65
   58 would be Asian
   79 would be persons of color
   30 would be Christian
   6 would own half of the village‘s wealth; all 6 would be U.S. citizens
   9 would speak English
   50 would suffer from malnutrition
   80 would live in sub-standard housing
   66 would not have access to clean, safe drinking water
   10 would be lesbian, gay or bisexual
   1 would have a college education
                                 from Meadows, D., If the World Were a Village
Changing Demographics

The U.S. attracts two thirds of the world‘s
 immigration.

General physicians can expect more than
 40% of their patients to be from minority
 cultures.

          American Medical Student Association
Changing Demographics
o In the U.S. today, Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders are the
  fastest growing segment of the population

o 15% of U.S. residents over age 5 speak a language other than
  English at home

o As of 2003, Latinos are the largest minority group in the U.S.

o In 2005, ethnic minorities will account for 47% of the U.S.
  population. 85% of those entering the workforce will be women,
  people of color, and immigrants

                o 2000 US Census Bureau national data
Demographics - Kansas

According to the 2000 Census . . . . .
 - 5% of Kansans were foreign born
 - 9% of Kansans speak a language other than English at
  home
 - 7% of Kansans were Latino, compared with 12.5% of
  total U.S. population
 The Kansas foreign born population is quite diverse:
  55% are Latin American, 28% Asian, 11.2% European,
  2.7% African, and 2.7% North American
Changes in rural population

―The demographics of rural America are
 changing rapidly, as Mexican, Central
 American, and Asian immigrants take jobs
 in agriculture and related industries.‖


         – Source: Martin, Phillip; Taylor, J. Edward; Fix, Michael, 1996.
           ―Immigration and the Changing Face of Rural America: Focus on
           the Midwestern States‖
Minority Health Statistics

Asian/Pacific Islanders
  language isolation is a consistent challenge
  women are 16% less likely than general population
   to receive a Pap smear test
Native Americans
  72% higher age-adjusted death rate from diabetes
   than general population
  other problems are obesity, mental health, alcohol
   and substance abuse
      Source: ―Minority Health Disparities in Kansas‖, Kansas Health Institute, January
       2003.
Minority Health Statistics

 Hispanics/Latinos
  83% higher age-adjusted death rate from diabetes than general
   population
  lack of understanding of preventative health services

 African Americans
  34% more likely to die of cancer and twice as likely to die from
   diabetes than Whites nationally
  infant mortality is twice as high when compared to other
   populations
  other concerns include obesity, cardiovascular disease and
   HIV/AIDS

   Source: ―Minority Health Disparities in Kansas‖, Kansas Health Institute,
Disparities in Health

• Racial and ethnic minorities tend to
  receive lower quality health care than
  whites do, even when insurance status,
  income, age, and severity of
  conditions are comparable.


         • - Source: Alan Nelson, M.D.; Committee Chair, Institute of Medicine 2002
           Report on Disparities
Another thought. . . . . .


Of all the forms of inequality, injustice in
 health is the most shocking and the most
 inhuman.

          – - Dr. Rev. Martin Luther King, Jr.
CULTURE


Define culture.

What does culture mean?
Culture: One Description

Culture is the set of values, structures and
 practices held in common by a group of
 people and passed on to succeeding
 generations. These groups are usually
 identified by ancestry, language and/or
 traditions. Culture is also used to describe
 those characteristics that we are born
 with, some of which are permanent and
 some of which can be changed.
Culture

• What are the cultural lenses through
  which we view the world?
Cultural Lenses

•   Personality
•   Gender
•   Race
•   Age
•   Socio-economic
•   Sexual orientation
•   Life experiences
•   Religious affiliation
•   Point in history in which you were born
Active listening

Stand in two lines facing each other.

Discuss the following topics with the
 person across from you:
  Given names and meaning
  Where your family immigrated from
  Languages spoken in family as far back as
   you remember
  What constitutes good and bad parenting
Active Listening

What challenges did you experience in
 this exercise?



Were you surprised by what you learned
 from others?
Impact of Personal Culture
on Communication

 Incorrect assumptions about the other.
 Language and communication style issues.
 Biases against the unfamiliar.
 Personal values in conflict.
 Expectations that others will conform to
  established norms.

           Myers, Selma. Conflict and Culture.
Listening In. . . .

Actual Comments Made by Foreign
 Visitors to the United States:
―Americans seem to be in a perpetual
 hurry Just watch the way they walk down
 the street. They never allow themselves
 the leisure to enjoy life; there are too
 many things to do.‖--Visitor from India
More comments. . .

