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Deliverable 5 – Evaluation Report in Modelling and EAI Tools

                    document classification
                      Prepared for the European Commission
                under Contract No. IST-38491 as a deliverable from
                                   WP 2
                      Date of issue: 08/05/2003

                               VERSION: FINAL

                   DATE: 31/08/2003
 Project Coordinator:

 Unicorn Solutions Ltd.
 Centro Richerche Fiat

                                               Distribution List
                             All consortium members

 Written by:              Kostas Votis
 Reviewed by:             Nikos Bogonikolos
 Approved by:             Nikos Bogonikolos

                                        Document Change Log
  Version #     Issue Date       Sections Affected                         Relevant Information
 0.1          18/03/2003        All                  First draft of the deliverable
 0.2          08/05/2003        All                  Second draft of the deliverable
 Final        31/08/2003        All                  Final draft of the deliverable

CORPORATE ONTOLOGY G RID T M                                                                                   - 2 -
                                                                   C ONTENTS
INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................................................................. 4
   PURPOSE ........................................................................................................................................................................... 4
   SCOPE ................................................................................................................................................................................ 5
   ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS ................................................................................................................................ 6
   REFERENCES..................................................................................................................................................................... 7
   OVERVIEW ........................................................................................................................................................................ 8
STATE OF THE ART SUMMARY ............................................................................................................................. 9
   ONTOLOGY AUTHORING TOOLS..................................................................................................................................... 9
    Protégé ......................................................................................................................................................................... 9
    OilEd ........................................................................................................................................................................... 11
   DATA MODELING TOOLS ................................................................................................................................................... 16
     MS Visio ..................................................................................................................................................................... 16
     ERWin ......................................................................................................................................................................... 26
     SilverRun .................................................................................................................................................................... 29
     Comparison................................................................................................................................................................ 31
   ENTERPRISE APPLICATION INTEGRATION MIDDLEWARE .................................................................................................. 32
     MS BizTalk ................................................................................................................................................................. 32
     IBM WebSphere ........................................................................................................................................................ 36
     Tibco ........................................................................................................................................................................... 47
   UNICORN SYSTEM ....................................................................................................................................................... 75
   UNICORN VERSION 2.0.5............................................................................................................................................... 82
   SUMMARY ....................................................................................................................................................................... 97

CORPORATE ONTOLOGY G RID T M                                                                                                                                                      - 3 -

The aim of this Test evaluation Summary is the concentration on the evaluation of the
well-known data modelling and data integration tools, which are currently in use in the
industry. Due to the relation of the project with industrial environments it is obvious that
commodity technologies and industrial tools have been studied and evaluated. A detailed
comparative study focused on the technical features, the suitability of tools for large-scale
industrial use, and the support for legacy data is included.


As the project deal with industrial environments, commodity technologies and industrial
tools have been studied and evaluated.

Successfully introducing innovations in data interoperability requires interacting with the
legacy standards and middleware that are likely to be in use in corporations and industries
for years to come.

This Test evaluation Summary concentrates on evaluating well-known data modeling and
data integration tools currently in use in the industry. It includes a detailed comparative
study paying particular attention to the technical features as well as the suitability of tools for
large-scale industrial use and support for legacy data standards and standard middleware and
Enterprise Application Integration environments. The types of tools, which have been
considered, are:

              Ontology authoring tools: Protégé, OilEd,

              Data modeling tools: MS Visio, ERWin, SilverRun,

              Enterprise    Application    Integration    Middleware:     MS     BizTalk,    IBM
               WebSphere, Tibco

              UNICORN System

CORPORATE ONTOLOGY G RID T M                                                                          - 4 -
An attempt has been made, not to solely base the comparison on companies literature and
product information, rather relevant product reviews by leading database developers and
power users have been sighted in this report. Some evaluation softwares have also been
downloaded and tested for the comparison.


This report constitutes the Task 2.1of WP2 of COG project, the main objectives of which are

              o Demonstrate the applicability of Grid technologies to industry

              o Realize the concept of an Information Grid incorporating real corporate

              o Give semantics to corporate data formats including legacy, relational and
                  XML through a detailed mapping to a central ontology.

              o Demonstrate the technological innovation of automatically translating
                  data between data formats on the Grid by way of a semantic mapping to a
                  central ontology

              o Publish a reusable ontology with concepts from discrete manufacturing
                  and specifically automotive

              o Capture best practices in achieving above objectives and document the

              o Disseminate the methodology and results to Europe‘s corporations

              o Reuse the methodology in industry

Based on the results of this task and the study of the technical features of the Coherence
Ontological Modeling Suite, integration strategies and needs for the specified tools will be
analyzed in workpackage 2.2.. Particular attention will be given to integrating these
environments in an industrial setting in order to evaluate how they work seamlessly, achieve

CORPORATE ONTOLOGY G RID T M                                                                   - 5 -
transparent operations for their users and be efficient for use with large legacy and open data
sets. This workpackage will also evaluate the difficulties and possible barriers of deploying
such solutions in an industrial setting.

The results of workpackage 2 will be used in work package 3 for the deployment of the
designed solution.

                           ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS

               AMI: Application Management Interface
               API: Application Programming Interface
               APIs: Application Programming Interfaces
               B2B: Business-to-Business
               BPM: Business-to-Business
               EDI: Electronic Data Interchange
               EJB: Enterprise JavaBeans
               ERP: Enterprise Resource Planning
               ERX: Entity Relationship Expert
               EXCI: External CICS Call Interface
               GUI: Graphical User Interface
               JCA: J2EE Connector Architecture
               JMS: Java Message Service
               JSP: JavaServer Pages
               ORM: Object Role Modelling
               OTMA: Open Transaction Manager Access
               RAM: Random Access Memory
               RDM: Relational Data Modeller
               RMI/IIOP: Remote Method Invocation Internet Inter-ORB Protocol
               ROI: Return On Investment
               SMS: Systems Manager Server
               SOAP: Simple Object Access Protocol

CORPORATE ONTOLOGY G RID T M                                                                      - 6 -
            SSL: Secure Sockets Layer
            UDDI: Universal Description Discovery and Integration
            UML: Unified Modelling Language
            VBA: Visual Basic Applications
            WBI: WebSphere Business Integration
            WRM: Workgroup Repository Manager
            WSDL: Web Services Description Language
            XSLT: Extensible Stylesheet Language Transformations


           ―Building Ontologies in DAML+OIL”, Robert Stevens, Chris Wroe, Sean
            Bechhofer, Alan Rector,Carole Globe To appear in Comparative and
            Functional Genomics, 2003
           “ OilEd: a Reason-able Ontology Editor for the Semantic Web” by Sean
            Bechhofer, Ian Horrocks, Carole Goble, Robert Stevens. DL2001, 14th
            International Workshop on Description Logics, Stanford, USA, August 2001.
           “XML for Business to Business e-commerce” by Clive Finkelstein,
            Information Engineering Services Pty Ltd. Published on IES Web Site,
            March, 2000
           “METADATA AND XML FOR BUSINESS” by Clive Finkelstein, Information
            Engineering Services Pty Ltd. Published on IES Web Site, March, 1999
           “An Introduction to the Extensible Markup Language (XML)‖ by Martin
            Bryant, The SGML Centre. Published on the SGML
           “Technologies for Enterprise Application Integration” by Clive Finkelstein,
            Information Engineering Services Pty Ltd. Published on IES Web Site,
            September, 2000
           http://www.protégé.com

CORPORATE ONTOLOGY G RID T M                                                              - 7 -


The aim of this Test evaluation Summary is the concentration on the evaluation of the
well-known data modelling and data integration tools, which are currently in use in the
industry. Due to the relation of the project with industrial environments it is obvious that
commodity technologies and industrial tools have been studied and evaluated. A detailed
comparative study focused on the technical features, the suitability of tools for large-scale
industrial use, and the support for legacy data is included. As it has already been described
the types of the tools, which have been considered, are:

              Ontology authoring tools: Protégé, OilEd,

              Data modelling tools: MS Visio, ERWin, SilverRun,

              Enterprise   Application    Integration     Middleware:   MS    BizTalk,   IBM
               WebSphere, Tibco

              UNICORN System

In the State of the art summary the results of the test are described. The results on the well-
known data modelling and data integration tools, which are currently in use in the industry
are summarized and divided in sections according to the category in which every tool
belongs. Every tool is described in individual sub-sections of the main four sections and after
that as a discussion of each section a comparison of the tools described is included.

CORPORATE ONTOLOGY G RID T M                                                                      - 8 -
                             STATE OF THE ART SUM MARY

This survey is divided into four sections, which group different kinds of ontology tools,
namely: Ontology authoring tools, Data modeling tools , Enterprise Application Integration
Middleware and Unicorn system.
Each section includes: Introduction, Short description of the tools to be compared, and
comparison of the tools.

                             ONTOLOGY AUTHORING TOOLS

This group includes tools environments and suites that can be used for building a new
ontology from scratch or reusing existing ontologies. Apart from the common edition and
browsing functionality, these tools usually include ontology documentation, ontology
exportation and importation from different formats, graphical views of the ontology built,
ontology libraries, attached inference engines etc.

Protégé 2000 is the latest tool in an established line of tools developed at Stanford University
for knowledge acquisition. Protégé 2000 has thousands of users all over the world who use
the system for projects ranging from modeling cancer-protocol guidelines to modeling
nuclear-power stations. Protégé 2000 is freely available for download under the Mozilla
open –source license.

Protégé 2000 provides a graphical and interactive ontology-design and knowledge-base-
development environment. It helps knowledge engineers and domain experts to perform
knowledge management tasks. Ontology developers can access relevant information quickly
whenever they need it, and can use direct manipulation to navigate and manage an ontology.
Tree controls allow quick and simple navigation through a class hierarchy. Protégé uses
forms as the interface for filling in slot values.

CORPORATE ONTOLOGY G RID T M                                                                       - 9 -
The knowledge model of Protégé-2000 is OKBC-compatible. It includes support for classes
and the class hierarchy with multiple inheritance; template and own slots; specification of
pre-defined and arbitrary facets for slots, which include allowed values, cardinality
restrictions, default values, and inverse slots; metaclasses and metaclass hierarchy.

In addition to highly usable interface, two other important features distinguish Protégé-2000
from most ontology-editing environments: its scalability and extensibility.
Developers have successfully employed Protégé-2000 to build and use ontologies consisting
of 150.000 frames. Supporting knowledge bases with hundreds of thousands of frames
involves two components:
       (1) a database backend to store and query the data and
       (2) a caching mechanism to enable loading of new frames once the number of frames
           in memory has exceeded the memory limit.

One of the major advantages of the Protégé-2000 architecture is that the system is
constructed in an open, modular fashion. Its component-based architecture enables system
builders to add new functionality by creating appropriate plugins. The Protégé Plugin
Library contains contributions from developers all over the world.

Most plugins fall into one of the three categories: (1) backends that enable users to store and
import knowledge bases in various formats; (2) slot widgets, which are used to display and
edit slot values or their combination in a domain-specific and task-specific ways, and (3) tab
plugins, which are knowledge-based applications usually tightly linked with Protégé
knowledge bases.

Current backend plugins (and standard backends) include support for storing and importing
ontologies in RDF Schema, XML files with a DTD, and XML Schema files. We have
experimental support for OIL. The development of DAML+ OIL is in its final stages.

Available slot widgets include user interface components to display GIF images, as well as
video and audio. A diagram widgets include user-interface components to display GIF

CORPORATE ONTOLOGY G RID T M                                                                      - 10 -
images, as well as video and audio. A diagram widget allows developers to build elements of
a knowledge base by drawing a diagram in which nodes and edges are themselves frames of
particular types (distinguished by shape and colour).

The most popular type of plugins are tab plugins. Currently available tabs provide
capabilities for advanced visualization, ontology merging and version management,
inferencing, and so on.

The OntoViz and Jambalya tabs, for example, present different graphical views of a
knowledge base, with the Jambalya tab allowing interactive navigation, zooming in on
particular elements in the structure, and different layouts of nodes in a graph to highlight
connections between clusters of data.

The PAL tab provides support for the Protégé Axiom Language. PAL is a subset of KIF that
enables users to express constraints on their data for which the frame formalism itself is not
sufficiently expressive. The PAL inference engine then analyzes the data to tell the users
which constraints the instances in the knowledge base violate and how. The Flora tab (for F-
logic) and the Jess tab provide access to reasoning engines developed elsewhere.

The PROMPT tab provides an environment for managing multiple ontologies. Its
components include tools for ontology merging that help the user to find similarities between
source ontologies and to merge the ontologies; for ontology versioning, which automatically
finds a structural ―diff‖ between versions of an ontology; and for extracting semantically
complete subparts of an ontology and rearranging frames in different linked ontologies.

The UMLS and WordNet tabs enable users to import and integrate elements of the large on-
line knowledge sources into their ontologies


CORPORATE ONTOLOGY G RID T M                                                                     - 11 -
Oiled is a simple editor that allows the user to create and edit OIL ontologies. The main
intention behind OilEd is to provide a simple, freeware editor that demonstrates the use of,
and stimulates interest in, DAML+OIL. OilEd is not intended as a full ontology
development environment-it will not actively support the development of large-scale
ontologies, the migration and integration of ontologies, versioning, argumentation and many
other activities that are involved in ontology construction. It should, however, provide
enough to allow the basic construction of OIL ontologies and demonstrate the power of the
connection to the FaCT reasoner.

Oiled has been built by The Information Management Group, Department of Computer
Science, University of Manchester. The original development of OilEd was supported by
Interprice GmbH and the Free University of Amsterdam.

The knowledge model of OilEd is based on that of DAML+OIL, although this is extended
by the use of a frame-like presentation for modeling. Thus OilEd offers a familiar frame-like
paradigm for modeling while still supporting the rich expressiveness of DAML+OIL where
required classes are defined in terms of their superclasses and property restrictions, with
additional axioms capturing further relationships such as disjointness. The expressive
knowledge model allows the use of complex composite descriptions as role fillers. This is in
contrast to many existing frame-based editors, where such anonymous frames must be
named before they can be used as models.

The main task that OilEd is targeted at is that of editing ontologies or schemas, as opposed to
knowledge acquisition or the construction of large knowledge bases of instances. Although
functionality is provided that allows the definition of individuals, this is primarily intended
for the definition of nomimals, which are used in the DAML+OIL one-of construction.

A key aspect OilEd‘s behavior is the use of the FaCT reasoner [Horrocks et al, 99] to
classify ontologies and check consistency via a translation from DAML+OIL to the SHIQ
description logic. This allows the user to describe their ontology classes and have the
reasoner determine the appropriate place in the hierarchy for the definition.

CORPORATE ONTOLOGY G RID T M                                                                      - 12 -
The DAML+OIL RDF Schema (March 2001)XXXX is used for loading and storing
ontologies. In addition, the tool will read and write concept hierarchies in pure RDF and will
render ontology definitions as HTML for browsing and as SHIQ for later classification by
the FaCT reasoner. Concept hierarchies can also be rendered in formats readable by AT&T‘s
dotty tool. XXXXX

The DAML Language is being developed as an extension to XML and the Resource
Description Framework (RDF). The latest release of the language (DAML+OIL) provides a
rich set of constructs with which to create ontologies and markup information so that it is
machine readable and understandable.


An important aspect when analyzing a tool is its software architecture and tool evolution.
Both OilEd and Protégé 2000 have standalone architecture. While Protégé 2000 can be
extended with Plugins, OilEd cannot be extended. An other weak point of OilEd is that it
uses files for storing ontologies while Protégé 2000 uses DBMS (JDBC). In addition, none
of them provide any backup management functionality.

Interoperability with other development tools, merging tools, information systems and
databases, as well as translations to and from some ontology languages, is another important
feature in order to integrate ontologies in applications. The interoperability with other
development tools for OilEd is FaCT, while for Protégé 2000 are PROMPT, OKBC, JESS
and FaCT. OilEd translates to OIL, RDF(S) and DAML+OIL languages, from OIL, RDF(S),
DAML+OIL SHIQ and dotty HTML languages. Protégé 2000 translates to XML, RDF(S),
XML Schema languages from XML, RDF(S), XML Schema, FLogic, CLIPS and Java
HTML languages.

From the KR paradigm point of view, there are two families of tools: description-logic based
tools such as OilEd and other tools such as Protégé 2000 which allow representing

CORPORATE ONTOLOGY G RID T M                                                                     - 13 -
knowledge following a hybrid approach based on frames and first order logic. Additionally,
Protégé 2000 provides flexible modeling components like metaclasses. However, none of the
tools analyzed includes: methodological support, project management facilities, ontology
maintenance and they only provide a little support for ontology evaluation.

Before selecting a tool, it is also important to know which inference services are attached to
it. This includes: built-in and other inference engines, constraint and consistency checking
mechanisms, automatic classifications and exception handling, among others. OilEd
performs inferences using the FACT inference engine and Protégé 2000 uses PAL. OilEd is
the only one performing automatic classifications because it is based on description logic
languages. Finally none of the tools provide exception-handling mechanisms.

