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Titrando – the Magic Touch (PDF)

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Titrando – the Magic Touch

More Info
                                   Titrando – the Magic Touch ............................... 3
                                   Metrohm’s new Titrino family ............................. 9
                                   Our new TiNet 2.5 titration software –
                                   naturally compliant with FDA Regulation
                                   21 CFR Part 11 ................................................ 11
                                   Economical determination of trace amounts
                                   of water – with the new 831 KF Coulometer ..... 13
                                   Aquatrode plus – the optimized water
                                   electrode ......................................................... 17
                                   Carbohydrate analysis with the
                                   817 Bioscan .................................................... 19
                                   Ion chromatography news ............................... 22
                                   New Metrohm Application Notes ...................... 24
                                   Book corner ..................................................... 25
                                   Literature references ......................................... 26
                                   Metrohm distributors from A to Z:
                                   MEP Instruments Pty Ltd in Australia and
                                   New Zealand .................................................... 28
                                   Looking back on ELACH 5 .............................. 31
                                   6th Asian Pacific Sales Meeting in Tokyo ............ 33
                                   Service training in Singapore ............................. 34
                                   Metrohm worldwide ......................................... 35

Metrohm Information Issue 1/2002                                                                            1

Metrohm Ltd                                    Dear customers and users of our instruments,
CH-9101 Herisau                                For Metrohm 2002 is the Titration Year. In 1989 we presented the compact 701 KF
Switzerland                                    Titrino, the first Metrohm Titrino. During the following years we have continually
Phone               +41 71 353 85 85           developed this successful instrument concept and have brought no fewer than 12
Fax                 +41 71 353 89 01           different Titrino versions onto the market. In 2002 Metrohm now presents the
E-Mail               Titrino’s bigger brother, the Titrando. It has been developed with the main target of
Internet              simplifying the instrument dialog and making it more user-friendly. The result is a
                                               titrator with uniquely comfortable and intuitive operator guidance. No matter whether
                                               you work with Touch Control or a PC, all interactive possibilities are open to you.
                                               However, the dialog is by far not the only innovation. The Titrando System repre-
                                               sents a completely new development in every respect. It combines the advantages
                                               of the Titrino range such as compactness, precision and quality, which have always
                                               been appreciated by our customers, with numerous new features. For example, the
                                               new intelligent Exchange and Dosing Units with the stored reagent data represent a
                                               further step toward simple and reliable handling. Or the division of the Exchange
                                               Unit piston stroke into 20’000 increments, which increases the precision even
                                               further. Or the possibility of direct access to the Internet, without needing to use a PC.
                                               Or ... But go and see for yourself; the Titrando will prove to you that Metrohm is the
                                               leader in implementing titration developments. Metrohm is titration, titration is
                                               If you are still a little hesitant in making the quantum leap with the Titrando and
                                               prefer to remain with our time-proven Titrino range, then you will be pleased to find
                                               that some significant improvements have been made here as well. The new
                                               Exchange Unit is compatible with the Titrinos (just as all previous Exchange Units
                                               can still be used with the Titrando System); however, storage and use of the reagent
                                               data is reserved for the Titrando. In addition, we have redesigned the front of the
                                               Titrinos and streamlined the Titrino range. From the extremely favorably-priced
                                               basic model up to the high-end titrator you will find everything that your heart
                                               However, if you want to join us in making the step into a new era of titration, you
                                               should opt for the Titrando. With the unique Touch Control you choose an extremely
                                               modern and comfortable operating element that uses color as an additional means
                                               of communication. Not just any aesthetic gimmick, but the uniquely rapid access to
                                               all the relevant information provides the newly designed dialog with its irresistible
                                               Magic Touch. However, it is not only the operator guidance but also the many other
                                               pioneering Titrando innovations that will fire your enthusiasm and convince you that
                                               Metrohm is the world market leader in ion analysis ... and will remain so!
                                               Please go and see for yourself; get in touch with the ion analysis specialist of your
                                               local Metrohm distributor. He will be pleased to give you competent advice.