―Once in a rural area in the middle of
 nowhere, we saw an American come to a
 stop sign. Though he could see in both
 directions for miles and no traffic was
 coming, he still stopped!‖--Visitor from
 Turkey
More Comments. . .

―The American seems very explicit; he
 wants a ‗yes‘ or ‗no‘. If someone tries to
 speak figuratively, the American is
 confused.‖ --Visitor from Ethiopia
Another thought. . . . . . . .


All humans are caught in an inescapable
 network of mutuality, tied in a single
 garment of destiny. Whatever affects one
 directly, affects all indirectly.

         – Dr. Rev. Martin Luther King, Jr. Letter from Birmingham Jail.
Reasons for Cultural
Competence

o All of these points prove to be good
  reasons for exploring cultural
  competency and how it can help us
  living in this diverse world.
Why is there a need for
Cultural Competence?
• To respond to current and projected demographic
  changes in the United States
• To eliminate long-standing disparities in the health
  status of people of diverse racial, ethnic and cultural
  backgrounds
• To improve the quality of services
• To enhance the workplace environment
• To meet regulatory and accreditation mandates
• To decrease the likelihood of liability/malpractice claims

              • - Source: National Center for Cultural Competence, Georgetown University
Cultural Competency


To be culturally competent doesn’t mean you are
an authority in the values and beliefs of every
culture. What it means is that you hold a deep
respect for cultural differences and are eager to
learn, and are willing to accept, that there are
many ways of viewing the world.

- Okokon O. Udo, BD, PhD, CPCC, Ordained Prebysterian Minister
 --From Cross Cultural Health Care Program
Road Signs Leading to
Cultural Competence

Awareness



Knowledge



Skills
Awareness

• Increase awareness of other cultural
  perspectives
• Consider diversity in values, beliefs,
  practices, lifestyles, problem solving
  strategies
• Examine and appreciate your own culture
• Reflect on learned biases and prejudices
  towards other cultures
Knowledge

• Learn about historical, societal, political,
  spiritual influences that impact the world
  view of others
• Distinguish between individual traits of a
  person and common traits of people of a
  community
• Share information about yourself and your
  experiences so others can understand you
Skills

• Use awareness and knowledge as
  information base
• Integrate awareness and knowledge into
  a cross-cultural encounter
• Conversation instead of confrontation
• Develop culture-specific, appropriate
  individualized interventions
  Earliest memory of
  difference. . . . .
Think back as far as possible and reflect
 on your earliest memory of difference.

The difference can refer to skin color,
 age, body size, sexual preference, cultural
 background, ethnicity, language, etc.
  Earliest memory of
  difference. . . . .
In groups, discuss:

Was it yourself that was different?
Was it another person that was different?
What made them different?
How did others respond?
Self Assessment
 Create a large group awareness of existing stereotypes
  and assumptions

 Create awareness of origins of our own cultural values
  and beliefs

 Recognition of how these influence individual attitudes
  and behaviors

 Understand how these attitudes affect ―other‖ people
Cultural Competency
Continuum




              - New York/New Jersey Public Health
Cultural Competency
Continuum

  Ethnocentric vs. Ethnorelative

  Ethnocentric
You view your own (or adopted) culture as
 central to reality.
  Ethnorelative
You experience your culture in relation to, or in
 context of, other cultures.
Cultural Competency
Continuum - Ethnocentric

       Denial
 You experience your culture as the only culture that exists.
  You deny and are disinterested in cultural differences.
       Defense
 You experience your culture as the only good culture. You
  acknowledge cultural differences but see them as
  threatening. You use mechanisms such as stereotyping to
  defend yourself.
       Minimization
 You experience elements of your culture as universal. You
  minimize differences between cultures and believe that
  human similarities outweight any differences.
Cultural Competency
Continuum - Ethnorelative

       Acceptance
 You recognize and value cultural differences, without judging
  them. You are curious about different cultures.
       Adaptation
 You experience other cultures by yielding to perceptions and
  behaviors acceptable to that culture. You intentionally change
  your behavior to communicate more effectively in different
  cultures.
       Integration
 You value a variety of cultures and continuously define your
  own identity in contrast and in conjunction with a number of
  cultures. You move easily in and out of varying worldviews.
Exploring Stereotypes

Close your eyes and listen.
Exploring Stereotypes

What was your reaction?

What images were in your mind?

Did the images change as you heard more
 information? Why?
Cultural Views of the World

Causes of Illness
Traditional Healing
Cultural Norms
Causes of Illness

What causes us to become ill?