Related to the usability of tools only in Protégé 2000 there are graphical editors for the
creation of concept taxonomies and relations. In addition, there is the ability to prune these
graphs and perform zooms of parts of it. Finally, none of them allows any kind of
collaborative working, while both of them provide libraries of ontologies.
The following table shows the result of comparison in terms of the requirements for the
ontology evolution

           Tools/                   Protégé                                        OilEd
                Elementary                              +                                   +
                 composite                              -                                    -
           Supervision                                  -                                    -
           Transparency                                 -                                    -
           Reversibility                               <>                                    -
           Auditing                                    <>                                   <>
           Refinement                                   -                                    -
             User-friendly                              +                                    +
                verification                           <>                                    <>
                  validation                            -                                     -
       Table 1. Evolution support within authoring tools. Description: “-” means that       there is no
       support, “<>” states that support is partial, “+” corresponds to the full support.

CORPORATE ONTOLOGY G RID T M                                                                              - 14 -
The basic functionality of each authoring tool is specified as a set of elementary ontology
changes. Thus, all allows allow such modifications. Even though composite changes allow
an ontology engineer to update an ontology without having to find the right sequence of
elementary modifications, most of the existing ontology tools do not include composite
changes. Most of the existing systems for the ontology development provide only one
possibility for realising a change, and this is usually the simplest one. For example, the
deletion of a concept always causes the deletion of all its subconcepts. It means that users are
not able to control the way changes are performed (supervision). Moreover, users do not
obtain explanations why a particular change is necessary (transparency).

Furthermore, there is no possibility to undo effects of changes (reversibility). Protégé has
Edit menu with Undo/Redo options, but they are disabled. Regarding the auditing
requirement, OilEd has the activity log. However, it records connections to the reasoner, not
all ontology modifications. Protégé also has the command history option, but it is useless,
since it is disabled. As known to authors, none of the existing systems for ontology
development and maintenance offer support for (semi-)automatic ontology improvement,
even though it makes the ontology easier to understand and cheaper to modify. Most of the
existing ontology authoring tools have a very similar layout. They are ergonomically correct
to minimise human errors. Moreover, all tools can detect logical conflicts (verification), but
they do not provide enough information to analyse the sources of conflicts. However, none
of the tools provide the means to answer to the questions such as how, why, what if, etc.


In summary, a lot of ―similar‖ ontology development tools exist for the building of
ontologies, but neither do they interoperate nor do they cover all the activities of the
ontology life cycle (just design and implementation). The lack of interoperability between all
these tools provokes important problems when integrating an ontology into the ontology
library of a different tool, or if two ontologies built using different ontology tools or
languages are integrated using merging tools.

CORPORATE ONTOLOGY G RID T M                                                                       - 15 -
                                    DATA MODELING TOOLS

                                          MS VISIO

Microsoft Visio is a stand-alone diagramming solution that helps people visualize and
communicate ideas, information, and systems.
Visio has three main roles:
              Complements        Microsoft   Office   Business     professionals   can   create
               information-rich diagrams that complement and extend the work they do in
               Office programs.
              Facilitates technical design, deployment, and maintenance Technical
               professionals can diagram and document ideas, information, and systems to
               facilitate IT deployments, extend the use of developer tools, and even
               document facilities layouts and engineering plans.
              Enables development of custom visual solutions Visio provides the ability
               to create custom shapes and stencils to support organizational standards and
               can be used to build wide-scale custom visual solutions.
Within each of these roles, Visio provides three key benefits. These benefits include the
ability to 1) easily make an impact by quickly creating and sharing professional-looking
diagrams, 2) understand ideas, information, and systems through a broad range of task-
specific solutions that integrate with other Microsoft products, and 3) benefit from the
diagramming standard using a single, customizable diagramming program that can be
deployed across the organization.

Easily Make an Impact
Visio provides the tools you need to quickly create and share professional-looking diagrams.
The familiar Microsoft Office environment makes Visio easy to learn and use and with Visio
you don‘t need drawing expertise to create professional-looking diagrams. You can assemble
diagrams quickly and easily by dragging pre-defined Microsoft SmartShapes® symbols from

CORPORATE ONTOLOGY G RID T M                                                                       - 16 -
stencils onto the drawing page. Built-in borders, backgrounds, and color schemes help you
add a professional look to your diagrams. Easily share diagrams by copying them into Office
documents or saving them as detailed Web pages.

Understand Ideas, Information, and Systems
Visio supports a broad range of task-specific diagram types, from process flows and
organization charts, to office and building layouts, to network, web, and database topologies,
and more. Many diagrams can be generated automatically from data stored in Microsoft
Excel, Exchange Server, Microsoft SQL Server, and other common data sources. Store
data in custom property fields and generate reports, or export Visio diagrams to common
exchange formats.

Benefit From the Diagramming Standard
Visio provides a single, customizable diagramming standard that is easy for organizations to
deploy and maintain. Visio products share a common file format, so users can exchange
diagrams across the organization, regardless of which Visio product they use. Visio Standard
and Visio Professional are based on the Visio diagramming engine, which can be used to
develop custom visual solutions. Plus, organizations can perform efficient wide-scale
deployments with tools for installing and maintaining Visio on thousands of desktops.
The Visio family includes two products designed to meet the needs of specific groups of

Microsoft Visio Standard         provides diagramming solutions         that   help   business
professionals—such as project managers, sales and marketing professionals, HR personnel,
administrative staff, and others—visualize and share information about the people, projects,
and processes they work with every day.

Microsoft Visio Professional helps technical professionals—IT, developer, and engineering
professionals—visualize existing ideas, information, and systems and prototype new ones.
Visio Professional also includes the business diagramming solutions found in Visio

CORPORATE ONTOLOGY G RID T M                                                                     - 17 -
Visio products share a common file format, so users can exchange diagrams, regardless of
which Visio product they use. Visio Standard and Visio Professional also include the Visio
diagramming engine for developing custom visual solutions.

Design Goals
The design goals for Visio 2002 correspond to the three themes above and include the
following: increased visual impact, tighter integration with other applications, and improved
deployment, maintenance, and customization.
Visio 2002 helps you easily make an impact with tools for creating better-looking diagrams
than ever and sharing them in the context of your everyday business communications. The
Visio 2002 product line is also easier to learn and use, with many classic Office features, as
well as new features shared with Office XP. And a number of online resources make it easier
to increase your productivity.
Lines and text are smoother than in previous versions, and gradient fills appear clearer when
viewed electronically. Visio now supports over 16 million colors per document. In addition
it provides built-in access to clip art installed with Microsoft Office, as well as tens of
thousands of images, sounds, and videos available online. You can enhance Visio diagrams
by importing images or photos directly from a scanner or digital camera and crop, group, or
change the fill, border, shadow, or transparency of imported graphics within Visio.
Diagrams saved as Web pages include a custom properties viewer, built-in navigation, and
improved hyperlink positioning. Multiple hyperlinks can be displayed for a single shape.
Double-click a diagram within an Office document, and get access to more Visio tools for
making updates and revisions.
The Choose Drawing Type dialog opens when Visio is launched to help users visualize and
access the appropriate diagram template. The Getting Started Tour provides an introduction
to Visio, a sample diagram library, and the basic steps involved in creating Visio diagrams.
Answer Wizard Help enables users to type questions directly into the Ask a Question box. A
list of related Help topics appears, including links to new and updated topics on the Web.
The Find Shape tool provides search capabilities for installed shapes as well as additional
shapes available on the Web. Download new shapes by dragging them from the results pane
onto the page. The Find Shape tool provides search capabilities for installed shapes as well

CORPORATE ONTOLOGY G RID T M                                                                     - 18 -
as additional shapes available on the Web. Download new shapes by dragging them from the
results pane onto the page. The Pan and Zoom, Custom Properties, and Drawing Explorer
windows can be merged into a single, page-tabbed window and docked in the stencil pane to
provide additional workspace. Users can now search diagrams for information contained in
custom properties, shape names, and user-defined cells, in addition to shape text.
Visio has the new Office XP new look for improved usability and overall experience. Menus
include the same personalization options that make Office applications easy to learn,
prominently featuring the most-used items and keeping others easily accessible. The task
pane helps users open or start documents, view the contents of the clipboard, perform
searches, or insert clip art (Office XP required for clip art integration). Common Office tools
such as AutoCorrect behaviour, familiar keyboard shortcuts, and the Office spelling checker
are now built in to Visio.
Visio articles, tips and tricks, product updates, and add-on solutions on the Microsoft Office
Tools on the Web site help business users increase their productivity. Technical Visio
articles are available through MSDN®, TechNet, and the Microsoft Knowledge Base.

More Integrated
Individual Visio solutions help you better understand ideas, information, and systems
through tighter integration with other products and technologies. Many solutions have been
improved to be easier to use and to help you work more effectively.
Visio Standard and Visio Professional import dates and tasks from Microsoft Project to
create Visio timelines and Gantt charts. Export dates and milestones in a timeline to create a
Gantt chart, and vice versa. Display an unlimited number of custom properties on
organization charts. Users can change which properties are displayed after the diagram has
been generated. Create maps of small areas and other locations requiring detailed
documentation. New shapes represent curved walls and office cubicles. Resize office layout
shapes using new dimension labels or by specifying custom property values. Doors and
windows automatically fall into place when dropped on a wall shape. Individual CAD
entities can be converted into Visio shapes.

CORPORATE ONTOLOGY G RID T M                                                                      - 19 -
In Visio Professional new shapes represent Exchange objects in Microsoft Active
Directory. Users have increased control over discovery and layout. A new List window
enables easy navigation by displaying Web site elements in a tree view. Users can generate a
complete report of all the links in a Web site, including broken links. The reporting tool can
identify changes in a Web site since it was last diagrammed. Users can work more quickly
by adding new fields consecutively to database tables or software classes. Users can reverse
engineer and diagram schema for SQL Server 2000, in addition to other databases. Building
a database diagram from the Tables window is faster than in previous versions. Also, users
no longer need to drag tables from the Tables window to create a diagram after reverse
engineering a database Users can reverse engineer and diagram Microsoft Visual Basic® 6
and Visual C++® 6 projects. Support for Visual Basic 7, Visual C++ 7, and Visual C# will
be provided through a service release when Microsoft Visual Studio®.net becomes available.
New shapes represent curved walls; any flat wall can be transformed into a curved wall.
Users can easily change the curvature of curved wall shapes. Visio automatically cleans up
wall intersections, reducing the amount of cleanup required in creating building plans. Users
can automatically populate floor plans with data stored in Active Directory, Exchange, Excel
spreadsheets, Access databases, or other ODBC-compliant data sources. Visio enables users
to automatically assign colors to shapes, such as offices in a floor plan, based on custom
property values. Visio now enables users to see all model space views supported by
AutoCAD paper space. The process engineering solution now displays component
information in the Custom Properties window, eliminating the need for an external database.
Engineers can manually tag process-engineering components and selectively retag them.
Tags can also be generated based on component custom property data. Users get enhanced
control of pipe layout with support for junctions, as well as splitting and healing of pipe
segments by valves and other process engineering components.
Visio features several improvements that make it a stronger diagramming standard than ever.
A streamlined product line simplifies purchase decisions for organizations, while other
improvements enable improved customization and tighter interoperability. Finally, familiar
deployment technologies enable organizations to deploy and maintain Visio on thousands of

CORPORATE ONTOLOGY G RID T M                                                                     - 20 -
Visio Standard Designed for business professionals. Includes Visio 2000 Standard solutions,
plus new and improved features.
Visio Professional Designed for business and technical professionals. Includes Visio
Standard, plus all solutions formerly available in Visio Professional and Visio Technical.
Visio Standard and Visio Professional are available in 13 languages: English, French,
German, Japanese, Korean, Italian, Spanish, Brazilian Portuguese, traditional Chinese,
simplified Chinese, Dutch, Swedish, and Danish. Visio Network Tools is available in
English, French, German, and Japanese.
The new XML file format enables interoperability with other XML-enabled applications and
facilitates storage and exchange of diagram-based information, including data not associated
with a page or shape Over 90 new Automation properties and methods provide access to
more Visio diagram data. Visio enables developers to extend and enhance Visio
programmatically through COM add-ins. Developers can extend and enhance Visio
functionality using built-in Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) 6.3. Microsoft
Authenticode® technology allows developers to digitally sign the VBA projects in their
solutions using a digital certificate that identifies the developer as a trusted source. If a
signed project has been altered, a user can choose to disable macros in a Visio document.
Administrators and/or users have the option of removing Visual Basic for Applications from
Office installations on a user, group, or organization-wide basis.
The Auto Update utility analyzes a user‘s Visio installation, recommends relevant updates,
and makes them immediately available for download and installation. Users can choose to
save their current files at the time an error occurs in an application. As a result, users spend
less time recreating their diagrams. For added assurance and diagnostic help, users can
prompt Visio to automatically report application errors to Microsoft. Users can choose to
safely shut down a non-responding application while initiating recovery of the document.
Users can choose how often files are automatically saved. If an error occurs, the recovered
file is opened, and users have the option of discarding the file, saving it over the original, or
saving it as a separate file.
Like Office, Visio can be deployed using Windows® Installer technology. Windows Installer
simplifies desktop management. End users can install additional Visio features on demand—
features are added only as needed or as disk space allows. IT administrators can use Install

CORPORATE ONTOLOGY G RID T M                                                                        - 21 -
on Demand to determine which features to deploy to different groups of users, thus
improving manageability. In addition, the self-repair feature reduces support costs—Visio
detects and fixes missing or corrupt files, so users don‘t waste time troubleshooting. Visio
uses the Office Installation Wizard, which provides control over customized installations,
including silent and unattended installations. Systems Manager Server (SMS) support
simplifies installation. Organizations can create packages for automatic deployment to
specified user groups on the local network and at remote sites System administrators can
more effectively install and run Visio in a secure Windows environment. Features such as
install on demand and detect and repair are now accessible to users without local
administrator privileges. Multiple, concurrent users will benefit from improved Terminal
Server support. This Web-based tool guides administrators through specific scenarios to
ease deployment efforts.

Microsoft Visio Standard 2002
Microsoft Visio Standard 2002 offers a wide range of specialized business solutions to help
you understand and communicate how your organization works.
With Visio Standard, you can easily visualize projects, processes, and people using precision
drawing tools, task- and application-specific diagram types, and intelligent SmartShapes
Visio Standard comes with familiar Microsoft Office features and integrates seamlessly with
other Microsoft applications. You can integrate diagrams seamlessly into Microsoft
PowerPoint® presentations, Microsoft Excel spreadsheets, and Microsoft Word documents.
You can also publish them as Web pages to share over the corporate intranet or the Internet.
These features make Visio Standard the most versatile diagramming software product


CORPORATE ONTOLOGY G RID T M                                                                    - 22 -
Document and share ideas visually. Quickly assemble diagrams using predefined shapes
Visualize people, projects, and processes. No matter what your area of expertise, Visio has
a diagram for you. Create flowcharts, organization charts, timelines, office layouts, and
more. Even generate diagrams from data stored in Microsoft Excel, Microsoft Access, and
Microsoft Project.
Work in a familiar environment. Become productive quickly using skills developed using
other Office programs. Visio 2002 features the same look and feel as Microsoft Office XP
and includes many common Office behaviors. Easily create and revise Visio diagrams in
place within other Office programs
Although this product makes nice charts, etc., it lacks the ability to adapt well to changes in
paper size, relocation of objects and will put objects well outside the page limits if you let it.
Once you get past the need for manually positioning objects, the output is pretty good.
System Requirements
Visio Standard 2002
To use Microsoft Visio Standard the recommended system is Windows 2000 Professional on
a computer with a Pentium III processor and 128MB of RAM. The minimum system
requirements include:
Windows operating system Microsoft Windows 98, Windows 98 Second Edition,
Windows Millennium, Microsoft Windows NT® 4.0 with Service Pack 6 or greater, or
Windows 2000. On systems running Windows NT 4.0 with Service Pack 6, the version of
Internet Explorer must be upgraded to at least 4.01 with Service Pack 1.
Random Access Memory RAM requirements for Microsoft Visio depend upon the
operating system used, plus an additional 16 MB of RAM for Visio: for Windows 98 and
Windows 98 Second Edition, 24 MB of RAM for the operating system; for Windows Me, 32
MB of RAM for the operating system; for Windows NT Workstation or Server 4.0, 32 MB
of RAM for the operating system; for Windows 2000 Professional, 64 MB of RAM for the
operating system. Operating system RAM requirements assume default Windows
installations, and running additional utilities or applications may require additional RAM.
Storage requirements Hard-disk space requirements will vary depending on configuration.
110 MB of available hard-disk space is required for the default configuration of Microsoft

CORPORATE ONTOLOGY G RID T M                                                                         - 23 -
Visio. Custom installation choices may require more or less hard-disk space. A CD-ROM
drive is required for installation.
Monitor VGA (640x480) or higher-resolution monitor. Super VGA (800x600)
recommended. 256 colors required.
Pointing device Microsoft Mouse, Microsoft IntelliMouse®, or compatible pointing device.
Processor Pentium 166 MHz or higher processor.
Additional requirements for specific features Some Microsoft Visio features have
additional requirements:
       Modem 9600 baud modem; 14,400 or higher baud recommended.
       Internet Some Internet functionality may require Internet access and payment of a
        separate fee to a service provider; local and long distance telephone toll charges may

Microsoft Visio Professional 2002
The first Microsoft-developed version of Visio, Visio Professional 2002 provides
diagramming solutions that help business and technical professionals document and
communicate a broad range of ideas, information, and systems. Diagrams created in Visio
Professional provide valuable insights into existing technical systems and help individuals
and teams more effectively develop new ones. When used to augment text and numbers,
Visio diagrams make a message more concise, help people remember main points, and
transcend cultural and technical barriers.
Comprehensive technical diagramming and drawing. Take advantage of specialized
diagram types to create network, Web site, database, and software diagrams. In addition,
Visio Professional 2002       delivers the facilities management diagrams and engineering
schematics previously available in Visio Technical. All diagrams in Visio Standard are also
Intelligent, precise diagrams and drawings. Diagrams incorporate detailed data and reflect
accurate dimensions. Improved reporting capabilities enable flexible data export, and a new
XML file format facilitates customization and interoperability.