                                                                                                Best regards,
                                                                                                Metrohm Ltd.
    Metrohm Information is a customer
    magazine from Metrohm Ltd. and is pub-
    lished three times a year in English and
    German.                                                                                     Adrian Déteindre
    Please contact us if you wish to receive                                                    President
    your own copy regularly.
    Published by:       Metrohm Ltd.,
                        CH-9101 Herisau,
    Editor:             Claudia Dengler
    Printed by:         Metrohm Ltd.
    ISSN 1424-0904

2                                                                                                Metrohm Information       Issue 1/2002
                                                                                                                          Titrando System

Titrando – the Magic Touch

What is the Titrando?
The Titrando is the central building block of a flexible titration system that, apart from
the titrator itself, also includes dosing systems, stirrers as well as additional compo-
nents for communication and automation. The Titrando System offers two different
possibilities for both operation and reagent dosing. Operation can take place either via
the touch-sensitive screen of the «Touch Control» or via a PC with the «PC Control»              With the Titrando System Metrohm
software. Dosing of the titrant and additional reagents is performed using either                now presents the fourth titrator gen-
Exchange Units or Dosinos with Dosing Units. This results in the following four basic            eration. The system is based upon
variants:                                                                                        completely new instrument and op-
                                                                                                 eration concepts and utilizes state-of-
    Instrument                Operation                   Reagent dosing                         the-art microelectronics and software
    808 Titrando              Touch Control               Exchange Unit
    808 Titrando              PC Control                  Exchange Unit
    809 Titrando              Touch Control               Dosino + Dosing Unit
    809 Titrando              PC Control                  Dosino + Dosing Unit

                                                                                             Two variants of the new Titrando System: on the left the
                                                                                             808 Titrando with Exchange Unit and Touch Control, on
                                                                                             the right the 809 Titrando with two Dosinos and PC

808 and 809 Titrando
The 808 and 809 Titrandos are practically identical instruments that differ only in the
type of dosing system used. Whereas the 808 Titrando has a built-in Dosimat that
accepts Exchange Units, the 809 Titrando can accommodate two Dosinos with their
Dosing Units. The Dosino’s advantage: You save space as the second dosing system
requires no additional bench space.
This means that your decision for either the 808 or the 809 Titrando depends only on
whether you prefer to work with the traditional Exchange Units or the space-saving
Both Titrandos contain the newly developed measuring interface, which comprises a
high-impedance and a polarized measuring input, an input for a separate reference
electrode as well as an input for a Pt 1000 or NTC temperature sensor. The measuring
input resolution is 0.1 mV or 0.001 pH. The 808 and 809 Titrandos are available with
one or two galvanically separated measuring interfaces.

Metrohm Information Issue 1/2002                                                                                                                   3
Titrando System

                                                         The Titrandos support the DET, MET and SET titration modes, thus covering the whole
                                                         spectrum of potentiometric titration. In addition to the MEAS measuring mode, there is
                                                         now a MEAS CONC mode available for direct measurements with ion-selective
                                                         electrodes (ISE) and calculation of the concentration.
                                                         The new Metrohm Serial Bus (MSB, daisy-chain topology) has been developed for
                                                         controlling peripheral devices. Via the four built-in MSB connectors the Titrando can
                                                         control up to four Dosinos or Dosimats, four magnetic or rod stirrers as well as four
                                                         Remote Boxes for automation tasks. This means that the Titrando is far and away the
                                                         most flexible titration system on the market. Thanks to its modular concept, an existing
                                                         Titrando System can be extended at any time and adapted to meet new requirements.
                                                         «Plug and play» functionality means that the manual configuration of peripheral
                                                         devices is no longer necessary. Just plug them in; the Titrando automatically recog-
                                                         nizes the connected instrument.
                                                         The 808 and 809 Titrandos also have two USB interfaces for the connection of a printer,
                                                         PC keyboard or barcode reader. This opens up the world of USB color printers for
                                                         printing out the reports. Laboratory balances can be connected to the Titrando using a
                                                         USB/RS 232 converter.

                                                         Simple and intuitive operation by Touch Control ...
                                                         The Touch Control is a decidedly ergonomic and modern operating element. You can
                                                         hold it in your hand, put it on the laboratory bench or use a holder to attach it to a rod or
                                                         hook it onto the wall. These last two possibilities save space and also protect the
                                                         Touch Control from chemicals.
                                                         The 12 cm x 9 cm color display informs you about the instrument status and offers
                                                         uniquely comfortable operator guidance. The Touch Control is equipped with two
                                                         PCMCIA ports that accept commercially available storage media such as Compact
                                                         Flash Cards. This means that you always have sufficient storage capacity available for
                                                         methods, sample data and results as well as for system backups. Access control is
                                                         possible using the personal Keycard.
Operation with the Touch Control is extremely comfort-
able.                                                    ... or PC Control
                                                         The Titrando can, of course, also be controlled by a PC via the USB interface. You then
                                                         work with the PC Control software and the mouse and keyboard are used as input and
                                                         operating elements. In this case the complete PC hardware with hard disk drives,
                                                         optical disk drives and network drives is available for storing methods and data.

PC Control screen with titration curve.