What makes us heal or become well?
Video


Worlds Apart: Justine Chitsena‘s Story
Chitsena Story

What are the grandmother’s beliefs
 about the illness itself and the
 surgery?
How do they differ from the medical
 perspective?
What is Bouphet Chitsena‘s perspective,
 and perspective, and Chitsena how is it
 different than both of the others?
Chitsena Story

While Justine‘s mother is her primary caretaker,
 and the one interacting with the medical staff,
 her grandmother clearly plays an important role.

  How does the decision-making happen in
   this family (vs. most American families)?
  What is Justine‘s grandmother‘s role?
  What is her mother‘s role?
  How would you explore this issue and deal with
   it in a clinical encounter like this?
Chitsena Story

What are your views on the use of
 complementary/alternative medicine
 in general, and in this case
 specifically?

Why is it important to know about these
 practices?
 Chitsena Story
 Issues to consider with alternative therapies:
 Some may have beneficial effects for patients, whether
  proven (true in some cases) or subjective.
 Trust can be built by being open to patients‘ ideas about
  these.
 Some alternative therapies may be dangerous, either due
  to their direct side effects or interactions with other
  medications that the patient takes.
 Patients may avoid using potentially more effective medical
  treatment due to their use of alternative practices.
 Being judgmental about alternative therapies contributes to
  patients not revealing their use.
Causes of Illness - Beliefs in
some cultural communities

  1. HUMORAL IMBALANCE
     imbalance between ―hot‖ and ―cold‖ causes illness
     balance between ―hot‖ and ―cold‖ must be restored


  2. SPIRITUAL CAUSES OF ILLNESS
     unhappy ancestor, bad spirit, gods sending illness as a test or
      punishment


  3. MAGICAL CAUSES OF ILLNESS
     witchcraft, illness through act of negative willpower or ritual
      performed by other
Common traditional healers

Herbal healers: use roots and herbs
Shaman / spiritual healers: address spiritual
 and magical causes of illness, often through
 ceremony and ritual
Bone setters: deal with breaks and sprains
Midwives: care for pregnant women and
 attend births
Diviners: often only diagnose illness
Areas of Difference

Historical Distrust: Past injustices may cause
 distrust between patient and provider
Interpretations of Disability: Ideas of what
 is/what causes a disability
Concepts of Family Structure and Family
 Identity: Family often extends beyond the
  sphere of the traditional nuclear family
Communication Styles and Views of Professional
 Roles: Westerners tend to separate professional
  and personal identity
Areas of Difference (cont.)

Incompatibility of Explanatory Models: Physical
 health vs. Spiritual/Moral health
Disease without Illness: ―Invisible‖ diseases
 (hypertension, high cholesterol, HIV)
Illness without Disease: Folk illnesses that are
 not defined within western biomedicine
Misunderstandings of terminology, language or
 body language

           – American Medical Student Association
Refugees / Immigrants:
Frequently Asked Questions

What is the difference between
 refugees and immigrants?

  Refugees have fled their country
   because of a ―well founded fear‖ of
   persecution, while immigrants have left
   their home country on their own will.
Refugees / Immigrants:
Frequently Asked Questions

Why do refugees leave their country?
  There are many reasons, some main ones being:
   war, religious or political persecution, reasons of
   race, etc.
Why do refugees come to the U.S.?
  Refugees do not choose where they go from the
   refugee camp; they are assigned by the UN.
Do refugees ever return home?
  Yes, in large numbers, although many others also
   choose to stay and build a life where they are
   assigned.
Refugees / Immigrants:
Frequently Asked Questions

Why do immigrants leave their country?
  Again, there are many reasons. It may be to find a
   better job, to reacquaint with family, to build a better
   life, to gain an education, to simply live in another
   place, among many other reasons.
Do immigrants help or hurt the United States?
  Immigrants have contributed greatly to the face of
   the U.S. in the types of food we eat, the music we
   hear and the many events that take place. They also
   add to our country intellectually, financially and
   culturally.
Cultural Norms
There are some traits that are common to
 particular ethnic groups and people from
 a certain region. However, it is extremely
 important to remember that any
 information presented cannot be taken as
 a definitive representation of a community
 or individual in that community.
Predominant cultural
groups in this region
Hispanic/Latino

Southeast Asian

Pacific Islanders (Micronesian, Filipino,
 etc.)
Hispanic/Latino - General

Family plays a central role. There is a
 huge emphasis on family as a support
 network and also on how decisions made
 will affect family members.
Emphasis on interpersonal relationships
 and friendships. There is an abounding
 willingness to help others and to extend
 hospitality to all.
Hispanic/Latino - General

Hierarchy within groups. Showing
 respect and seeking advice from
 elders/respected community members.
―Warmer‖ in personal interactions
 (standing closer, touching, kisses)
Naming system
  Ex. First name, Middle name, Paternal last name,
   Maternal last name
Hispanic/Latino - Gender Roles