CORPORATE ONTOLOGY G RID T M                                                                     - 24 -
Easy-to-use, integrated environment. Visio Professional provides a familiar Microsoft
Office environment and many Office features. Quickly and easily visualize existing systems,
thanks to integration with many Microsoft technologies.

System Requirements

Visio Professional 2002
To use Microsoft Visio Professional the recommended system is Windows 2000 Professional
on a computer with a Pentium III processor and 128MB of RAM. The minimum system
requirements include:
Windows operating system Microsoft Windows 98, Windows 98 Second Edition, Windows
Millennium, Windows NT 4.0 with Service Pack 6 or greater, or Windows 2000. On systems
running Windows NT 4.0 with Service Pack 6, the version of Internet Explorer must be
upgraded to at least 4.01 with Service Pack 1.
Random Access Memory RAM requirements for Microsoft Visio depend upon the
operating system used, plus an additional 48 MB of RAM for Visio: for Windows 98 and
Windows 98 Second Edition, 24 MB of RAM for the operating system; for Windows Me, 32
MB of RAM for the operating system; for Windows NT Workstation or Server 4.0, 32 MB
of RAM for the operating system; for Windows 2000 Professional, 64 MB of RAM for the
operating system. Operating system RAM requirements assume default Windows
installations, and running additional utilities or applications may require additional RAM.
Storage requirements Hard-disk space requirements will vary depending on configuration.
170 MB of available hard-disk space is required for the default configuration of Microsoft
Visio. Custom installation choices may require more or less hard-disk space. A CD-ROM
drive is required for installation.
Monitor VGA (640x480) or higher-resolution monitor. Super VGA (800x600)
recommended. 256 colors required.
Pointing device Microsoft Mouse, Microsoft IntelliMouse, or compatible pointing device.
Processor Pentium 200 MHz or higher processor.
Additional requirements for specific features Some Microsoft Visio features have
additional requirements:

CORPORATE ONTOLOGY G RID T M                                                                  - 25 -
Modem 9600 baud modem; 14,400 or higher baud recommended.
Internet Some Internet functionality may require Internet access and payment of a separate
fee to a service provider; local and long distance telephone toll charges may apply.


While ERwin is strictly a data modeling tool, Logic Works also publishes BPwin, an IDEF
process tool, and a number of products related to the design, coding, and implementation of
database application systems. ERwin and BPwin both connect to Logic Works' ModelMart
repository product for shared model storage and access.

While there is still no way to perform selective de-normalization, the new ―logical only‖
property on entities, attributes, and relationships allows substantial differentiation of logical
and physical models. Views are provided, albeit incompletely, in an attractive and simple
approach. The primary editor interfaces have been refreshed and simplified.

ERWin has introduced separate logical and physical models. This is accomplished by
treating the two model forms as different representations of the same content.

For example, many-to-many relationships now appear immediately in the physical model as
associative tables when Physical Model is selected from the menu drop-down list. An
associative table can have columns added which will not be represented in the logical many-
to-many relationship. Logical Model can also be chosen to permanently convert the
relationship into an associative entity.

The biggest benefit of the separation of logical and physical diagrams is probably how the
various editors are simplified. Since there are fewer properties to be shown (i.e., either
logical or physical, but not both), the new editor formats are less cluttered. However, this
separation makes no provision for meaningful de-normalization, which is the only real
reason for having separate diagram forms. Columns cannot be moved or replicated in the

CORPORATE ONTOLOGY G RID T M                                                                        - 26 -
physical with any link to their source attributes in the logical model. Furthermore, since both
logical and physical models work from the same underlying metadata, logical data cannot be
propagated into multiple physical models (for different database products, configurations, or
trial versions) without a crude "save as" or copy. Either of those, of course, will break the
links of the new model from its origin.

Logical Only / Physical Only Properties

ERwin 3.5 adds a new detail feature buried as a checkbox on the object definition editors. A
logical model object (entity, attribute, relationship) can be specified as Logical Only. This
will suppress that object in the physical model. In a symmetrical fashion, there is a Physical
Only property for tables, columns, and physical relationships (foreign key references). These
setting options may seem trivial but they provide several valuable capabilities. Objects can
be marked as Logical Only, if they are in process and not yet ready for exposure to the real
world. On the physical side, Physical Only provides a poor man's de-normalization if you
want to manually represent column moves and replications without forcing the same form in
the logical model. This is also useful to model technical columns and tables from the
physical side without cluttering up the logical side.


It is slick and simple: just grab the View table tool from the tool box, drop a view symbol
into a physical model and connect it to its source tables with the View relationship tool. The
resulting view is immediately and dynamically populated with columns from the source

Unfortunately, several of the most important elements in a view are NOT provided. The
WHERE clause is left to the user to code. There is no provision for GROUP BY, HAVING,
or ORDER BY, all of which are fundamental to any SQL query.


Erwin provides imported entry of entity and attribute names directly on the diagram surface.
One can click a new entity onto the canvas and just start typing, go back into the editors later
to add the details. This is very simple and natural for free-form ―white-board‖ style input. Of

CORPORATE ONTOLOGY G RID T M                                                                       - 27 -
course ERWin still allows very easy attribute movement with the toolbox hand icon. One
can navigate from the attributes of an entity to the descriptive properties of that entity but not
the other way around. Adding an attribute in the editor imposes another dialog box on top,
rather than accepting entry into a grid or list. The multiple Display levels and Editor styles
remain Erwin‘s most confusing aspects.

Every window is organized differently. Many options, even important concepts, only appear
as obscure buttons nested several windows deep. Some are now only available from the right
mouse menu. There is no apparent design pattern or template from which new features are
added or old ones enhanced.

Erwin‘s manuals and help are generally excellent, well-organized, well written, and
providing extensive discussions of concepts with examples. Feature creep has gotten ahead
of the indexing (both printed and on-line) so it is often a goose chase to look up a specific
feature. But the explanation will probably be clear and complete.


ERwin has taken a beating recently on this issue and consequently the company that provide
it has done substantial rework on the interface for 3.5. ERwin provides improved entry of
entity and attribute names directly on the diagram surface. You can click a new entity onto
the canvas and just start typing. Go back into the editors later to add the details. This is very
simple and natural for free-form "white-board" style input. Of course ERwin still allows
very easy attribute movement with the tool box hand icon.

Nonetheless, we think that ERwin is still neither pretty nor friendly once you dive into the
dreaded editors. You can navigate from the attributes of an entity to the descriptive
properties of that entity but not the other way around. Adding an attribute in the editor
imposes another dialog box on top of the one you're in, rather than accepting entry into a
grid or list. The multiple Display levels and Editor styles remain ERwin's most confusing
Every window is organized differently. Many options, even important concepts, only appear
as obscure buttons nested several windows deep. Some are now only available from the right

CORPORATE ONTOLOGY G RID T M                                                                         - 28 -
mouse menu. There is no apparent design pattern or template from which new features are
added or old ones enhanced.

On the other hand, ERwin's manuals and help are generally excellent - well organized, well
written, and providing extensive discussions of concepts with examples. Feature creep has
gotten ahead of the indexing (both printed and on-line) so it is often a goose chase to look up
a specific feature. But when you find it, the explanation will probably be clear and complete.

SilverRun is an integrated business process and data modelling solution for handling an
enterprise's entire portfolio of models - from business process models to conceptual, logical
or physical data models, application packages or data warehouse. This breadth of
functionality is delivered in a highly intuitive, easy-to-learn, easy-to-use graphical
environment. SilverRun products are available on Microsoft Windows, OS/2, Macintosh and
SUN Solaris.

SilverRun products exist in both standalone (SilverRun Professional series) and team
modelling configurations (SilverRun Enterprise Series) to support enterprise-level modelling
efforts. The SilverRun Professional Series includes four modules for the analysis stage of the
application development life cycle: Entity Relationship Expert (ERX), Relational Data
Modeller (RDM), Business Process Modeller (BPM), and Workgroup Repository Manager
(WRM). The SilverRun Enterprise series, which includes an on-line, relational database
repository, supports ERX, RDM and BPM in a team modelling, repository-based

Furthermore, SilverRun is a large and deep set of tools for database modeling and
engineering. At the moment SilverRun is perhaps uniquely positioned among CASE tools.
Yet SilverRun offers serious enterprise features generally found in much more expensive
server based tools (e.g., ADW, LBMS‘s Systems Engineer). SilverRun integrates the three
classic fundamental data design components based on a common presentation approach and
shared design definitions:

CORPORATE ONTOLOGY G RID T M                                                                      - 29 -
   BPM Module: Discovery of requirements, definitions, and structures via data flow
   ERX Module: Conceptual modeling via Chen style Entity-Relationship diagrams.
   RDM Module: Advanced relational schema design and DDL generation.

Each of these three modules is a separate product, licensed per seat. Since the per module
cost is about the same as the total cost of Erwin, SilverRun can be somewhat more
expensive, depending on configuration and user population. Nonetheless the cost difference
alone is moderate and hardly a deterrent to enterprise scale users who may desire
SilverRun‘s benefits.

In addition, an optional Enterprise version of SilverRun (RDM only to date) joins the big
leagues by working directly over a relational database dictionary. Standard versions capture
a model snapshot in a proprietary file local to the user. A product facility is provided to
manage the reconciliation of multiple models. The Enterprise version, on the other hand,
displays each object live from its shared RDBMS dictionary (in Oracle, Sybase,…), which
handles locking, updates, and global refresh at the object level. Based on its solid foundation
in methodology, depth of features, and modular integration, SilverRun is a strong leader in
the CASE data-modeling field.

SilverRun‘s style is bulky, clumsy, and slow to the point that it inhibits, rather than enables,
design inspiration. Menus are very long and intimidating without obvious choices. Tool
pallets contain overlapping and confusing icons. Accessing graphic objects requires
knowledge of specific tool behaviors. ―Connectors‖ are defined separately from
―Directions‖. A number of its internal rules are only enforced by batch procedures, rather
than as real-time validations. SilverRun understanding is encumbered by jargon unknown in
the standard lexicon of data modeling.

At a more general level, the methodology framework imposed by SilverRun‘s ERX module
is out of date and incomplete. The Chen style Entity-Relationship modeling in the ERX
module forces the dated notion of ‗relationships‘ as objects separate and distinct from

CORPORATE ONTOLOGY G RID T M                                                                       - 30 -
entities-a concept which has been discarded by most practitioners in favor of the more
streamlined and understandable Information Engineering technique.

SilverRun‘s sub-typing is implemented only at the physical level (RDM ―Choises‖) and
offers no flexibility in mapping conceptual sub-types into normalized or de-normalized
tables. Candidate keys are not supported, although their common weak side effect of
―alternate keys‖ are. There is no facility in the ERX module to model purely conceptual
entities, which externalize an attribute definition without generating a table.

SilverRun provides multi-platform desktop support, excellent on-line help, extensive printed
documentation, good user support policies and a robust, reliable code that performs well.

It is difficult to say which of the tools that we have described before are the best data
modeling tools. Every tool has its advantages and disadvantages.
While performing some tests, ERwin actually shut down abnormally, losing all unsaved
work. The simplest way to cause this was to create a domain in the Explorer view
underneath an existing domain while the list was sorted hierarchically. Apparently due to an
error in the code, a ―ghost‖ domain would be created at the top level. Any attempt to delete
the extra domain resulted in immediate shut down. A number of functions either didn‘t work
at all or didn‘t work as indicated in the documentation. For example, drawing a reference
from a parent ―entity‖ to a child is supposed to ―auto-migrate‖ the parent PK column to
become a child FK column, if the option is turned on in the model properties. For identifying
references, it worked fine, but for non-identifying references, nothing migrated. ERwin has
always had a slightly more cumbersome interface, with a general lack of graphic
functionality. The interface has improved in 3.5 version, adding a number of very nice
features, such as the Explorer view and graphic. However, the general impression of the
interface is still clumsy with graphic anomalies and unstable code. The user interface is the
first experience users have with the product, therefore, it cannot be overemphasized how
important a robust user interface is to the overall acceptance of the tool.

CORPORATE ONTOLOGY G RID T M                                                                    - 31 -
However, Visio has a more sophisticated user interface and functions that are easier to find
and use for the novice. With its advanced control over graphics and its stronger reporting
facility, Visio produces better quality documentation than Erwin and SilverRun.
Additionally Visio is including reverse engineering and DDL creation. It‘s also one of the
few tools that supports object role modeling (ORM) for conceptual design. ERwin seems to
lack some of the higher-end documenting capabilities to be expected in an enterprise-level
modeling tool. Additionally, ERwin           has   some very compelling features              with
denormalization management and better naming convention tools. SilverRun is a suite of
tools designed to support ER and business process modeling, as well as UML and code
generation and can support high levels of integration into third party tools. In conclusion we
can say that both of these data modeling tools are very popular and provide the user with a
many useful functions.


                                        MS BIZTALK

Biz Talk Server 2002 lower the cost of implementing integration solutions by reducing the
complexity of enterprise application integration. It provides organizations with the server,
tools, adapters, and vertical accelerators needed to integrate and automate their business.
BizTalk Server adapters. BizTalk Server adapters are additional software components that
enable BizTalk Server to integrate with third-party applications from companies like SAP,
J.D. Edwards, and PeopleSoft. Microsoft produces two adapters which can be licensed, one
for MOSeries and one for SAP. It also provides an adapter which can be downloaded for
Web Services. In addition, third-party companies provide hundreds of additional BizTalk
Server adapters.
BizTalk Server accelerators. Microsoft offers three BizTalk Server accelerators—
Microsoft BizTalk Accelerator for HIPAA, Microsoft BizTalk Accelerator for Suppliers, and
Microsoft BizTalk Accelerator for RosettaNet
BizTalk Server provides companies with three main benefits:

CORPORATE ONTOLOGY G RID T M                                                                         - 32 -
      Integration of enterprise applications. Today's agile businesses need to make
       better decisions more quickly. By achieving a unified view of their data and
       applications both within their organization and with their business partners, these
       business can increase their revenues and decrease their cost of operation. Data and
       transformation services and the application integration features in BizTalk Server
       2002 can provide businesses with the tools they need to achieve this unified view.
      Automation of business processes. To remain agile, businesses must be able to
       integrate their data, applications, and business partners in an automated, predictable
       way so they can achieve the return on investment that application integration can
       bring. BizTalk Orchestration Designer and BizTalk Orchestration Engine provide
       organizations with business process automation, enabling their businesses to run
      Development of operational excellence. To realize real return on investment, it
       must be possible to rapidly deploy and easily manage an integration solution. This
       flexibility can reduce the cost and complexity associated with application integration.
       BizTalk Server 2002 introduces SEED, a revolutionary new technology for
       automating the integration of business partners over the Internet.
BizTalk Server enables businesses to achieve application integration through five key
processes: document transport and routing, data transformation, application integration,
process automation, and scalability and manageability services. Each process is achieved
through receive functions, channels, ports, schedules, and tools.
               Receive functions are the starting point for documents submitted to BizTalk
               Channels modify the structure of these documents as well as manage
                encryption, digital signatures, and logging.
               Messaging ports send documents to schedules or to external organizations
                and trading partners.
               Schedules orchestrate business processes.
               BizTalk Server 2002 tools enable the receive functions, channels, messaging
                ports, and schedules to run.