The man generally is ―head‖ of household and
 makes all important decisions
Historically viewed as the idea of the male who
 is strong and dominating. However, he can also
 be seen as one who takes care of his family
 financially and works hard to provide for loved
 ones (machismo)
The woman takes responsibility for the children
 and many times takes on the quiet, but all
 important, behind-the-scenes role of caring for
 the family.
Hispanic/Latino - Health

View providers as the authority figures on
 health care causing for a reluctance in
 asking questions

Traditional/folk healers and forms of
 healing play an important role
Hispanic/Latino: Traditional
Illnesses and Treatments

 Mal de ojo (evil eye): vomiting, fever, crying,
  restlessness; a heating up of the child’s blood.
   Cause: an admiring or covetous look from a person
     with the evil eye
   Treatment: herbal remedies, ritual cures (folk
     healer), using egg, lemon, chili pepper on child‘s
     body
 Empacho: lack of appetite, stomachache,
  diarrhea, vomiting.
   Cause: poorly digested or uncooked food.
   Treatment: dietary restrictions, herbal teas,
     abdominal massage with warm oil
Hispanic/Latino: Traditional
Illnesses and Treatments

 Nervios: restlessness, insomnia, loss of appetite,
  headache, aches and pains.
   Cause: chronic, negative life circumstances,
    especially in interpersonal relationships
   Treatment: traditional/folk healer
 Susto: loss of soul or an extreme fright
  characterized by lethargy, depression, insomnia,
  hallucinations, irritability
   Cause: a traumatic or frightening experience
   Treatment: herbal teas, spitting a mouthful of water
    or alcohol into patient‘s face unexpectedly, covering
    face with cloth and sprinkling holy water
Hispanic/Latino: Other Problems
and Traditional Remedies

Diarrhea: rice water; increase clear liquids (no
 milk or food); suedro (solution made of water,
 sugar, lemon or banana)
Conjunctivitis: breast milk drops in eyes, carrot
 juice, chamomile drops or wash for eyes
Skin rash: apply cornstarch; alcohol rub or bath;
 rub with watermelon shell
Minor burns: apply pork lard, cooking oil or
 butter; raw onions; apply toothpaste, egg white,
 cooked beans
Hispanic/Latino - Diversity
 It is very important to remember that within the
  heading ―Hispanic/Latino‖ are included people from
  as many as twenty different countries with as many
  different histories, governments, customs,
  traditions, beliefs, etc.
 Many times we hear the words Hispanic and
  Latino/a used interchangeably, however some
  people have strong feelings toward the use of one
  over the other. Finally, there are also other people
  who dislike both and would prefer to use a more
  specific terminology, calling themselves Mexican-
  American, Cuban-American, etc.
Video

World Apart: Alicia Mercado Story
Mercado Story
 There have been three distinct
  Hispanic/Latino patterns of immigration:
 Continuous flow of both legal and undocumented
  immigration from Mexico which intensified in 1980,
  driven by economic forces and opportunities;
 ―Waves‖ of large-scale immigration from Central
  and South America, driven by war, conflict, and
  asylum-seeking;
 A Caribbean pattern of frequent back-and-forth
  migration between the country of origin and the
  U.S. (typified by the Puerto Rican experience in the
  Northeast).
Mercado Story
What are some of the reasons (from
 Mrs. Mercado’s perspective) for her
 lack of ideal adherence to medical
 therapy and follow-up?

What are some other reasons why
 patients are non-adherent to medical
 therapy, especially for chronic diseases?
Mercado Story
What are your views on the use of
 complementary/alternative medicine
 in general, and in this case
 specifically?

What home remedies did your family use
 when you were growing up?
Why is it important to know about these
 practices?
Southeast Asians

There are many similarities between the
 cultural practices and forms of healing used
 by Southeast Asians (Vietnamese,
 Cambodian, Laotians, etc.). However, it is
 important to keep in mind that they are all
 people from different countries, speaking
 different languages and coming from
 different histories. Many of the common
 traits come from Buddhist beliefs, the
 majority religion of the area.
Southeast Asians - General

The traditional view of health is holistic linking
 the mind, body and soul. It focuses on
 establishing and maintaining a balance of life
 energies.
Asian patients may deny illness, viewing it as
 personal carelessness or weakness, or as a
 result of external forces over which they have
 no control.
The basis for most views on health come from
 Buddhist beliefs.
Southeast Asians - General
Respect for education, family and elders
Sparing one‘s feelings is considered more
 important than factual truth
Tend to be reserved in most interactions and
 expression of strong feelings (positive or
 negative) is not valued.
Bow heads to superior or elder
When talking, one should not look steadily at a
 respected person‘s eyes
Southeast Asians - General