CORPORATE ONTOLOGY G RID T M                                                                     - 33 -
Receive Functions
BizTalk Server is capable of receiving documents submitted through a wide variety of
medium, including Internet standard technologies such as HTTP, SMTP and SOAP, as e-
mail attachments, through the message bus, programmatically through exposed API‘s, and
through adapter components. BizTalk Server receive functions monitor HTTP, MSMQ
message queues, and file locations for incoming business documents. They are responsible
for submitting the received documents on to a channel, the second step in the process.
BizTalk Server Administration components are used to configure receive functions. It also
exposes a Component Object Model (COM) interface, Interchange, which enables any
COM–compatible application, such as ASP .NET, the .NET Framework, Microsoft
SharePoint Portal Server or Microsoft Exchange Server, to submit business documents
directly to a channel. Through the freely downloadable BizTalk Adaptor for Web Services
developers can create Web Services that provide synchronous access to BizTalk Server
applications without writing code.
Once an incoming document is received into the system, it often needs to be transformed to
meet specific business or application formats. Channels can perform a number of operations,
including document transformation and logging. A BizTalk Server channel is set up to
receive incoming documents that conform to a specific document definition, which defines
the ordering of the business data within the document. When the document arrives through a
receive function, a channel can log the whole document or any portion of it to the BizTalk
Document Tracking database for later analysis, or transform the document to conform to the
schema of the target application. BizTalk Messaging Manager is used to manage channels in
a graphical user interface (GUI). In addition, two other BizTalk Server applications can be
used to set up the artifacts used in BizTalk Server channels:
BizTalk Editor, which creates document definitions as an XML representation of business
documents originally defined as flat files, XML, or Electronic Data Interchange (EDI).
BizTalk Mapper, which graphically creates the transformation between two business
documents and saves it in an Extensible Stylesheet Language Transformations (XSLT) map.
Messaging Ports

CORPORATE ONTOLOGY G RID T M                                                                  - 34 -
After documents are received and mapped to the format of the target application, they need
to be delivered either directly to that application or to a business process that manages
delivery to multiple target applications. BizTalk Adapters enable BizTalk Server to integrate
with many standard technologies as well as third-party applications without additional
development work. Messaging ports also push documents to schedules, which manage
business processes that target a number of applications. There is a many-to-one relationship
between channels and ports. Dozens of channels can send documents to a single messaging
port, which is particularly useful when business documents are sent from a variety of
applications to a single target application.
BizTalk Server schedules orchestrate the automation of business processes by receiving
documents from a messaging port then calling COM components, other BizTalk Server
messaging channels, or XML Web services (this capability is provided in the BizTalk Server
2002 Toolkit for Microsoft .NET). BizTalk Server schedules are created in a graphical
environment called BizTalk Orchestration Designer, which is based on Microsoft Visio®.
The BizTalk Orchestration Designer consists of two panels on the design surface, the
business analyst panel, and the developer panel. This enables organizations to separate
process from implementation. It also facilitates the rapid creation and alteration of business
Within a schedule, a business analyst can draw a business process that consists of decisions,
loops, and actions, such as receiving a purchase order, sending a purchase order into an
enterprise resource planning (ERP) system, and so on. In addition, by sending its output to
another BizTalk Server messaging channel a schedule may deliver its document to other
schedules. This enables complex business processes to be segmented into manageable
processes that can be maintained separately.
BizTalk Server provides a set of sophisticated graphical tools that businesses can use to
build, transform, manage, track, and analyze business documents. The BizTalk Server tools
were designed to simplify the common tasks required to integrate applications and business
systems, and ensure the desired functionality is achieved.
BizTalk Server includes the following graphical tools:

CORPORATE ONTOLOGY G RID T M                                                                     - 35 -
BizTalk Orchestration Designer enables users to visually define and build robust,
distributed business processes.
          BizTalk Editor enables users to define schema for XML, EDI, and flat files.
          BizTalk Mapper enables users to link disparate schemas and define steps for
           successful document transformations.
          BizTalk Messaging Manager is a wizard-based tool that enables users to
           manage the details of business-process transactions.
          BizTalk Server Administration enables administrators to perform common
           administrative tasks such as adding and removing servers.
          BizTalk Document Tracking enables users to track documents as they move
           through various stages of the business process.
          BizTalk SEED Wizard enables rapid partner enablement through the creation
           and use of SEED packages.

                                    IBM WEBSPHERE

       IBM WebSphere software is characterized by features such as

              high performance
              reliability
              scalability
              security

       The basis of the IBM WebSphere platform is provided by the IBM WebSphere
       application server, a stable server for your e-commerce applications. It supports
       industry standards for software such as Java, Enterprise JavaBeans and JavaServer
       Pages files and enables high-performance interactions with corporate databases and
       transaction systems. The IBM WebSphere platform comprises IBM WebSphere MQ,
       a middleware product, with the help of which you can integrate your e-commerce

CORPORATE ONTOLOGY G RID T M                                                                - 36 -
     applications into back end systems. That is decisive for quick, secure customer
     transactions and efficient consistent processes, such as in ordering.

     WebSphere is infrastructure software for dynamic e-business, delivering a proven,
     secure and reliable software portfolio. Providing comprehensive e-business
     leadership, WebSphere evolves to meet the demands of companies faced with
     challenging business environments such as the need for increasing operations
     efficiencies, strengthening customer loyalty, and integrating disparate systems.

     Leading customers toward dynamic e-business means WebSphere provides answers
     to these challenging business environments. WebSphere is the only e-business
     platform that can provide everything you need to build, deploy and integrate your e-
     business, including: Foundation & Tools, Business Portals, Business Integration and
     Transaction Servers & Tools.

     WebSphere Capabilities

     Open Services Infrastructure
     WebSphere Application Server lets you deploy a core operating environment for a
     reliable foundation capable of high volume, secure transactions and Web services.
     Application Development
     WebSphere Studio lets you deliver a rapid and efficient response to business needs
     through new e-business applications.
     Enterprise Modernization
     WebSphere Host Integration and WebSphere Studio let you leverage existing
     business assets and skills to satisfy new e-business requirements.
     Business Portals
     Interactive User Experience

CORPORATE ONTOLOGY G RID T M                                                                - 37 -
       WebSphere Portal helps people interact in a personalized way with diverse business
       Access On Demand
       WebSphere Everyplace and WebSphere Voice let you easily access information
       and take action anywhere, anytime, using any choice of devices.
       Selling and Channel Management
       WebSphere Commerce helps you optimize marketing, business relationships and
       channel management to maximize e-commerce revenue.
       Business Integration
       Business Integration lets you realize the benefits of end-to-end integration through
       five core capabilities: model, integrate, connect, monitor and manage.

       IBM Webshphere Application Server version 5.0
       Today, building an e-business on demand that can extend your market reach and
       maximize your return on investment (ROI) means more than simply Web-enabling
       content and applications. To participate in the next chapter of e-business, it is vital to
       integrate these applications with existing data stores, other applications and Web
       services that exist in heterogeneous environments, in multiple programming models
       and on different sides of firewalls.

       IBM WebSphere® Application Server, Version 5.0 is a comprehensive Java™ 2
       Platform, Enterprise Edition (J2EE) 1.3 and Web services technology-based
       application server that integrates enterprise data and transactions with today‘s e-
       business world. Through a rich application deployment environment, you can build,
       manage and deploy dynamic e-business applications, handle high-transaction
       volumes and extend back-end business data and applications to the Web. IBM
       WebSphere Application Server Network Deployment offers advanced Web services
       that can operate across disparate application frameworks and business-to-business
       (B2B) applications, and provides virtually any-to-any connectivity with transaction
       management and application adaptability. With multiple configuration options,
       WebSphere Application Server supports a wide range of scenarios, from simple

CORPORATE ONTOLOGY G RID T M                                                                        - 38 -
     administration of a single server to a clustered, highly available, high-volume
     environment with edge of- network services. These specialized configuration options
     give you the flexibility to respond to an ever-changing marketplace—without the
     costs of migrating to a different technology base. As the foundation of the
     WebSphere platform and the core J2EE and Web services configuration, IBM
     WebSphere Application Server, Version 5.0 is optimized for ease of administration
     in a single-server deployment environment.

     This configuration is recommended for organizations that need to build and deploy
     message-oriented, departmental applications and Web services but don‘t require
     failure bypass or workload distribution. This configuration is also available with a
     restricted development-only license to allow enterprises using third-party
     development tools to effectively build and test applications for WebSphere
     Application Server.

     Leverage existing software assets
     In today‘s business environment, it‘s more important than ever to take full advantage
     of your existing IT resources from hardware to personnel. With its commitment to
     open standards and extensible connectivity features, WebSphere Application Server
     can greatly improve your ability to leverage those existing assets. WebSphere
     Application Server helps increase productivity through its close interlock with IBM
     WebSphere Studio, a tightly integrated Java development environment based on open
     Eclipse workbench technology. Develop, test and deploy Java and Web services
     applications with easy access and minimal errors. The integrated development and
     deployment platform of WebSphere Application Server optimizes development
     resources through its ability to reuse CORBA, Microsoft, C++, Java and legacy

     Application adapters that quickly and easily extend enterprise applications to e-
     business also help you leverage current resources. WebSphere Application Server
     helps reduce the risk, complexity and cost of using and deploying application

CORPORATE ONTOLOGY G RID T M                                                                 - 39 -
     adapters through its advanced support for J2EE Connector Architecture (JCA). JCA
     gives you a consistent way of connecting to and communicating with a wide range of
     enterprise systems and applications—without the need for advanced programming
     skills or extensive coding. Reuse and integrate disparate systems and applications,
     while allowing for broad cross-platform support and unparalleled connectivity and
     integration with a variety of backend systems.

     Increase productivity with messaging integration
     WebSphere Application Server enables dynamic application interaction through a
     native, high-performance Java Message Service (JMS) provider based on market-
     leading IBM WebSphere MQ technology and support for J2EE 1.3, Enterprise
     JavaBeans (EJB) 2.0. The JMS application programming interface (API) increases
     productivity by defining a common set of messaging concepts and programming
     strategies. JMS further simplifies development by allowing loosely coupled, reliable
     asynchronous interactions among J2EE components and legacy systems capable of
     messaging. EJB 2.0 message beans and containermanaged messaging save valuable
     programming time and skill by allowing requests to be processed without requiring
     code to check for messages when they arrive. And developers can easily incorporate
     new behavior in a J2EE application with existing business events by adding a new
     messagedriven bean to operate on specific business events.

     Maximize ROI with Web services
     WebSphere Application Server extends the J2EE 1.3 programming model by
     providing a comprehensive infrastructure to support the production- ready
     deployment of Web services-based applications. Build, publish and manage
     integration-ready application services that can be used by other internal or external
     organizations or platforms. Create new business opportunities and reduce costs by
     finding the least expensive trading partners and share applications electronically with
     other organizations. WebSphere Application Server supports key Web services open
     standards, including Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP), Universal Description,
     Discovery and Integration (UDDI) and Web Services Description Language

CORPORATE ONTOLOGY G RID T M                                                                   - 40 -
      (WSDL). Deploy and consume Web services with a variety of communication
      protocols, including SOAP and HTTP, JMS or Remote Method Invocation Internet
      Inter-ORB Protocol (RMI/IIOP). Administer virtually any Web service, whether
      developed with Java technology or Microsoft® .NET.

      Meet the changing demands of e-business
      Dependable system availability can help you avoid costly downtime and, in turn,
      build customer loyalty. But as volume increases, it becomes more difficult to
      maintain high levels of performance. WebSphere Application Server can help you
      handle unpredictable volumes—without degrading user experience. Its consistent,
      leadingedge performance and scalability help maintain high responsiveness to
      constantly changing environments. Leverage new levels of scalability, reliability and
      performance through expanded database support and enhanced security to help
      enable continuous operation of critical enterprise Java applications.

      Instill confidence with securityrich applications
      It‘s more important than ever that you provide your employees, partners and
      customers with the most advanced levels of security and superior performance.
      WebSphere Application Server offers a sophisticated security infrastructure and
      extensive support of open standards-based Java specifications.

      A flexible e-business infrastructure
      IBM WebSphere Application Server, Version 5.0 provides flexible options and a
      smooth migration path to help develop and maintain complete solutions. An
      extensive list of offerings includes:

      • WebSphere Application Server-Express. An easy-to-use, cost-effective on-ramp to
develop and deploy
      dynamic Web applications with basic e-business capabilities
      • WebSphere Application Server. The core Web services J2EE 1.3 certified
      application server, enabling industry-leading and flexible deployment options

CORPORATE ONTOLOGY G RID T M                                                                  - 41 -
     • WebSphere Application Server for Developers. The functional equivalent of the
     core WebSphere Application Server configuration, providing an easy-to-use
     development environment to build and test ebusiness applications (licensed for
     development use only)
     • WebSphere Application Server Network Deployment. A J2EE and Web services
     Web application server with advanced deployment services that include clustering,
     edge services and high availability for distributed configurations
     • WebSphere Application Server Enterprise. An extended J2EE and Web services,
     build-to-integrate platform to create, compose and choreograph dynamically
     adaptable networked application flows and behaviors
     • WebSphere Application Server for z/OS. A J2EE and Web services application
     server specifically optimized for the IBM z/OS® environment
     • IBM WebSphere Application Server for iSeries. IBM WebSphere Application
     Server-Express for iSeries and IBM WebSphere Application Server Network
     Deployment for iSeries deliver WebSphere Application Server value on the IBM ^
     iSeries platform

     IBM Websphere Studio
     IBM WebSphere Studio is a single, comprehensive development environment
     designed to meet all of development needs from powerful Web interfaces to server-
     side applications, from individual development to advanced team environments, from
     Java™ development to application integration. Available in a number of
     configurations, with extensions from IBM and partners, WebSphere Studio enables
     developers to use a single development environment designed to meet their specific
     development needs.
     For both individuals building Web pages and large teams building advanced Web
     applications, WebSphere Studio provides tools and wizards to simplify your Web
     development tasks. The environment includes an intuitive WYSIWYG interface that
     lets novice Web designers create and publish Web sites while incorporating the latest
     Web technology, including JavaScript, Dynamic HTML, and Cascading Style Sheets.
     It also provides visual layout tools to create dynamic Web sites with Java servlet or

CORPORATE ONTOLOGY G RID T M                                                                 - 42 -
     JavaServer Pages (JSP) components, a built-in XML development environment,
     support for Rational ClearCase LT for software configuration management, and Web
     services tools for the creation, deployment, and publishing of Web services.
     Whether you are extending an existing Java 2 Enterprise Edition (J2EE) application
     or starting from scratch, WebSphere Studio's comprehensive, easy-to-use
     environment makes building Java applications, application adapters, and Web
     services a snap. Using WebSphere Studio, you can create J2ME, J2SE, and J2EE
     applications, and make your application accessible over the Web using the latest Web
     Services standards such as XML, Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP), Web
     Services Description Language (WSDL), and Universal Description Discovery and
     Integration (UDDI). You can also integrate your application with back-end systems
     using visual tools to create application adapters, and develop wireless applications
     for cellular telephones, PDAs, and handheld computers.
     For building complex, scalable, J2EE applications with consistent quality in a
     fraction of the time, WebSphere Studio provides configurations for rapid application
     development that harness the power of business logic automation to deliver highly
     changeable and scalable business systems with minimal hand coding.
     We have the following WebSphere Studio product configurations:
               WebSphere Studio Site Developer
               WebSphere Studio Application Developer
     These two products are part of a planned suite of integrated development
     environments (IDEs) that will cross all e-business development roles -- Web
     developer, Java developer, enterprise programmer, business analyst, and system
     architect. Studio products provide the following advantages.
               Highly integrated development and deployment environment.
                Improve team productivity and application quality through greater
                automation of the development and deployment process via an integrated
                development environment.
               Optimized for specific developer roles. Reduce training costs and
                increase collaboration by standardizing on a common environment,
                optimized for each role on the development team.

CORPORATE ONTOLOGY G RID T M                                                                - 43 -
               Customizable to meet the needs of individual developers. Maximize
                developer efficiency by quickly and seamlessly integrating best-of-breed
                tools and middleware to address specific deployment platforms, and
                customizing views of tools and data for each development task.
               End-to-end approach for modernizing enterprise applications. Reduce
                costs and maximize return on investment by transforming and extending
                existing application assets and development skills from across the
               Built on industry supported open technologies. Avoid vendor lock-in
                and technology dead-ends. Maximize your choice of best-of-breed tools
                and repositories from multiple vendors by standardizing on an open
                development platform with broad industry support.

      IBM WebSphere Host Integration
      IBM WebSphere Host Integration software lets you leverage and extend your
      legacy assets for use in new e-business solutions, by extending the reach of your
      business information to the Web with access to information stored on IBM
      iSeries™, IBM zSeries™, and other back-end systems, such as UNIX, Microsoft
      Windows NT. WebSphere Host Integration Solution is a single offering, providing
      a fast and cost-effective way to access, integrate and publish host information to
      Web-based clients and applications.
      Merging Web technology with your existing information systems defines e-
      business. IBM WebSphere Host Integration Solution offers industry-leading host
      access with unmatched flexibility for multiple environments. Leverage legacy data
      with new e-business solutions to help maximize your total return on investment.
      IBM WebSphere Host Integration Solution is a single offering, providing a fast and
      cost-effective way to access, integrate and publish host information to Web-based
      clients and applications

CORPORATE ONTOLOGY G RID T M                                                               - 44 -
      IBM WebSphere Portal
      IBM WebSphere Portal helps you improve employee productivity and strengthen
      relationships with customers and trading partners by allowing users to interact in a
      personalized way with dynamic information, applications, processes and people.
      This is a key component of the Business Portals value area, which helps increase
      satisfaction of customers, employees, and trading partners by extending and
      personalizing the user experience.

      IBM WebSphere Business Integration
      Business Integration is the heart of e-business on demand. It's about integrating
      data, applications, processes and people across and beyond your company, giving
      you the power to leverage existing IT investments while having the flexibility to
      adapt quickly to changing business conditions.
      IBM WebSphere Business Integration (WBI) allows companies to realize the
      benefits of end-to-end integration through five core capabilities: model, integrate,
      connect, monitor and manage.
      WebSphere Business Integration enables you to optimize operations and gain
      flexibility with integrated applications and automated processes

      IBM WebSphere MQ
      IBM WebSphere MQ is market-leading business integration software. It connects
      all your business software together to form one efficient enterprise by providing an
      open, scalable, industrial-strength messaging backbone. WebSphere MQ minimizes
      time taken to integrate key resources and applications held in different systems, so
      your company can respond to the changing demands of e-business. By connecting
      business information with people and other applications, you can extract more value
      from existing investment, and quickly integrate new systems to support new market

      IBM WebSphere MQ version 5.3

CORPORATE ONTOLOGY G RID T M                                                                 - 45 -
      WebSphere MQ messaging products enable application integration by helping
      business applications to exchange information across different platforms, sending
      and receiving data as messages. WebSphere MQ V5.3 is now available for Linux
      for Intel, Linux for zSeries, iSeries and Microsoft Windows XP. They take care of
      network interfaces, assure 'once and once only' delivery of messages, deal with
      communications protocols, dynamically distribute workload across available
      resources, handle recovery after system problems, and help make programs
      portable. So programmers can use their skills to handle key business requirements,
      instead of wrestling with underlying network complexities.

               Added security using Secure Sockets Layer (SSL), the Internet standard
                for secure communication.
               Enhanced features for performance, especially for JMS ( Java Message
                Service) applications, making WebSphere MQ the JMS provider of
               Other features have been added to enhance system scalibity and
                reliability, particularly useful for clustering of systems that can share
               It is now much simpler for programmers to use API exits to allow
                monitoring or for local standards to be implemented.
               WebSphere MQ 5.3 maintains compatibility with the previous release -
                IBM MQSeries 5.2.
               All WebSphere MQ Version 5 Release 3 products are Euro compliant,
                and AIX, HP-UX, Sun Solaris and Windows versions are Tivoli Ready.
               WebSphere MQ messaging forms the key business integration layer of the
                WebSphere Software Platform

     WebSphere MQ provides a consistent multiplatform, application-programming
     interface. A key factor is time-independent processing. This means that messages are
     dealt with promptly, even if one or more recipients are temporarily unavailable.

CORPORATE ONTOLOGY G RID T M                                                                - 46 -
     Version 5 Release 3 offers added security using Secure Sockets Layer (SSL), the
     Internet standard for secure communication. There are enhanced features for
     performance—especially for JMS (Java Message Service) applications, making
     WebSphere MQ the JMS provider of choice. Other features have been added to
     enhance system scalability and reliability, particularly useful for clustering of
     systems that can share workload. It is now much simpler for programmers to use API
     exits to allow monitoring or for local standards to be implemented. WebSphere MQ
     Version 5.3 maintains compatibility with the previous release – IBM MQSeries
     Version 5.2. All WebSphere MQ Version 5 Release 3 products are Euro compliant,
     and AIX, HP-UX, Sun Solaris™ and Microsoft Windows versions are Tivoli ready.
     WebSphere MQ messaging forms the key business integration layer of the
     WebSphere software platform.


           Enables rapid resolution of key business problems through integration and
           Unlocks value from existing systems through real-time information exchange
            and automation of business processes.
           Increases efficiency of organizations by automating routine tasks and
            enabling management by exception.
           Eliminates delays and errors caused by the manual steps that are required
            when systems cannot communicate.
           Provides better visibility into businesses operations through a Web interface
            for monitoring systems and processes.


CORPORATE ONTOLOGY G RID T M                                                                - 47 -
           Easy-to-use design interface that allows for fast deployment with minimal
            training requirements.
           Process templates and out-of-the-box connectivity with leading applications.
           Enables reuse of process models, transformation maps, etc.
           Full support for leading standards and protocols including HTTPS, JMS and
           Integrate support for dynamic load-balancing and fault-tolerance.
           Human processing of business exceptions in automated business processes.
           Open modular architecture that allows extension and customization of
            interfaces and communication channels.

     TIBCO ActiveEnterprise enables real-time communications between computer
     systems and the coordination of end-to-end business processes. With the new
     TIBCO™ BusinessWorks product, businesses are able to rapidly deploy integration
     solutions that solve business problems of all sizes.
     The TIBCO ActiveEnterprise line of e-business infrastructure products lets you
     automate your business by creating an integrated network of applications, databases
     and information.

     TIBCO Adapters let you integrate off-the-shelf applications and databases into your
     e-business                                                            infrastructure.
     TIBCO Adapters enable packaged applications, databases and networking
     technologies to become active participants in the enterprise information flow,
     regardless of their different data formats or models. Adapters offer a ―no-coding‖
     approach to integration, providing simple, automated mapping of 3rd party
     technologies and data formats.
     Adapters allow new components to be added to the system quickly and easily,
     without disturbing the existing infrastructure. Each new element only needs to be
     ―adapted‖ to the ActiveEnterprise data model, not to every other application,
     database and network with which it will interact.

CORPORATE ONTOLOGY G RID T M                                                                 - 48 -
     Additional message transformation and business process automation can be handled
     once the data is published to the network, but adapters isolate the application from
     those more complex actions.

               Unlocks corporate database assets for active sharing with other enterprise
               Improves overall system performance by eliminating repetitive batch
                requests to packaged application systems
               Lowers cost-of-ownership through general n-way rather than point-to-
                point integration
               Ensures minimal impact on network performance with efficient
                information distribution to multiple endpoints
               Simplifies administration with data transparency provided by subject-
                based naming
               Enhances functionality of networked applications based on component or
                object development models like COM, DCOM or CORBA, and other
                messaging technologies like IBM‘s MQSeries™
               Utilizes shared metadata definitions for easy design-time and run-time
                integration & transformation definition and execution
               Available messaging types include request/reply, publish/subscribe and
                publish/reply interactions
               Choice of message delivery service levels for optimal resource utilization
               Automated mapping of data types and message or object formats between
     Adapters for Packaged Applications
     TIBCO Adapters are available for a wide range of off-the-shelf applications from
     leading vendors. Each adapter integrates with at least one, and usually several, of the
     interfaces exposed by the applications. TIBCO Adapters provide shared XML

CORPORATE ONTOLOGY G RID T M                                                                   - 49 -
     metadata definitions, standard error handling and reporting, and GUI administration
     TIBCO Adapters are available for many applications and platforms including SAP
     R/3, Siebel, Peoplesoft, Vantive, Clarify, Lotus Notes, Portal Infranet, Kenan and

     Adapters for Databases
     TIBCO Adapters enable an enterprise's databases to become full participants in
     dynamic business processes, importing and exporting data in real-time for exchange
     with other databases and applications. Stored procedures can also now be leveraged
     across the enterprise. TIBCO Adapter for ActiveDatabase(tm) supports the major
     industry-standard databases, including Oracle, DB2, MS SQL Server, and Sybase.

     Adapters for Network Technologies
     TIBCO Adapters enable integration with component or object development models
     as well as with other messaging technologies. In fact, integrating applications based
     on these network technologies into a TIBCO-enabled e-business infrastructure can
     expand their functionality to include features such as publish/subscribe messaging
     and built-in fault tolerance and load-balancing.
     TIBCO Adapters for Network Technologies are available for COM, CORBA,
  MSMQ and MQSeries.

     Development of Custom Adapters
     For the integration of custom applications into the e-business infrastructure, TIBCO
     makes available a comprehensive Software Development Kit that enables enterprises
     to build their own adapters.
     TIBCO BPM lets you streamline your operations by automating routine processes
     and transformations and coordinating complex workflows and exception handling
     TIBCO BPM™ gives you the ability to monitor and instantaneously change and
     improve your business by coordinating even your most complex business processes.

CORPORATE ONTOLOGY G RID T M                                                                 - 50 -
     TIBCO BPM provides an easy-to-use graphical interface that lets business users
     model, monitor and modify process flows, and a powerful engine that coordinates
     complex sequences of operations. TIBCO BPM automates tasks being performed by
     applications and Web Services, and provides sophisticated routing, state management
     and exception handling capabilities to enable extremely efficient human workflow.

               Increases operational efficiency by automating sequences of tasks and
                enabling detailed analysis and optimization of process flows
               Provides visibility, management and control of all business processes
               Increases employee productivity by integrating people into process flows
                and exception handling scenarios in real-time
               Improves the effectiveness of existing systems by automating the
                execution of routine tasks as part of highly-efficient process flows
               Enables continuous process improvement by providing detailed metrics
                and the ability to easily modify process flows
     Key Features
               Powerful process engine links people, applications, and Web Services

CORPORATE ONTOLOGY G RID T M                                                               - 51 -
               Specialized tools and interfaces meet unique requirements of process
                participants, process analysts, executives, and administrators
               Unique distributed architecture for highly scalable deployments
               Comprehensive metrics collection and analysis capabilities for measuring
                and optimizing processes
               Fully-integrated transformation and mapping engine
               Patented technology lets you ―design by discovery‖: track what‘s really
                happening in your business, and instantly reap the benefits of process
                visibility and control
               Ability to dynamically modify process definitions without interrupting
                work already in progress, as well as control in applying changes to work
                in progress
     TIBCO BPM uses a distributed server architecture that seamlessly interacts with any
     communications protocol, and leverages TIBCO Rendezvous™ for client/server
     communications. A servlet-based thin client is included for rapid prototyping, and a
     graphical user interface lets users design and model processes without any coding.
     Processes can be saved as XML templates or Web Services for reuse throughout the

CORPORATE ONTOLOGY G RID T M                                                                - 52 -
  Interfaces & Platforms
  Interfaces                  Java, C/C++, OLE, Prolog
  Operating System            Windows 98/NT/2000, Solaris 7/8, HPUX 11/11i
  Database                    Oracle, 8/8i, SQL 7/2000,Sybase 11/12
  LDAP (optional)             Netscape Directory Server
  Web Server                  iPlanet, Microsoft IIS, Weblogic, Tomcat
  Browser                     Microsoft IE 5+, Netscape 4.7+

  TIBCO BusinessFactor provides a visual and interactive interface that lets you analyze
  your operations in context of objectives, past performance, and current conditions so you
  can more quickly and intelligently identify and address risks and opportunities.
  TIBCO BusinessFactor is a powerful Business Activity Monitoring solution that
  provides a visual and interactive interface that makes it easy to analyze your operations
  in context of business objectives, past performance, and current conditions so you can
  more quickly and intelligently identify and address risks and opportunities.
  Capabilities and Benefits
  TIBCO BusinessFactor leverages the power of TIBCO's proven business integration
  platform to give you an absolutely current and interactive view of your business.
  It does this by incorporating real-time data from the systems and processes that make
  your business run into dynamic visual representations of your enterprise and the key
  performance indicators that you use to measure your success. These visual
  representations can be images such as maps, blueprints, technical drawings, charts or
  graphs, and give users the ability analyze current conditions and performance for any
  level of location specificity or timeframe with a few clicks of their mouse, helping them
  quickly identify trends and predict likely outcomes.
  TIBCO BusinessFactor also:
        gives users the ability to collaborate with other uses and interact with systems and
         processes so they can take appropriate action,
        improves speed and effectiveness of business operations by providing visibility
         into the company's key performance indicators,

CORPORATE ONTOLOGY G RID T M                                                                    - 53 -
        provides a collaboration framework to share visual business context and execute
         or assign appropriate actions.

  Packaged Solutions for Rapid Deployment
  Healthcare Resource Optimization
            Emergency Center monitoring to quickly identify patient bottlenecks, perform
             short-term trending and identify process improvement and problem areas.
            Daily productivity and revenue cycle visibility allowing healthcare
             administrators and doctors to monitor operational efficiency by region,
             hospital, department and doctor (appointment counts, patient visits, service
             provided, missing encounter data, insurance reimbursement timeframes and
  Sales Demand
  Global hot spot identification for sales, forecast and inventory discrepancies across the
  enterprise. Visually perform historical comparisons and correlations with other activities
  including marketing, strategic initiatives and news.
  Real-time monitoring of plant floor configurations and activity. More accurately identify
  product recalls and quality problems by correlating information.
  Quality Of Service Control
  Continuous monitoring of service level agreements and operational targets including call
  center activities and service delivery performance. Easy identification of emerging trends
  and proactive notification to prevent shortfalls and overruns.
  Homeland Defense
  Monitor real-time activity and gather intelligence about potentially hazardous situations
  going on in shipping ports, around airports or anywhere in the world. Integration with
  satellite imagery and biometric capability.
  Manages Entire Lifecycle of Integration: Design, Deployment and Management

CORPORATE ONTOLOGY G RID T M                                                                   - 54 -
  TIBCO BusinessFactor's intuitive user interface enables the presentation of current
  conditions and historical data in whatever format best meets the need of your business.
  TIBCO™ BusinessWorks enables you to rapidly deploy a packaged integration solution
  and manage the entire lifecycle of integration projects.
  TIBCO BusinessWorks is an easy-to-use integration solution that leverages TIBCO‘s
  innovative technology and years of leadership. BusinessWorks provides world-class
  integration technology in a rapidly deployable solution that manages the entire lifecycle
  of integration projects.
  TIBCO BusinessWorks includes a graphical user interface (GUI) for creating and
  defining integration scenarios, an engine that automates routine sequences of tasks, and a
  Web-based interface for monitoring applications, system resources and processes.
            Enables rapid resolution of key business problems through integration and
            Unlocks value from existing systems through real-time information exchange
             and automation of business processes.
            Increases efficiency of organizations by automating routine tasks and
             enabling management by exception.
            Eliminates delays and errors caused by the manual steps that are required
             when systems can't communicate.
            Provides better visibility into businesses operations through a Web interface
             for monitoring systems and processes.


CORPORATE ONTOLOGY G RID T M                                                                   - 55 -
                      Leverages standards and technologies such as XML, J2EE and Web
                      Easy-to-use design interface that allows for fast deployment and
                      Process templates and out-of-the-box connectivity with leading
                      Enables reuse of process models and transformation maps.
                      Full authentication and authorization of system components and
                       human users.
                      Graphical data transformation environment that simplifies the process
                       of resolving differences in data structures between applications.
                      Web-based administration console enables real-time monitoring of
                       systems and processes across a distributed environment.

  Manages Entire Lifecycle of Integration: Design, Deployment and Management
  BusinessWorks has an easy-to-use interface that enables users to manage every aspect of
  an integration project. It is e xtensible to accommodate custom business objects and
  adapter configurations, and lets users optimize processes without relying on
  programmers to make changes.
  Once the process flows and transformation maps have been defined, the implementation
  can be deployed with a single step for updating all servers with the required
  configuration information.
  BusinessWorks provides a Web-based interface that enables the administration of users
  and systems and the monitoring of applications, process and system resources. Business
  users can analyze real-time performance information and trends, and identify and process
  Standards and Web Services

CORPORATE ONTOLOGY G RID T M                                                                   - 56 -
  TIBCO BusinessWorks provides comprehensive support for leading business integration
  technologies such as XML, J2EE, and JMS. With full support for standards such as
  XML, SOAP, and WSDL, TIBCO BusinessWorks is the first solution that enables
  sophisticated and comprehensive business integration using Web Services.
  Supported Platform
  BusinessWorks is currently available on multiple Windows and Unix platforms. Contact
  TIBCO Software for more information.
  TIBCO Enterprise™ for JMS provides a standardized interface for enabling
  communications between J2EE-compliant applications, Enterprise Java Beans, and
  application servers.
  JMS (Java Message Service) is the messaging element of the J2EE (Java Platform,
  Enterprise Edition) specification. It provides a standardized interface for enabling
  communications between J2EE-compliant applications, Enterprise Java Beans, and
  application servers.
  JMS from the Messaging Leader
  The TIBCO Enterprise™ for JMS product is a high-performance and extremely robust
  implementation of JMS that leverages the expertise and experience TIBCO has gained as
  the leading provider of high-performance messaging software. TIBCO‘s messaging
  software powers the communications infrastructure for the world‘s top financial
  institutions including Nasdaq, SWIFT, Morgan Stanley, Lehman Brothers, and Merrill
  Lynch, and is leading enterprises.
  Enterprise for JMS employs a store-and-forward architecture, and supports both queue-
  based and publish/subscribe messaging, local messaging transactions (in which multiple
  messages may be sent or consumed as an atomic unit of work), message selectors, and
         Full support for Sun's JMS 1.1 specification.
         Full support for native and 3rd-party JNDI (Java Naming and Directory
         C-based server for high throughput and transient peak messaging.