Family is held in high regard, often with
 grandparents and other relatives living in the
 same house
Women do not shake hands with each other or
 with men
Disrespectful to touch another person‘s head
Naming system
  Ex. Last name, Middle name, First name
  Most names can be used for either gender
  Name reflects some meaning
Southeast Asians -
Gender Roles

Men have higher status than women, sons
 are valued more than daughters
A traditional woman must submit to her
 father, then obey her husband, and then if
 widowed, obey her eldest son
However, the mother is not docile. She is
 considered the home minister and is
 responsible for family harmony, the family
 budget and the family schedules
Southeast Asians - Health
Mental illness is a shameful thing and often
 feared or denied
Many times health and health care are based on
 spiritual factors or the hot/cold belief system
 (you are sick because the hot/cold balance has
 been altered)
There is a common belief that Western
 medicines are developed for Americans and
 Europeans, hence they assume the dosages are
 too strong for their slight builds and will self-
 adjust their medicines.
Southeast Asians - Health
 Physical and mental wellness are tied to a balance
  of the ―winds‖ of the body and also to a person‘s
  ability to sleep or eat without difficulty.
 Persons who are sick will turn first to traditional
  means of healing and then seek treatment at a
  clinic or hospital. Generally, traditional practices are
  often continued alongside western medicine.
 Health histories may be incomplete for a number of
  reasons, mostly for a reluctance in volunteering
  such personal information as sexual activity, family
  history and other illness (vulnerability) issues. Trust
  or a lack of it is a major issue.
Southeast Asians -
Traditional Health Practices
 Coining: a coin dipped in oil is rubbed across the
  skin, causing a mild abrasion. It is believed to
  release excess ―wind‖ from the body and restore
  the balance.
 Cupping: a series of small, heated glasses are
  placed on the skin, forming a suction that draws out
  the bad force.
 Pinching: similar to coining and cupping. The
  abrasion left by the pinch allows the force to leave
  the body.
   Note: Many of these practices are formed on young
     children or infants and the temporary abrasions
     should not be confused with abuse or injury.
Southeast Asians -
Traditional Health Practices

Steaming: a mixture of medicinal herbs is boiled
 and the steam is inhaled
Acupuncture: thin, steel needles inserted in
 specific locations to help cause an energy
 balance
Acupressure: fingers are pressed at the same
 points as acupuncture to stimulate the energy
 points
The use of specific jewelry worn around the
 neck are often used as a form of spiritual
 protection
SE Asians and the Western
Medical System

It is common for patients to not report or even
 to deny symptoms or problems.
It is common to discontinue treatment or
 medication as soon as symptoms have
 disappeared. There is an expectance to receive
 medication for every illness and that it will
 quickly relieve the problem.
Most are more oriented to illness than to the
 prevention of illness and only seek help after
 symptoms arise. There is little value on early
 detection or disease screening.
SE Asians and the Western
Medical System
Blood draws are thought to be very painful
 and will make them weaker because the
 blood is ―taken away‖ and not replaced.
Genital exams are a foreign concept to them
 and are preferred to be done by a same-sex
 provider.
X-rays are thought to destroy red blood cells
 and to decrease general life expectancy.
Surgery is extremely frightening to them and
 is considered a last resort.
Dynamics of Difference

Power
Ethnocentrism
Social Class
Acculturation
Cultural Bumps
Power

Nearly all men can stand adversity, but if
 you want to test a man's character, give
 him power. -Abraham Lincoln

Power does not corrupt men; but fools, if
 they get into a position of power, corrupt
 power. - George Bernard Shaw
Ethnocentrism

 All of us, both Euro-Americans and members of ethnic
  minority groups are ethnocentric. That means that we
  usually value our own group above all others. The
  concept of cultural competence applies not just to
  Euro-Americans but to all of us who have been born,
  educated, and live on American soil. Very few
  things in the American institutional structure have
  prepared us to live harmoniously in a pluralistic and
  multicultural society. Therefore, every one of us
  needs to learn and practice from a culturally
  competent perspective.
            – M Issacs and M Benjamin, Towards a Culturally Competent
              System of Care, Vol II.
Social Class / Classism

Although not readily acknowledged in the
 United States, in many countries classism
 exists openly.

Differences in class, or in the way class is
 perceived, must be taken into account so
 as not to lose trust in an interaction.
Acculturation

Refers to the acquisition of a new cultural
 identity, but does not imply ridding
 oneself of the elements of one‘s first
 culture.