CORPORATE ONTOLOGY G RID T M                                                               - 57 -
           Lightweight pure-Java client library for maximum compatibility. Additional C
            and C# clients are available for expanded integration capabilities. The C# client is
            currently a technology preview.
           Support for XA transaction management in both the JMS and C clients.
           Superior scalability and fault-tolerance via server clustering and routing, as well
            as run-time message tracking and support for undelivered queues.
           Powerful administration capabilities including fine-grained user authorization,
            and destination access controls.
           Detailed run-time monitoring facilities, extensive server tracing capabilities, and
            advanced server log file management.
           Secure messaging with full support for SSL, including client-to-server and
            server-to-server connectivity and support for external SSL accelerators.
           Seamless bi-directional connectivity with TIBCO Rendezvous, including support
            for certified messaging, interoperability with leading application servers, and
            integration with TIBCO's entire range of business integration solutions.
    TIBCO Hawk™ provides comprehensive system monitoring and management
    Along with the tremendous opportunities of e-business come significant risks. The early
    years of e-commerce have exposed many highly publicized outages that have resulted in
    financial losses, legal liability, and erosion of customer loyalty. Giving customers and
    partners direct access to an enterprise‘s systems increases the need for efficient network
    monitoring and management software that can act, react and even ―pre-act‖ on system
    problems to keep the lines of communications open.
    TIBCO Hawk is a sophisticated tool for monitoring and managing distributed
    applications and systems throughout the enterprise. With Hawk, system administrators
    can monitor application parameters, behavior, and loading activities for all nodes in a
    local or wide-area network and take action when pre-defined conditions occur. In many
    cases, runtime failures or slowdowns can be repaired automatically within seconds of
    their discovery, reducing unscheduled outages and slowdowns of critical business

CORPORATE ONTOLOGY G RID T M                                                                       - 58 -
            Provides a centralized view of all distributed applications and systems
            Minimizes network traffic by handling management through network alerts
             instead of repeated polling of systems
            Maximizes a system‘s ability to find application problems quickly with its
             distributed micro-agent architecture
            Assures consistent, high-quality runtime data through management activity
             hooks in all TIBCO ActiveEnterprise components
            Allows a unified view of all network management activity by integrating with
             network management frameworks such as Tivoli and Unicenter and SNMP
            Simplifies definition of rule bases for automated system monitoring with GUI

            Extensive monitoring capabilities at the operating system and application
             levels including process data, disk and CPU utilization, network statistics, log
             and system files
            Built-in routines within ActiveEnterprise components for proactive
             management of integrated components, allowing problems to be found and
             fixed before failure can occur
            Hawk Application Management Interface (AMI) routines can be embedded
             within custom applications, allowing active management of custom
             applications by the Hawk micro-agent
            Fully leverages publish/subscribe infrastructure for unique network
             management capabilities such as single-message network queries and
             publication of new rule bases to distributed network agents
            Distributed micro-agents support autonomous network behavior so local
             management and problem resolution can continue during an outage
            Multiple location-independent consoles can be added with minimal additional

CORPORATE ONTOLOGY G RID T M                                                                    - 59 -
             Fault-tolerance is achieved through the independent operation of Hawk
              agents, which continue to perform local tasks even in the event of network
             Fully-exposed Java Console API for domain-specific display and client-
              server applications
             Problem severity can be identified quickly with color-coded alerts
  Hawk consists of several components: a console display, a central repository for storage
  of configuration objects, agents and micro-agents whose monitoring duties are defined
  by the rule bases. Agents monitor local conditions and take action or publish alert
  information that appears in the Hawk display. Micro-agents act as an interface to the
  managed objects and are invoked through their supported methods.
  Hawk comes with a number of built-in micro-agents for monitoring operating system,
  log file, and overall system behavior. Additional micro-agents can be created for custom
  applications with embedded Hawk Application Management Interface (AMI) routines.
  Database performance adapters are available for Oracle, Sybase and SQL Server. A
  console adapter is available for Tivoli, and an SNMP adapter for interaction with outside
  MIBs and trap publishing is also available.
  TIBCO Hawk is available on Solaris, Windows NT, HP/UX, AIX, Linux, Digital UNIX
  and Open VMS. All TIBCO Rendezvous API languages are supported, including C,
  C++, Java, ActiveX and Perl.

  TIBCO InConcert™ lets you automate the workflow of customer-oriented processes
  that                  rely              on             human                 intervention.

             Maximizes customer satisfaction by ensuring an accurate real-time view of all
              business process activity
             Enables managers to adapt business processes on-the-fly–even after a process
              has begun–in response to new business conditions

CORPORATE ONTOLOGY G RID T M                                                                   - 60 -
            Increases employee productivity and morale by enabling faster access to
            Eliminates process inefficiencies while providing faster cycle times
            Provides centralized management and control of business processes
            Encourages continuous process improvement by pinpointing problem areas
             and measuring long-term trends
            Powerful process engine that links people and application workflows
            Intuitive graphical user interface for rapidly designing and prototyping
            Support for dynamic and static workflows over the Internet
            Real-time event-state monitoring
            Open, object-oriented architecture including a rich programming interface
             with over 400 APIs and business process rules
            Robust tools for managing and measuring business processes
            Integrates fully with and leverages other TIBCO products
  InConcert uses a scalable three-tier architecture (client/server/database) and relies on
  TIBCO Rendezvous™ for client/server communications. A graphical Process Designer
  tool lets users design and model workflows without programming. The Process Designer
  includes a number of pre-defined business process rules that assist in rapid prototyping
  of workflow processes. The process design information is saved in templates and can be
  reused elsewhere in the organization, further reducing deployment time and costs.
  InConcert offers an extensive Client Library API that can be used to integrate workflow
  tasks into the existing applications and to allow the easy creation of custom applications.
  In addition to supporting industry standard interfaces (C, C++, OLE, Java), InConcert
  includes LDAP directory support to help ease the burden of user administration across
  the entire workflow framework.

CORPORATE ONTOLOGY G RID T M                                                                    - 61 -
  InConcert is available on servers running Solaris, HP-UX, Windows NT, and Windows
  2000. InConcert is supported on the following databases: Oracle7/8 (NT and Unix),
  Sybase11/12 (Unix only), and MS SQL-Server 6.5/7.0. InConcert provides support for
  clients running Win32/NT 4.0/SP3, SP5, Win9x and Win2000 as well as language
  bindings for C, C++, OLE, and Java applications. InConcert also includes LDAP support
  (optional) for Netscape Directory Server 3.0 or higher. Please contact your TIBCO
  representative or visit for the latest platform support information
  TIBCO IntegrationManager™ lets you define and manage automated business processes
  that span multiple applications and transactions.
  As businesses mature, their infrastructure and integration requirements become
  increasingly sophisticated. Standard message brokers can handle basic transformation,
  validation and routing, but more complex systems require business process coordination
  to automate and manage standard sequences of events that occur within the system.
  TIBCO IntegrationManager provides business process definition, coordination and
  management for both short and long-lived operations across applications that are
  integrated using TIBCO ActiveEnterprise, J2EE, Web Services, or other integration
  technologies. IntegrationManager dramatically improves the level of automation that can
  be achieved across incompatible systems as they embrace longer and more complex
  value chains.

             Provides a top-down, business-level graphical view of business process flows
             Automates interactions within an enterprise and across its value chain

CORPORATE ONTOLOGY G RID T M                                                                 - 62 -
            Improves competitive flexibility by allowing easy modification and adoption
             of business processes
            Reduces or eliminates coding efforts, even for unique integration
            Dramatically decreases deployment time
            Easy-to-use GUI for design and implementation of business processflows
            Process definition based on Unified Modeling Language (UML) principles
            Coordinates between any number of applications via integrationtechnologies
             such as CORBA, J2EE and Web Services,as well as TIBCO's EAI and
             messaging solutions.
            Provides sophisticated error management and compensating transaction
            Provides a fault-tolerant, scalable and load-balanced execution environment
             for maximum reliability
  IntegrationManager consists of three components:
            Editor: Easy-to-use GUI for the definition and configuration of the process
            Repository: Stores the process model information
            Run-time Server and Engine: Executes the business process
  By executing the defined flows on available runtime engines, IntegrationManager
  manages calls and responses to and from existing systems, as well as both short and
  long-term states-of-process and engine loads. Standard application interface calls can be
  made using Rendezvous messages, CORBA calls, or EJB calls. Integrated error handling
  ensures that the appropriate operation is performed in the event of a component failure
  within a given business flow.

CORPORATE ONTOLOGY G RID T M                                                                  - 63 -
  TIBCO IntegrationManager is a Java application currently available on NT, Solaris, and
  HP-UX. As with all ActiveEnterprise applications, it is capable of sending and receiving
  messages to and from Java and non-Java applications on any platform.

  TIBCO MessageBroker™ performs automated message transformation and business
  object                                                                          mapping.
  Facilitating the exchange of information between two enterprise applications is a lot like
  translating a conversation between two people speaking different languages. In a
  complex environment like an enterprise application network, however, such differences
  must be resolved in a way that enables all participants to take part in the communications
  process. This is a far more difficult challenge–one comparable to that faced by the
  complex network of translators and technologies which facilitate communications at the
  United Nations.
  This is the role TIBCO MessageBroker plays as part of the TIBCO ActiveEnterprise
  family of products. MessageBroker performs rules-based data transformation and
  validation to resolve differences between data models or import/export formats as the
  TIBCO Rendezvous™ messaging software moves data through an application network.
  MessageBroker is the only product that provides rules-based transformation and
  mapping as part of an event-driven system.
              Eases integration of applications and data sources with easy-to-use
               configuration tool

CORPORATE ONTOLOGY G RID T M                                                                   - 64 -
            Improves system reliability by allowing applications to publish content just
             once in native formats
            Speeds deployment by eliminating custom coding and by sharing metadata
             definition throughout the ActiveEnterprise system
            Ensures complete scalability with its distributed architecture
            Enables B2B e-commerce with native support for HTTP and XML
            Provides easy extensibility of protocols and formats with its plug-in and
             componentized approach
            Integrates fully with other TIBCO products through shared metadata stored in
             the TIBCO Repository™
            Supports a wide range of inputs and outputs including Rendezvous messages,
             databases, HTTP, XML, SWIFT, flat files and e-mail
            Easy-to-use GUI for drag-and-drop mapping of inputs and outputs
            Rich translation function set performs quick and simple transformations
            Extensible plug-in model using Java programming
            Requires no database or central server
            Support for XML data formats and validation through DTDs
            Dynamic content-based routing capabilities
  Leveraging Native Environments
  Within the ActiveEnterprise framework, applications are ―plugged in‖ to the TIB using
  TIBCO Adapters that convert their native data into a universally-recognized format. The
  data can then be processed, transformed, or cleaned independently by MessageBroker to
  prepare it for use by other systems. By allowing applications to publish content in their
  native formats–just once for all required integration–stability of the information source is
  greatly improved.
  MessageBroker is a distributed system that requires no database or central server.
  Embedded within it are TIBCO Hawk™ AMI implants, which allow automated event-
  driven management of all runtime deployments.

CORPORATE ONTOLOGY G RID T M                                                                     - 65 -
  A graphical user interface combines ease-of-use with powerful transformation semantics
  and extensibility. Once data transformations are defined by a data integration specialist
  or a data analyst, transformations are automatically managed by the MessageBroker
  engine efficiently and quickly.
  TIBCO MessageBroker is a Java application that is currently supported on Windows
  2000 Server, Windows NT, Solaris, HP/UX, Red Hat Linux, and AIX. As with all
  TIBCO ActiveEnterprise applications, it is capable of sending and receiving messages to
  and from Java and non-Java applications on any platform.
  TIBCO Rendezvous™ is the foundation of ActiveEnterprise. An added transactional
  quality of service is available with TIBCO Rendezvous TX. Any structure is only as
  strong as its foundation, and in an e-business infrastructure, that foundation is the
  messaging system. The most basic need of application-to-application integration is the
  efficient movement of data from system to system, within and beyond the enterprise. As
  the foundation, the messaging technology must be efficient, reliable and scalable. It must
  be flexible enough to support the integration of off-the-shelf and custom-built
  applications, and it must garner industry-wide support among leading technology
  An Industry Messaging Standard
  TIBCO Rendezvous is the messaging system that is the foundation of TIBCO
  ActiveEnterprise, TIBCO‘s line of e-business infrastructure products. With more than
  1,000 customer installations worldwide, and support from leading vendors in all areas,
  Rendezvous is rapidly emerging as the de facto standard for enabling the mission-critical
  real-time messaging needed for robust e-business infrastructures.
             Provides a high-performance, scalable platform for e-business infrastructures
             Enables the creation of robust event-driven applications
             Harnesses the full capabilities of high-performance multiprocessor servers
             Ensures minimal integration-driven traffic as cross-system needs grow
             Meets the reliability standards of even the most demanding applications and
              24x7 environments

CORPORATE ONTOLOGY G RID T M                                                                   - 66 -
            Provides off-the-shelf support for over 100 of the world‘s leading
             applications, technologies and databases
            Simplifies administration with self-administering protocol
            Features
            Fully integrated with all TIBCO ActiveEnterprise components, including a
             broad library of pre-built adapters, and TIBCO Adapter SDK™ for creating
             custom adapters
            Browser-based monitoring and management tool provides administrators a
             standard, readily accessible interface
            Dynamic, source-based routing protocol provides added efficiency and
             simplified configuration
            Enhanced message support and user extensible types improve performance
             and flexibility
            Built-in APIs for fault tolerance and load balancing
  The Choice of Technology Vendors
  Rendezvous has been integrated or embedded within the products of the world‘s leading
  technology companies. Over 100 leading applications, technologies and information
  sources have already been integrated as off-the-shelf offerings. Rendezvous is the only
  messaging software that delivers true real-time publish/subscribe and request/reply
  messaging. It also supports qualities of service ranging from lightweight informational
  messages to certified and transactional delivery.
  Rendezvous utilizes a distributed architecture to eliminate bottlenecks and single points
  of failure. Applications can select from several qualities of service including reliable,
  certified and transactional, as appropriate for each interaction. Messaging can be
  request/reply or publish/subscribe, synchronous or asynchronous, locally delivered or
  sent via WAN or the Internet. Rendezvous messages are self-describing and platform
  independent, with a user-extensible type system that provides support for data formats
  such as XML.

CORPORATE ONTOLOGY G RID T M                                                                  - 67 -
  Unmatched Reliability
  More than a decade of production use has proven Rendezvous to be one of the most
  reliable software products of any kind. Built-in facilities for constructing fault-tolerant,
  load-balanced applications maximize uptime and performance. Integration with TIBCO
  Hawk™ provides Rendezvous-based components with immediate recovery from
  unexpected failures or application outages.

  Rendezvous is available on platforms ranging from desktop PCs running Windows to
  mainframes running OS/390. See our Web site for specific details. Rendezvous APIs are
  available in Java, C, C++, Perl and COM. For more detailed information, view the
  TIBCO Rendezvous platform list.
  TIBCO Substation ES™ enables the real-time and non-invasive integration of
  mainframe applications into end-to-end business processes.
  Many people think of mainframes as old technology, but the majority of corporate data
  still sits on them and they continue to be a very important part of how many enterprises
  operate. Unfortunately, the typical batch-oriented nature of mainframe data storage and
  retrieval makes it hard to include mainframe applications as real-time components of
  dynamic business processes.
  TIBCO Substation ES enables the inclusion of mainframe applications as a seamless part
  of automated business processes by non-invasively enabling them to send and receive
  event-driven messages and information to and from non-mainframe systems.

CORPORATE ONTOLOGY G RID T M                                                                     - 68 -
            Increases value of mainframe systems by unlocking data and functions for
             real-time utilization as part of end-to-end business processes
            Improves synchronization of data across the enterprise with event- and
             change-driven updates to and from mainframe applications
            Non-intrusive architecture enables integration of mainframe applications
             without requiring any modifications to application logic or transaction
  Key Features
            Available for OS/390 and zOS operating systems
            Support for CICS and IMS interfaces
            Common Services provide for Task Control, Dispatching, Interface
             Management, Data Transformation, Configuration Management, and
             Log/Trace/ Audit facilities
            Sysplex-aware networked infrastructure enables integration of application
             data, processes, and business context information with distributed computing
            Consumes just one MVS Address Space per instance, and is controlled using
             a standard MVS Console Command Interface
  CICS Interface

CORPORATE ONTOLOGY G RID T M                                                                - 69 -
  Substation ES‘s CICS interface exploits the External CICS Call Interface (EXCI) to
  provide communications between executing CICS transactions and distributed client
  applications. Several methods of invocation are provided, including standard CICS
  invocation methods, Call by Transaction Code, Call by Program Name, and Transfer
  Control (XCTL). In addition, the CICS interface uses the Transient Data Queuing
  facilities of CICS to support ‗Triggers‘, providing a means of publishing events or data
  based on events that occur within the domain of the CICS Region(s).
  IMS Interface
  The IMS Interface includes a full set of Open Transaction Manager Access (OTMA)
  protocols for accessing IMS data sources in the IMS TM environments. (IMS DB/DC
  and IMS DCCTL). TIBCO‘s implementation supports Version 6 and Version 7, and can
  provision the roles of OTMA Client and OTMA Server. The interface supports
  transaction grouping, multi-use Transaction Pipes, and Output routing, and was designed
  to handle very high transaction arrival rates and data transmission requirements.
  Other Mainframe Integration Solutions
  While some enterprise will need the full-featured real-time integration that Substation ES
  provides, others may require less sophisticated data level integration. For these
  companies, TIBCO also provides:
            TIBCO Rendezvous messaging software for OS/390 and AS/400
            Adapters for CICS and IMS transaction monitors
            Adapters for flat files on OS.390 and AS/400
  TIBCO SmartSockets™ offers the most complete set of messaging solutions available
  from                        a                        single                         vendor.
  With today's business landscape and global information demands evolving at breakneck
  speed, the need to quickly and easily develop real-time, highly distributed applications
  and achieve fast time-to-market has never been more crucial for business success.
  In the increasingly complex and heterogeneous environment in which your business must
  exchange and distribute revenue-critical information, SmartSockets provides reliable
  real-time messaging using industry-standard protocols with exceptional performance,
  scalability, bandwidth efficiency, and fault tolerance. Using the rich SmartSockets
  application programming interfaces (APIs) and class libraries, your organization can

CORPORATE ONTOLOGY G RID T M                                                                    - 70 -
  ensure that applications distribute and exchange information quickly, reliably and
  securely across any platform and any network-LAN, WAN, Internet or satellite.
            Quickly build and deploy large, scalable, high performance, and fault-tolerant
            Significantly increase message throughput
            Reduce data distribution costs
            Transparently adapt messaging systems to changing requirements
            Improve the flexibility and scalability of your infrastructure
            More efficiently utilize network bandwidth
            Optimize information flow and service levels with dynamic load balancing
            Leverage leading standards and protocols
  Key Features
            Fast and flexible development
            Publish-subscribe for intelligent, streamlined one-to-many communications
            Adaptive multicast for most efficient network utilization
            Multithreaded, multiprocessor architecture for full system exploitation
            Online security safeguards vital communications
            Real-time monitoring of network applications
            Performance optimization for maximum throughput
            Robust, enterprise-quality fault tolerant GMD for reliable message delivery
  SmartSockets Add-ons
  TIBCO offers an extensive lineup of add-on products that allow you to extend the power
  of SmartSockets to address your unique industry requirements, business objectives and
  IT environment. All SmartSockets products strive to deliver advanced functionality
  without sacrificing performance. For more information about these add-ons, read the
  Introduction to TIBCO SmartSockets whitepaper

  TIBCO™ SmartPGM and TIBCO™ SmartPGM FX add reliability and powerful
  content distribution on top of IP multicast.