 Original Culture                        Bicultural                       Assimilation
 •--------------------------------------------•-----------------------------------------•
 Monolingual                             Bilingual                        Abandoned
                                                                             previous
                                                                cultural values/language
Cultural bumps

Please pay attention to the following
 situation and consider what caused a
 misunderstanding

Video: Guatemalan woman
Cultural bumps

Please discuss the following situations in
 small groups.

3 Cases
 Cultural Relativity

Any behavior must be judged
first in relation to the culture in
which it occurs – behavior may
seem strange until placed in
appropriate context.

- Cross Cultural Health Care Program, Interpreter training
Signs of conflict...

Competence is challenged
Individual is not appreciated
Communication in ways that irritate you
Communication in condescending manner
Unsolicited advice given
Quick judgements
Lack of respect
What can we do to
minimize obstacles?

• Be knowledgeable about the cultures you
  work with
• Avoid judgement based on your own
  cultural norms
• Be understanding of different traditions,
  cultures, concepts of sickness, notions of
  healing, etc.
More conflict resolution
across cultures…
o   Being nonjudgmental
o   Understanding stereotypes
o   Treating people as individuals
o   Looking at whether expectations are real
o   Accepting ambiguity
o   Empathizing
o   Checking assumptions
o   Being open to differences

              o Myers, Selma. Conflict Resolution Across Cultures.
Conclusion. . . . . . . .

Questions

Discussion

Observations

Evaluations
Day Two


February 23, 2005

Wichita, Kansas
Exercise


Word Association
Creating Cultural
Competency

Mythbusters!
Title VI - Overview
Title VI Assessment and Policy
Working with Interpreters
Building Community Connections
Sharing Resources
Myth Busters!

#1 Myth: Immigrants don‘t pay taxes.
Fact: Significant local, state & federal
 taxes are paid by immigrants each year,
 an estimated $133 billion.
Fact: Alan Greenspan has stated that both
 legal and non-legal immigrants pay $20
 billion more in taxes than they receive in
 benefits.
Myth Busters!

#2 Myth: America is over-run by
 immigrants.
Fact: Percentage of foreign-born is higher
 than in 1970 (11%), but still lower than
 the all-time high of 14% in 1910.
Fact: The 2000 Census found that 22% of
 US counties lost population from 1990-
 2000.
Myth Busters!

#3 Myth: Immigrants do not serve their
 new country.
Fact: Immigrants make up nearly 5% of
 all enlisted personnel on active duty in the
 US Armed Forces. (62,000)
Fact: 20% of the recipients of the
 Congressional Medal of Honor were
 immigrants.
Creating Cultural
Competency


Title VI - Overview
Title VI Assessment and Policy
What is Title VI?

Title VI of 1964 Civil Rights Act:

   No person in the United States, shall, on ground
   of race, color, or national origin, be excluded
   from participation in, be denied the benefits of,
   or be subjected to discrimination under any
   program or activity receiving Federal financial
   assistance.

Source: Title VI of 1964 Civil Rights Act and Office of Civil Rights Policy Guidance
on Language Access to Services
Who is Protected by
Title VI?

Limited English Proficient (LEP)
 individuals: ―National Origin.‖
OCR Policy Guidance: Fall 1998
   Title VI Prohibition Against National Origin
    Discrimination As it Affects Persons with
    Limited English Proficiency
  Revised August 2000; published again in February 2002, currently under revision
What organizations are
impacted by Title VI?

•   Health care providers
•   Hospitals, doctor‘s offices, nursing homes
•   Managed care organizations, home health agencies
•   State Medicaid agencies
•   Municipal and county health departments
•   Social service and non-profit organizations



• The list is endless!
Explanation of Title VI

Title VI prohibits discriminatory impact
 - services more limited in scope
 - lower quality of services
 - unreasonable delays in service delivery
 - limiting participation in a program
Title VI – OCR Policy
Guidance

 Any organization that receives federal funds must
  provide meaningful access to programs, services, and
  benefits
 Federal financial assistance includes grants, training,
  donations of surplus property, and other assistance
 Meaningful access ensures accurate and effective
  communication
 Limited English Proficient (LEP) individuals should
  receive language assistance free of charge
OCR Enforcement of Title VI

• OCR assists organizations in development of
  comprehensive written policy
• OCR considers these circumstances:
  •   Size of the covered entity
  •   Size of the eligible population
  •   Nature of Program or Service
  •   Program Objectives
  •   Resources
  •   Frequency of a given language
  •   Frequency of encounters with LEP persons
Office of Civil Rights

Maria A. Smith, Investigator
Office of Civil Rights
Federal Office Building
601 E. 12th Street, Room 248
Kansas City, MO 64106
(816) 426-7238
(800) 368-1019
Four Keys to Title VI
Compliance

o Assessment

o Development of a comprehensive written policy
  on language access

o Training of staff

o Vigilant monitoring
Assessment
• Conduct a thorough assessment of the language needs
  of population served

• Identify the languages likely to be encountered

• Identify language needs of every LEP patient/client and
  note in client files

• Identify resources needed to provide effective language
  assistance
Areas to consider in an assessment

 level of ethnic identity
 use of informal network and supportive institutions in the ethnic/cultural
  community values orientation
 language and communication process
 migration experience
 self concept and self esteem
 influence of religion/spirituality on the belief system and behavior patterns
 views and concerns about discrimination and institutional racism
 views about the role that ethnicity plays
 educational level and employment experiences
 habits, customs, beliefs
 importance and impact associated with physical characteristics
 cultural health beliefs and practices

 current socioeconomic status
Development of a
Comprehensive Policy

 Oral Language Interpretation

 Translation of written materials

 Methods for providing notice to LEP
  persons
Issues that impact
compliance

Financial cost of interpreting services
Lack of awareness of the need for interpreter
 services
Negative impact when untrained, unqualified
 interpreters are used
Organization does not have a comprehensive
 written policy on language access
Two Compliance Cases

#1: Sole physician practitioner with 50
 LEP Hispanic patients. Staff of two nurses
 and receptionist. No interpreters on staff.
 Uses community org. & telephone interp.
#2: County Social Services agency serves
 500,000; 10,000 are LEP. No policy;
 clients bring own interpreters. Materials in
 English.
Case Studies

In groups discuss the case studies.
CLAS Standards

Health Care providers have a responsibility to
 provide culturally and linguistically appropriate
 services (CLAS) to patients
  Interpretation/Translation services
  Ongoing education and training for all staff
  Recruit and retain a diverse and culturally competent staff
  Collect and utilize data about the diverse communities in
   provider‘s service area
  Implement ongoing self-assessments of cultural
   competence within organization
Working Effectively with
Interpreters

Who is an appropriate interpreter?
Roles and responsibilities of interpreter
Effective strategies for communicating through
 an interpreter
Video


Communicating Effectively
 Through an Interpreter
Who is appropriate to act as
an Interpreter?

• Bilingual staff who are trained and
    competent in skill of interpreting
•   Staff interpreters
•   Contracted Interpreter Service
•   Community Volunteer Interpreters
•   Telephone Interpreter Lines
Who is NOT appropriate as
an Interpreter?

 Friends of any LEP individual
 Family member of LEP patient/client
 Minor children
 Anyone who has not demonstrated proficiency in both
  languages
 Anyone who has not received training in interpretation
 Anyone who does not have an understanding of ethics
  and interpreting practices
Interpreter

The basic purpose of the medical/social
 service interpreter is to facilitate
 understanding and communication
 between two or more people who are
 speaking different languages.

         – CCHCP, Interpreter training curriculum
Video


Worlds Apart: Mohammad Kochi‘s Story
Kochi Story

The cancer had been there all along, even after
 the surgery, but the family members serving as
 interpreters had not translated this to Mr. Kochi
 nor to the rest of the family at home.

How does culture influence the way
 patients and families discuss medical
 information and make medical decisions?
Kochi Story

Why, in this case, does Noorzia (a relatively
 young daughter—and a woman in a male
 dominant culture) seem to play a very important
 role in medical decisions about her father‘s
 care?

How is Noorzia‘s perspective on her father‘s
 health, and the medical in general, different
 than her father‘s?
Kochi Story

How important are professional
 interpreters (as opposed to family
 members or no interpreter) in medical
 interactions like this?
Could it have changed the situation in this case?
Are there any laws requiring the use of an
 interpreter?
What problems can arise when family members
 or others act as interpreters?
Kochi Story

What do you think about this interaction?:

Mr. Kochi:
 ―We believe our day has been chosen for us and
  it cannot be pushed up or forced back.‖
Dr. Fisher:
 ―Our goal is to help you feel as well as you can
  feel until that day comes.‖
Roles of the Interpreter
 CONDUIT
   Interpret exactly what is said: add nothing, change nothing,
    omit nothing.

 CLARIFIER
   Adjust register or complexity of language. Check for
    understanding.

 CULTURE BROKER
   When cultural differences cause misunderstanding, provide
    necessary cultural framework for understanding message.