CORPORATE ONTOLOGY G RID T M                                                                  - 71 -
  The majority of today's network communications use a one-to-one, or unicast,
  transmission model. With unicast, sending the same message to a 1,000 different people
  requires creating 1,000 separate copies of the message and then sending each copy, one-
  by-one, over the network. With IP multicast, a one-to-many transmission model, a single
  message can be sent once and reach all 1,000 people at once. While more efficient than
  unicast, IP multicast typically falls short on one critical attribute: Reliability.
  TIBCO SmartPGM is TIBCO's implementation of the industry standard Pragmatic
  General Multicast (PGM) protocol. SmartPGM adds reliability on top of IP multicast,
  and is ideal for applications that require ordered or unordered, duplicate-free, multicast
  data delivery from multiple sources to multiple receivers.
  TIBCO SmartPGM provides a highly robust, reliable, scalable, and standards-based
  solution for one-to-many and many-to-many content and data delivery over existing
  LAN, WAN, and satellite topologies. TIBCO SmartPGM addresses all reliable multicast
  needs today by providing congestion control and bandwidth management, three different
  types of error correction, and compliance with the multicast standard backed by industry
  giants Cisco and Nortel.
  SmartPGM FX is a powerful content distribution product built on top of SmartPGM.
  Optimized for LAN, WAN, and satellite environments, it provides efficient and reliable
  delivery of media-rich content to thousands of simultaneous receivers, regardless of data
  or network type. Because it is built on top of SmartPGM, SmartPGM FX offers a tool set
  that allows a file to be multicast with the same ease and bandwidth usage as a simple
  copy operation.


  In the market for transaction- and message-oriented middleware, IBM
  WebSphere MQ is de-facto the standard. It has over 60% of the world market.
  More than 35 platforms, practically all the relevant programming languages and
  all conventional network protocols are supported.

CORPORATE ONTOLOGY G RID T M                                                                   - 72 -
  But IBM WebSphere MQ is even more than just a universal transport medium for
  corporate data. The applications to be linked can run independently of time
  constraints by virtue of asynchronous data transfer and the queuing principle.
  This means that the two applications do not need to be active at the same time.
  This creates flexibility by smoothing peak loads in the network and provides
  security if one of the systems should crash.

  All of the above tools can be used as a middleware in order to connect
  applications within enterprise or between enterprises and this connection can be
  done by using messaging and web services. IBM Websphere can provide
  integration capabilities by supporting not only messaging but also web services.
  Instead of Microsoft Biztalk messaging can be done faster with Websphere. Also
  Biztalk doesn‘t have a universal application connectivity and it doesn‘t support
  Java applications. Also as we can see from the following figure that describes the
  messaging modes, by using Microsoft Biztalk we can have only point to point
  connections and only between Microsoft applications except we are using

     For Tibco product also we can say that it supports Java Message Service
     (JMS) but it lacks strong security issues. Also it hasn‘t a central backbone
     administration and it can‘t support full web services.

CORPORATE ONTOLOGY G RID T M                                                           - 73 -
     In the following table we can see some of the main capabilities of the above-
     mentioned EAI tools, IBM Websphere, Ms Biztalk and Tibco.

     Tools/Capabilities                       WebSphe            Ms Biztalk      Tibco
         Point to point                       YES                YES             NO
         Pub/Sub                              YES                NO              YES
         Platforms                            40                 1-windows
         Location Directory                   YES                YES             YES
         High    Speed     Content            YES                NO              NO
         Routing                              YES                NO              NO
         Web Scale Pub/Sub                    YES                NO              NO
         Gateway to Internet

     Web Services
         SOAP Bindings                        YES                YES             YES
         Location Directory                   YES                NO              NO
         Proxy Routing                        YES                NO              NO
         Transformation                       NO                 NO              NO
         Central Administration               YES                NO              NO
         Gateway to Internet                  YES                NO              NO
         Transport Selection                  YES                NO              NO

     As we can see from the above table Ms Biztalk can‘t provide high speed
     routing and transformation and it has no web services routing and
     administration. Furthermore Tibco underlying multi-cast technology is a
     limited foundation for backbones, it has no central backbone administration
     and finally it can‘t support web services in backbone.

CORPORATE ONTOLOGY G RID T M                                                             - 74 -
                                  UNICORN SYSTEM

     The Unicorn™ system is the world‘s only fully integrated data management system,
     including metadata repository (for data assets), rich information modeling, data
     semantics (for capturing the precise business meaning of data), and active support for
     data management, data integration and data quality. The Unicorn™ system also
     interoperates with existing data modeling tools and metadata repositories while
     supporting runtime environments such as ETL, EAI and corporate portals.

     The Unicorn™ system makes a semantic approach to data immediately accessible to
     engineers with traditional data skills and allows them to achieve superior data
     integration – with greater precision and in less time. It supports simultaneous multi-
     user collaboration, smooth maintenance with automated impact analysis, and
     comprehensive reuse. The Unicorn™ system also empowers engineers to achieve
     better accuracy through the automatic generation of translation scripts and full
     transformation planning capabilities. Finally the Unicorn™ system provides a richer
     experience in which engineering is based on a deep understanding of the data without
     the need for endless scripting, all through a graphical modeling and mapping

     For managers and executives, Unicorn™ delivers higher quality information for
     driving business needs and making critical decisions. The Unicorn system™ allows
     greater flexibility for implementing change, through a comprehensive understanding
     of the data environment and automated impact analysis. The Unicorn system™
     lowers IT costs by automating the numerous painstaking data integration
     development tasks. In summary, The Unicorn system™ provides the enterprise with
     a uniform and flexible strategic view of its entire data asset.

     Active Capabilities

CORPORATE ONTOLOGY G RID T M                                                                  - 75 -
            Data Management – View and analyze data assets based on their information
             content; support change with automated impact analysis
            Data Integration - Automatically generate accurate data translation scripts
             and queries; automate maintenance; generate schemas; generate data
             cleansing scripts
            Publish - Share the ontology, metadata, and semantics with business and IT


        Out-of -the -box support for most common schema types: RDBMS, XML,
         COBOL Copybooks
        Data Asset API allows support of any other data formats e.g. Java Interfaces,
         IMS, XMI
        Automatic synchronization of external data assets following change in the assets.
        Configurable structured descriptors for capturing metadata, including, hyperlink
         support, check boxes etc.
        Default descriptors include Dublin Core compatibility

  Data Management Services
        Impact Analysis: Analyze change impact in the information model, business
         rules, mappings, and external assets
        Data Discovery for comprehensive data asset identification per concept based on
         semantic meaning
        Categorize content based on packages
        Keyword search with navigable results
        Test instances for demonstrating and validating the information model and
         business rules
        Reporting and statistical analysis support project management and ROI tracking

CORPORATE ONTOLOGY G RID T M                                                                 - 76 -
  Data Quality Services
        Take a central strategic approach to information quality
        Publish data semantics to all developers who interact with data to ensure proper
        Derive more accurate data translations, ensure accurate updates after changes in
        Support stages P1-P6 of Larry English‘s TIQM methodology
        Automatically translate between semantically different data assets to check for
        Promote reuse of existing data assets with published Data Discovery facility
        Discover and eliminate redundant assets
        Track progress of strategic quality projects with Reporting and Analytics
        Automatically generate data cleansing scripts to apply business rules consistently
         across all assets.

  Data Integration Services
        Transformation Planner provides on-demand transformation design from any data
         asset to any data asset
        Transformations generated automatically in executable SQL for relational data
         integration, comparison and migration
        Transformations generated automatically in executable XSLT for message
        Automatic embedding of business rules in transformations
        Transformations update automatically after changes are made in the information
         model, business rules, data assets and mappings
        Deploy to EAI and ETL infrastructure

  Semantic Mapping

CORPORATE ONTOLOGY G RID T M                                                                  - 77 -
        Graphical Mapping Environment captures business meaning of data asset by
         reference to information model
        Map data assets once only – relationship to all other assets is inferred by system
        Fine and coarse-grained mapping provides both high-level understanding and
         detailed expressiveness
        Automatic suggestions based on types, foreign keys etc.
        Conditional mapping accommodates mixed data sources
        Automatic mapping of large numbers of complex schemas using external logic

  Information Modeling
        Capture a rich agreed-upon business view to ensure alignment between units and
         between business and IT
        One model gives semantics to multiple data assets spanning multiple
        Full ontology modelling capability extends traditional data modelling
        Five layered model: Packages, classes, Properties, and business rules
        Multiple inheritance (also known as polymorphism or multiple generalization or
         sub-typing) supports complementary business views
        Rich business rules – structural, logical, arithmetic and look up tables
        Graphical modelling Environment leverages traditional data modelling skills and
         provides full navigation
        Collaborative Teamwork Environment (check in / check out)
        Version Control and Graphical viewer for comparing, tracking change, and
         achieving consistency
        Filtered views for specific users and teams
        Re-use of ERD & UML models from other modelling tools
        Import of off-the self industry models from Universal Data models, IBM, NCR
         and others
        Reverse engineering of schemas and external logical models into ontology

CORPORATE ONTOLOGY G RID T M                                                                  - 78 -
  Additional Functionality
        User, project, and system administration console for full configuration and access
        Statistical reporting for assessing size and tracking mapping/modelling progress
        XML schema (XSD) generation creates semantically consistent corporate
         messaging standards
        Export of W3C RDF/S and emerging OWL standards

        Share metadata, information model, semantics and facilities such as data
         discovery with IT organization and business analysts
        Static HTML or JSP thin client
        Customized front-end for each of multiple roles
        Choice of out-of –the-box templates reflecting industry best practice


  Unicorn Repository - Central storage for metadata, ontology and semantic mappings.
  Unicorn Server - Provides active capabilities utilizing semantics to support data
  management, integration and quality.
  Unicorn Workbench - Rich client side working environment for power users –
  metadata collection, modelling, semantic mapping and use of all active features. Can
  work online with repository or offline with local store.
  Unicorn Client - Customizable web based working environment for use by developers
  and business analysts including access to active capabilities and reading or light edits of
  information model and semantic mappings.
  Unicorn Administrator – For managing projects and users

CORPORATE ONTOLOGY G RID T M                                                                    - 79 -

  Business benefits
  Higher Quality of Business Information – Semantics allows all data assets to be
  integrated, aggregated and transformed automatically, accurately and consistently into
  well defined information according to an agreed-upon unambiguous business

  Business Flexibility – Currently, most IT projects fail or miss their objectives. A
  common understanding of data is the only viable basis for deploying new business
  applications, integrating applications, and introducing more flexible process models into
  the enterprise. Data semantics supports business flexibility by providing a coherent
  understanding of the data environment and automatically computing the impact of any

  Lower IT Costs – Data management creates immediate ROI by promoting the reuse of
  valuable data and the identification and decommissioning of redundant systems. In
  addition, data semantics can be used to automate the generation and maintenance of
  accurate data transformation scripts and queries. The use of consistent data semantics
  ensures the success of other architectural layers supported by IT, including the
  operational stack of packaged applications, enterprise application integration, business
  process integration and web services, and the informational stack of ETL, data
  warehouses, and business intelligence.

  Technical benefits
        One integrated system for metadata, data modelling, semantics with active
         support for data management, data integration, data quality
        Map multiple data assets to one business-oriented information model
        Same system and model caters to relational, XML and legacy data
        Portable to any operating system and any relational database using pure Java

CORPORATE ONTOLOGY G RID T M                                                                  - 80 -
        Secure collaborative environment
        Open configurable system : Can configure metadata (descriptors), new asset
         types, new metadata import/export formats, role based web front ends
        Rich ontological modelling captures fuller business view
        Central repository for business rules ensures systematic use of rules across
        Reuse of existing data models and data modelling skills
        Comprehensive impact analysis supports change

  Technical Specifications
        Platform Support: Windows NT 4.0/2000. Port on request to any platform with a
         JVM including Linux, Solaris 2.5-2.8, HP-UX 11.0, AIX
        Model Persistence: Standalone Version: Embedded Database persistence, XML.
         Server Version: (v2.1 onwards): MS SQL Server 7/2000 and port on request to
         any RDBMS supporting JDBC including: Oracle 7/8i/9i, Sybase 11/12, NCR
        Data Standard Input & Generation: XML Schema, DTD, EDI (EDIFACT, ANSI
         X12), CORBA IDL, DCOM IDL, UML, Java Interface
        Translation & Transformation Language Generation: XSLT, Oracle 8i, and SQL;
         others via adapters. Language: Java 2 v1.4
        Schema Input & Linking: Relational database schemas (Oracle 7i/8i/9i, MS SQL
         Server 7/2000, DB2) via JDBC and Oracle DDL, XML Schema. Future: DTD,
         CORBA IDL, Java Interface
        Schema Generation: XML Schema. Future: DTD, CORBA IDL, Java Interface,
         and Relational
        E-R & Data Model Import: ERWin; others via adapters
        Data Model & Ontology Import/Export: UML (via adapter), RDF/S, DAML+OIL

CORPORATE ONTOLOGY G RID T M                                                             - 81 -

     Coherence is organized around the idea of a Project. As its name suggests, a
     Coherence Project can contain the Model, external assets, mappings and other
     content relevant to a specific enterprise Project. The contents of a Coherence Project
     will vary, depending on whether the business requirement is simple, e.g. generating a
     single transformation, or complex, e.g. a substantial data integration Project or
     central enterprise ―thesaurus.‖

     A Coherence Project is the container for all of the main Layers and components used
     within Coherence. The main Layers are the Model Layer (includes Test Instances
     and Queries on the Model) and the External Assets Layer (includes mappings to
     the Model and Transformations).

     The Model Layer contains a rich conceptual Model of the business. This will be the
     reference Model to which data Schemas and other external assets are mapped. It may
     be authored within Coherence or imported partially or fully from other data
     Modeling environments such as Computer Associates ERwin 4.x (4.0 and greater).

     Within the Model Layer, Packages, Classes, Properties, and Business Rules are
     created, edited, and deleted. In addition, the content of ERwin 4.x (4.0 and greater)
     Logical Models and other Coherence Model Layers can be reused by importing them
     into the Model Layer.

     Test Instances are part of the Model Layer. Test Instances are used to demonstrate,
     test and validate concepts in the Model including Business Rules. The user can
     create, edit, view, and validate Test Instances. An XML document containing all of
     the Test Instances within a Project can be generated.

     Queries let users formulate business queries using the business vocabulary of the
     Classes and the Model Properties using an SQL-like structure. Coherence can auto-

CORPORATE ONTOLOGY G RID T M                                                                  - 82 -
     generate an executable SQL query which can be deployed for use on the relevant
     RDBMS whose Schemas have been mapped to the Model.

     Within the External Assets Layer, links can be made to enterprise data Sources
     including logical data Models, RDBMS Schemas, XML Schemas, and COBOL
     Copybooks. A user links to these data Sources from within Coherence and proceeds
     to map the structure of the data Source to the Model,. In this manner, Coherence
     provides rich semantic meaning to data formats – by relating them to a central Model
     with its business vocabulary. Mapping can be done either manually or automatically,
     using the Reverse Engineering feature.

     The Impacted Concepts list is part of a powerful mechanism for viewing the impact
     of changes that have been implemented by the user, thus maintaining consistency in a
     Project. It shows any concepts within the Project that are no longer valid as a result
     of a user‘s actions and allows users to navigate directly from a concept in the list to
     the place in the Project where the concept is located. This navigation helps the
     Modeler quickly locate the consequences of making changes to a Project. It also
     provides a useful ―To Do List‖ of actions that need to be carried out in order to
     account for the change(s).

     Once the user has mapped between external assets and the Model, Data Discovery
     can be used to show which concepts and objects within external assets are linked to
     which concepts in the Model. For example, a user can select a Property in order to
     see which columns in all the RDBMS Schemas within a Project have been mapped to

     Once mapping has taken place, the user can automatically create, view, and update
     Transformations between pairs of RDBMS Schemas or XML Schemas. The resulting
     SQL or XSLT script can be exported or copied for use in the appropriate application
     or run-time environment (e.g. in an RDBMS or an XML EAI/messaging product).

CORPORATE ONTOLOGY G RID T M                                                                   - 83 -
     In addition to the Layers within a Project, there are two other major cross-Layer
     functions: Concept Attributes and Search.

     Concept Attributes allow the user to add documentation to most Coherence
     concepts within a Project. For instance, a Business Rule can be given a description
     while a Class can have an associated URL, comments on use, owner, and other
     information. The number, content, structure and size of the various fields and tab
     labels are configurable per installation.

     Search allows the user to find concepts across the entire Project using key words or
     phrases. Users receive a list of all concepts within the Project that include the search
     phrase either as part of their name or as part of their Concept Attributes information.

     Projects can be published and exported to a number of different standards. The
     Model Layer and External Assets Layer can also be published as an HTML Web for
     sharing and online collaboration with colleagues across the enterprise. The Model
     Layer can also be generated and exported as XML Schemas and even converted to
     DAML+OIL and RDF/S formats.

     Visually, the Coherence screen is structured according to a hierarchical three-panel
  flow of information:
            o The Project View (top left panel) displays the major Layers and
                components of an open Coherence Project. In the figure below, Model is
                selected in the Project View.
            o The Navigator Panel (bottom left panel below the Project View is used to
                display top-level components of the node currently selected in the Project
                View. For instance, if ―Model‖ is selected in the Project View, then the
                Classes and Packages making up the Model will be displayed in the
                bottom left panel. In the screen shot below, the Class Address is selected
                in the Navigator Panel.

CORPORATE ONTOLOGY G RID T M                                                                    - 84 -
             o The panel on the right-hand side displays detailed information about the
                 concept selected in the Project View/Navigator Panel. This includes items
                 such as Properties of the selected Class or mapping information about a
                 selected RDBMS table. In the figure below, the Property stateCode of
                 Class Address is selected in the right-hand side and its Lookup Table
                 Business Rule called Rule_1 is also selected.

      The Model Layer within the Coherence GUI
      From within The Model Layer, the user can add, edit, and delete the concepts within
a Coherence Model.
             o When the Model node is selected, the bottom left navigator panel shows
                 the Classes and Packages that making up the Model. This information can
                 be displayed in two ways: the Inheritance Tree Display and the Package

CORPORATE ONTOLOGY G RID T M                                                                 - 85 -
                Display. Each display serves a different purpose and each one displays
                different aspects of the Model. Two toggle buttons allow the user to
                switch between the two displays. These two displays are used throughout
                the application when the user is required to select a Class within a dialog
            o The Inheritance Tree Display is composed only of Classes. All Classes
                inherit from the Class Being. Datum Classes are grouped at the bottom of
                the tree and have a separate icon. Subclasses are shown as sub-nodes of
                their Superclasses. All Classes appearing under a given node inherit from
                that node (Superclass).
            o A Class can simultaneously inherit from more than one Class. These
                Classes are shown multiple times in the tree under each of their respective
                Superclasses with a special icon showing ―multiple inheritance.‖ In
                addition, the selected Class is displayed in bold text under each of its
            o The Package Display shows Packages and their contents (Classes).
                Package and Class names can be edited within the individual dialog boxes
                for each concept. Within each Package, Class names are unique and
                cannot be duplicated. When a Package is highlighted on the left, the
                Package name and any associated user-defined attributes are listed on the
                right-hand side. Packages are not organized in a hierarchy of sub-
            o A combined Quick Find and Find Again field is located at the base of the
                navigator panel. This can be used to search for Classes and Packages in
                the panel above. For instance in Figure 1 if the user were to Type the
                string ―X‖ and then press on the return key or click the Quick Find button,
                the Class Y would be selected and the right-hand side would be updated.
     When a Class is selected in the bottom left-hand side navigator panel within either of
     the two displays, three tabs are displayed on the right-hand side: General, Properties,
     and Subclasses.

CORPORATE ONTOLOGY G RID T M                                                                   - 86 -
     Importing into the Model Layer
     A Coherence Project can import the Model Layer from another Coherence Project.
     The Classes from the imported Model Layer will be placed into a separate

     An ERwin 4.x (4.0 and greater) Logical Model (exported as an .XML file) can also
     be imported into a Coherence Project. Concepts in ERwin are converted into Classes
     and Properties.

     Test Instances
     At any point in the authoring of an ontology Model, a user may define Test Instances
     of any of the Classes in the Model. Test Instances allow the user to select a Class and
     to insert data into specific instances of this Class in accordance to the Class‘
     Properties. This feature gives feedback on how real data will look and behave and
     how the structure of the Model and the Business Rules impact on real data. Test
     Instances also help uncover flaws in a Model.

     Conceptual Business Query Builder
     Users can quickly generate complex SQL queries that can be copied and deployed
     offline against underlying relational data Sources. Coherence‘s Conceptual Business
     Query Builder provides key business benefits with this feature.
            Automated Querying
            o Allows users to query using agreed terminology without having to know
                the specific terminology of the underlying data Source, thereby making
                queries easy to formulate and without unambiguous meaning
            o Saves time by eliminating the need for users to hand-code SQL queries.

     External Assets Layer

CORPORATE ONTOLOGY G RID T M                                                                   - 87 -
       Concepts & Processes in Mapping
       The External Assets Layer provides the user with an opportunity to introduce
       enterprise metadata into a Coherence Project and give it meaning by mapping
       concepts within them to concepts in the Model. Coherence supports the following
       external assets: RDBMS and XML Schemas, ERwin Logical Models and COBOL

       Key strengths of Coherence are derived from the results of mapping enterprise
       metadata in the form of external assets to the conceptual business Model. Mappings
       defined between external assets and the Model are used by Coherence to generate
       transformations and queries.

       Below is a table summarizing the different concepts for each external data asset.

  RDBMS Schema             Tables                 Columns              Foreign Keys
  XML Schema               ComplexTypes           Elements of          Elements of
                                                  SimpleType, and      ComplexType
  ERwin Logical Model      Entities               Attributes           Relationships
  COBOL Copybook           Group Items            Elementary Items     Subgroups

       Mapping RDBMS Schemas
       RDBMS Schemas need to be linked to via their .SML files created by the Coherence
       Schema Converter. Once the link has been created, the Schema is shown in the
       Project View and its tables are shown in the navigator pane below. Selecting a table
       brings up information on the table, displayed in three tabs: Mapping, Foreign Keys,
       and Table Info.

       Mapping XML Schemas
       XML Schema mapping is similar in structure to RDBMS mapping,.

       Mapping ERwin Logical Models
       ERwin 4.x (4.0 and greater) Logical Models saved as .XML files can be linked into a
Coherence Project.

CORPORATE ONTOLOGY G RID T M                                                                  - 88 -
     Mapping Groups are defined on Entities while Attributes, Parent Relationships, and
     ERwin Groups are mapped to Properties.

     Mapping COBOL Copybooks
     While Copybooks can be used for numerous purposes, Coherence currently supports
     those Copybooks belonging in the Data Division of a COBOL program (i.e.
     Copybooks that can be read in to the Data Division using the COBOL Copy

     Transformations can only be viewed by a Coherence user after one or more
     transformations have been generated. Following generation, a transformation is
     displayed twice in the Project View (under the relevant Source and Target Schemas).
     Transformations need to be updated by the user following relevant changes in the
     Model or Mapping Layers. The Update Transformation button updates all the table
     transformations for the transformation between the Source and Target Schema.
                o SQL transformations
                o XSLT transformations

     Data Discovery
     Data Discovery allows the user to see the type and location of data in the external
     assets according to business concepts represented in the Model. Data Discovery is
     available at the Class and Property levels.

     The business benefits of this feature are significant:
            o Data duplication and overlap can quickly be seen
            o The location of data can be identified precisely
            o Interlinking and cross-referencing between data Sources from one Schema
                to another (using implicit links through the ontology Model) can be seen.
            o Coherence can serves as a central point from which all mappings can be
                quantified, attributes compared, and Model concepts contrasted.

CORPORATE ONTOLOGY G RID T M                                                                - 89 -
             o Security and privacy policies can be assessed e.g. if access to a certain
                business concept needs to be restricted – this feature can identify all the
                external assets which must be restricted to make the policy work.

     Publishing & Exporting Work Around the Enterprise
            Publishing a Project in HTML Locally
             The business benefits of this feature are significant. Publishing a Model in
             HTML format allows the user to:
                    o collaborate on or share a Model with other contributors who may
                       not have Coherence installed;
                    o have a lighter version of a Conceptual Model for quick reference
                       at alternate locations;
                    o explain complex relationships in a familiar interface (a browser) to
                       non-technical users;
                    o use the HTML file for posting on a website, an Intranet, or an

          Publishing a Project in HTML to Web Server
          Deploying SQL Transformations
          Generating XML Schemas
          Exporting a Project in DAML+OIL
          Exporting the Model, Mappings, Schemas & Test Instances in RDF

    UNICORN 2.5 studies and evaluation.
    UNICORN system suggests using of a semantic approach for enterprise data
    management. It assumes creating of a Semantic Information Model that should contain
    a vocabulary of notions and business rules (conceptual model) and catalog of data
    assets (metadata). Metadata describes physical structure of the information stored in
    different data sources inside enterprise (RDMS, XML Schemas, flat files, etc).
    Therefore metadata catalog reflects more physical model of enterprise data. Semantic
    model binds conceptual and physical models by means of mapping metadata elements

CORPORATE ONTOLOGY G RID T M                                                                  - 90 -
    on conceptual notions. Such approach allows facilitating of automated support for data
    management, data integration and data quality.
    UNICORN workbench version 2.5 enables creation and support of Semantic
    Information Model for any enterprises including virtual organizations. As it was
    mentioned before it also support integrity checking, data discovering and
    transformation, publishing, sharing and synchronization.
    The tool was tested on real projects with the aim to evaluate its functionality, usability
    and effectiveness in working with large amount of data. Also we reckon with security
    and robustness issues of the Unicorn system.
    We follow the procedure that described in the online tutorial for the system. It includes
    the next steps:
     1. Creating the catalog of enterprise sources
     2. Building the information model
     3. Mapping sources to the model
     4. Employing active capabilities
     5. Maintaining changes.
     6. Publishing and sharing

    1.   Creating the catalog of enterprise sources

    The catalog of enterprise sources contains metadata assets that can be imported from
    the various sources. Built-in capabilities include import from Oracle and MS SQL
    server schemas, COBOL Copybooks and Erwin logical schemas. Other asset formats
    could be imported via Unicorn‘s API.
    We try all import schemas except COBOL. Some problems were detected with Erwin
    4.0 XML files. When system could not define attribute types correctly they had a
    Datum type and therefore could not be easily mapped to the concepts of information
    model. In some cases primary keys of integer types receive realNumber type after asset

CORPORATE ONTOLOGY G RID T M                                                                     - 91 -
    We also try to use an MS Access database adapter to receive Access db schema. It
    works well with a sample access database but on one test computer some sample
    projects ceased loading from project repository when msAccess adapter was installed.

    However, in general, asset loading wizard is very transparent to user and allows
    reverse engineering of asset to informational model immediately after loading.

    2.       Building the information model
    There are three ways to create the Information Model in Unicorn:
         1.     By importing an existing Model.
         2.     By reverse engineering an asset.
         3.     By creating a Model from scratch.

    Importing can be made from existing Unicorn model (from repository or
    archive) or from Erwin logical model. Importing feature works well in all

    When an asset is reverse engineered, the following takes place:
             Unicorn adds an Instance Group for each composite
             A new Class is created for each composite that contains new Properties
              for each of the atoms. Each of these Properties is of a Type that matches
              the atom's asset.
             Mappings are created between the Schema atoms and the newly created

    But after importing or reverse engineering of asset you should pay a great
    attention on recommendation that are given in Unicorn online help. They are:

             The existing Model should be normalized
              The more normalized a central Model is, the better. Even heavily

CORPORATE ONTOLOGY G RID T M                                                               - 92 -
           denormalized systems can be mapped to a normalized Model. It can be
           difficult to map anything to a denormalized Model.
          The existing Model should be extensible
           The Model should be open to extension – it should be clear where
           organization specific additions and alterations will fit within the Model.
           When extending a Model, the Modeler must be familiar with the
           structure of the Model they are extending.
          The existing Model should be clean
           The Model should not have features that are not applicable to the
           organization‘s business. Having extra Classes is more acceptable than
           extra Properties. Extra Classes indicate a wider scope than may be
           appropriate, but the area of overlap can still be used productively. Extra
           Properties indicates an over specificity. The Modeler will likely have to
           carve away the unneeded Properties to use the Model.
          The existing Model should be comprehensible
           The Model should be easy to understand without too much explanation.
           To this end, it should also be well documented.

    These are the very significant requirements, especially, the first one. But it seems
    rather unclear what is the meaning of ―normalized model‖ in that content. A
    normalization to third normal form looks like a very expensive process, if we are
    speaking about enterprise information, and it requires a good skill from IT specialists.
    On the other hand semantic approach allow using simple concept or notions and
    business rules to describe complex relations between informational entities without
    strong requirements to normalization.

    When the new model is created manually you can use packages, classes, properties and
    business rules for describing basic concepts and functionality. The main steps in model
    creation are described in detail in ―Unicorn Modeling Guide‖ and partially in the
    online help system. However, many complex issues of modeling (describing of many-

CORPORATE ONTOLOGY G RID T M                                                                   - 93 -
    to-many relationship, inversion of properties, work with functions) are well illustrated.
    A well supporting help system is also a substantial positiveness of Unicorn system.

    Semantic model of Unicorn is tangible and convenient. It uses classes as central
    element for information modeling.
    After the information model has been created, user can check it with real data with use
    of Test Instance regime. The last one seems to be very handy for classes with simple
    properties and also for classes with complex properties - containers (Set, Sequence,
    List, Bag types).

    3.   Mapping source to the informational model

    Mapping is one of the most complex task. The user must define semantic relationship
    between different kind of sources with classes of informational model. You have to
    keep in mind very many restrictions and rules when mapping from RDBMS schemas,
    something more when working with Erwin models and XML schemas. Unicorn help
    gives some advices about this process, and it gives users the possibility to become a
    skilled in the mapping procedure.

    Unicorn proposes map a table         to class, column and relations to properties in
    informational model. Unicorn suggests mapping supporting tables first, the tables on
    the "one" side of Many-to-One relationships. This way you can easily map complex
    tables that have foreign keys to the supporting tables. If you want to map many-to-
    many related tables to the informational model, you have to use a separate instance
    groups with joins, conditions or implicit foreign keys to make this mapping. So from
    our point of view Unicorn has reach possibilities for mapping, and it is a helpful tool
    for someone who wants to map sources to information models.

    4.   Employing active capabilities

CORPORATE ONTOLOGY G RID T M                                                                    - 94 -
    When an Information Model have been established, and mapped, you can generate the
    services you require, such as Data Discovery, Transformation Generation and Schema

    Data Discovery is a very useful for searching and analyzing of data redundancies and
    partial overlap between data sources. It displays the type and location of data in
    external assets, according to business concepts (at both the Class and Property levels)
    represented in the Model. Results can either be displayed by external asset type or
    irrespective of asset type.

    The business benefits of the Data Discovery feature are significant:
          The location of data can be identified precisely
          The Unicorn system can serve as a central point from which all
           mappings can be quantified, attributes compared, and Model concepts
          Data duplication and overlap can quickly be brought to attention
          Interlinking and cross-referencing between data sources, from one
           Schema to another (using implicit links through the Information
           Model), can be seen

    Other suggested service for inspecting data is a Find. Find is carried out on concept
    names and on concept descriptors and allows finding information on particular
    subjects within the Model and external assets within a Project. Results are ordered by
    concept Type.

    Data transformation capabilities enables generation of schema transformation between
    RDBMS (Oracle 8i and MS SQL 7 and 2000) and between two XML Schemas.
    Transformation between ERwin logical models (XML files) and other RDBMS is not

CORPORATE ONTOLOGY G RID T M                                                                  - 95 -
    For transformations between RDBMS Schemas, the resulting SQL script can be
    viewed either for the whole transformation or per Target table. For transformation
    between XML files, the transformation plan resulting is formed in XSLT file.
    Transformation plan for both type of transformations can be viewed in Unicorn or can
    be   exported    to   XML      file   and   viewed    with    use   of   separate   utility
    TransformationPlanner as Excel file.

    5.   Maintaining changes

    Unicorn has a powerful mechanism for checking integrity of the project and
    synchronization with external assets. User can change or delete a concept and the
    system reflects all entities that will be impacted before making any real changes. Undo
    operation is also included. In any time you can check the integrity of your model with
    use of Integrity checker function that fix all inconsistencies.

    Unicorn takes a great care of external asset and transformation synchronization. It
    applies to RDBMS assets – when DB schema have been changed, Unicorn can update
    the asset and corresponding transformation schemas.

    6.   Publishing and share

    Unicorn has abilities export information model and project metadata into HTML and
    to maschine-readable formats as DAML+OIL or RDF by using external utilities
    supplied by Unicorn team.

    Also you can generate Information model as XML schema or in graph represenation.

    7.   Security

    Unicorn allows working in multi-user environment and should take a great care about
    security. It is very important to have an opportunity to secure not only informational

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    model packages and classes but external assets schemas also. Personal system it offers
    the opportunity for security protection as it declared in online help system..
    Administrator also has the ability to set permission from a level of project to a level of
    class for an informational model and to a level of table for external asset.

    8.   Robustness

    We explore Unicorn system on two computers with 128 Mb RAM and Windows 2000
    installed. We have discovered that Workbench needs more than 100 Mb memory when
    launching and then it requires about 20 Mb for each project. So the application
    requires a lot of system resources and has good robustness.


    Unicorn system is a standalone software system that provides a complex management
    of enterprise data and support of Central Information Model. It combines rich abilities
    in information modeling (Protégé) with power tools of metadata analyzing and
    generation (ERWin, SilverRun, MSVisio). It enriches these with semantic relations
    between concepts of information model and entities of metadata structure allowing the
    new approach to enterprise data management - Semantic Information Management.

    Unicorn system could be integrated with EAI products such as IBM Websphere MQ,
    TIBCO, MS BizTalk. These products provide an important platform for integrating
    applications and especially for facilitating messaging and workflow. However, these
    can be deployed and maintained far more cheaply and flexibly if their translation
    scripts are auto-generated rather than manually coded.

CORPORATE ONTOLOGY G RID T M                                                                     - 97 -