 ADVOCATE
   Action taken on behalf of someone else.
Tips for Effective Communication
through an Interpreter

 POSITIONING – interpreter should be seated next to and a little
  bit behind LEP client



 ACCURACY – everything that is said should be interpreted; no side
  conversations; check for comprehension; speak in short phrases
  and pause to allow for interpretation



 COMPETENCY – assess interpreter qualifications and skills;
  bilingual individuals should be trained in interpreting and have
  knowledge of policies at your organization
Medical errors

According to a study by the Institute of
 Medicine, ―at least 44,000 people and
 perhaps as many as 98,000 people die in
 hospitals each year as a result of medical
 errors that could have been prevented.‖

          – Source: Institute of Medicine, ―To Err is Human: Building a Safer
            Health System‖, Nov. 1999
Article

―Language Barriers Lead to Medical
 Mistakes‖
Language and Culture

―People who speak different
 languages live in different worlds,
 not the same world with different
 labels.‖
       – Edward Sapir, linguist, 1928.
The New Americans

The Flores Family (Mexico)
The Nwidor Family (Nigeria)
Active Voice & Kartemquin Educational
 Films
Identifying Barriers and
Building Bridges

Compare the experiences of the two
 families
How do we bridge cultural gaps?
How do we build community power?
Successful community
partnerships

Informal collaboration among social service
 agencies: JVS, Catholic Charities, Della Lamb,
 Don Bosco, El Centro

KC partnership of ―safe harbor‖ health care
 providers: KC Free Health Clinic, Cabot
 Westside Clinic, Swope Parkway Medical Center,
 Truman Hospital and other community clinics.
Kansas City Free Health
Clinic

Over 50 staff members
Over 400 volunteers
Safe harbor health care provider for individuals
 without insurance
Extensive services for individuals without
 primary health care coverage
Active community involvement and integration
 with other healthcare providers
Building Culturally Competent
Community Partnerships

What community organizations do you
 collaborate with?
What are effective strategies for working
 together?
Identify areas to be improved (on a
 community level, on an institutional level,
 etc.).
Strategies for working
effectively in communities
 Asian American Family Counseling Center - Houston
  - brown bag lunches for mental health professionals to learn more
  about working with the area‘s Asian American communities



 Consumer Voices Are Born - Clark County, Washington
  - established a ―warm-line‖ where individuals facing mental health
  challenges could call in and discuss their problems with a peer, now
  extending services to ethnic communities

        - National Consumer Supporter Technical Assistance Center,
        National Mental Health Association. A Cultural Competency
        Toolkit: Ten Grant Sites Share Lessons Learned.
Strategies for working
effectively in communities

• Build bridges of trust and dispel
  misinformation
• Recruit staff from within the community
• Community members provide insight into
  cultural beliefs and practices
• Identify elders or leaders within the
  community and seek their support
• Initiative must be give and take
Organizing Culturally Specific
Community Forums

Culturally Specific Community Forums
Culturally competent community
 assessments
Barriers and benefits of community
 partnerships
Culturally Specific Community
Forums and Assessments

• MAPP : KCMO Health Department health survey
• The Pulse: Survey of Health in the KC gay and lesbian
  community
• Interpreter Training classes: Informal and formal
  networking among key community members
• Social service organizations
• Religious organizations
• Community partnerships with other organizations
Barriers and benefits of
community partnerships

Barriers:
- mistrust on the part of the community
- results and outcomes not clearly defined
- organization unable to effectively work with
 community
Benefits:
- increased access to services
- positive reputation in the community
- word of mouth makes your organization thrive
Unanswered Issues

What are some topics that we have not
 mentioned or that we have not covered
 completely in this training?
Are there any common cultural issues you
 face that we have not talked about?
 What are they?
What are some possible resolutions or
 outcomes?
Conclusion. . . . . . . .

Questions

Discussion

Observations

Evaluations
References

Please refer to handout with a list of
 online resources.
Resources

o Cross Cultural Health Care Program:
  www.xculture.org
o OCR/HHS: www.hhs.gov/ocr
o CMS: //cms.hhs.gov/states/letters
o Natl Health Law Prog: www.healthlaw.org
o National Council on Interpreting in Health Care:
  www.ncihc.org
o HHS, Office of Minority Health:
  www.omhrc.gov/CLAS
THANK YOU!

Thanks for your participation, time and energy!


Thanks to KDHE for funding the course!
Contact us!

                    Jewish Vocational Service
                 Language and Cultural Services
                         1608 Baltimore
                     Kansas City, MO 64108
                        (816) 471 - 2808
                         www.jvskc.org

Brandi Miller      bmiller@jvskc.org
Cathy Anderson    canders@jvskc.org