 4                                                                                                           Metrohm Information       Issue 1/2002
                                                                                              Titrando System

Thanks to state-of-the-art software tools and the use of an object-oriented program-
ming language, appearance and operation of Touch Control and PC Control are
practically identical. Methods and determinations are 100% compatible. Whether you
store them in the Titrando itself or in a PC, full exchangeability is always guaranteed.
Up to three Titrandos can be controlled by a single Touch Control or by a PC with the PC
Control software.

Call up the method – start
Method handling is a central feature of the Titrando’s operator-friendliness. Standard
user methods facilitate familiarization and allow the Titrando to be used immediately.
By using our methods you can profit from our many years of experience in the titration
field. And if you already have tried and tested Titrino methods – no problem: All titration
methods developed on Metrohm Titrinos can be converted automatically into Titrando

Intelligence creates transparency
Operating the Titrando System is simple and intuitive. The operator guidance system
can be regarded as exemplary. In addition, the following tools make life easier for the
Titrando user:
• The «Quick Access» function (direct parameters) allows direct access to the pa-
  rameters required for the given surroundings. These parameters can come from a
  wide range of different areas of the instrument program. This means that it is no
  longer necessary for you to click your way through different operating levels!
  «Quick Access» is invaluable for routine analysis.
• The «Help» fixed key shows a context-related help text in the display.
• The «Follow me» help function is available when working with a PC. Continuous
  explanations about the current surroundings are given in a separate window and
  further possible procedures are indicated.
• The standard user methods can be modified to suit your requirements. Method
  templates and calculation formula templates are available for developing your own
  methods. Methods can be stored under meaningful method names and structured
  directories can be used; this makes sorting, identification and searching much
• Whereas in the expert dialog all settings are available, the routine dialog can be
  freely configured, i.e. it can be custom-made to meet the requirements of the
  particular user. This means that users can load their «profiles» from the personal
  Keycard and see only those operating elements that they actually need.
• The Titrando puts an end to puzzling out the meaning of coded error messages. It
  tells you what is going on in clear text. Not only this; it also suggests suitable
  measures for remedying any faults.

Data management is knowledge management
Data are the raw material of the information age. They must always be available:
either for direct information, for transfer to a data system, for further processing or for
an audit. The data that your Titrando System provides you with can be printed out and
stored in a conventional manner. However, all advanced data management functions
are available. This includes storage on a PCMCIA card, which provides a link between
the PC world and any other instruments that are equipped accordingly. The card is
simply inserted in the PCMCIA port of the Touch Control or the PC.
When you work with PC Control you can use all the storage options offered by the PC
world, e.g. hard disks, diskettes, CD ROMs, Intranet …
On request the Titrando can produce a machine-readable PC/LIMS report. One thing is
clear: As for data storage and transfer, the Titrando is a state-of-the-art instrument.

Metrohm Information Issue 1/2002                                                                            5
Titrando System

                                                 Lab Link – direct access to the Intranet and Internet
                                                 If you want to connect your Titrando System directly to a superordinate data system
                                                 there is nothing in the way: Lab Link opens up internal networks (Intranet, LIMS, LAN)
                                                 to the Titrando and makes it Internet-compatible, with all that this implies. For long-
                                                 time storage you can use, for example, tools such as NuGenesis Scientific Data
                                                 Management System, eRecordManager and CyberLab, and this without a PC being
                                                 connected to the Titrando. The downloading of methods from company-specific
                                                 websites is another application of Lab Link.

                                                 Compatible with FDA 21 CFR Part 11
                                                     ,      ,
                                                 GLP GMP 21 CFR Part 11 are becoming increasingly important in day-to-day labora-
                                                 tory life. The Titrando System is entirely oriented toward quality management in the
                                                 laboratory and offers the following possibilities:
                                                 • All test tools and hardware/software checking routines can be managed comfort-
                                                   ably using the GLP Manager; the intervals for system validation and service work
                                                   can also be monitored.
                                                 • You can enter limits for results; their observance will be checked for each determi-
                                                 • The titer of the titrant can be monitored as a function of time in both tabular form or
                                                   as a graph, similar to a control card.
                                                 • The «calibration history» of the sensors can be called up. This means, for example,
                                                   that alterations to the sensor caused by aging can be recognized before they affect
                                                   the results.
                                                 • All changes to the methods are documented; traceability is guaranteed.
                                                 • The Titrando allows strict control of rights of access using login and password. The
                                                   requirements defined in FDA Regulation 21 CFR Part 11 regarding «electronic
                                                   signature» and «electronic record» are fulfilled. This also applies to the other points
                                                   contained in this regulation, namely the protection of electronic records against
                                                   accidental or intentional alteration and complete traceability. For long-term archiving
                                                   a machine-readable PC/LIMS report is available.

21 CFR Part 11 as presented on the FDA website

 6                                                                                                Metrohm Information       Issue 1/2002
                                                                                                                              Titrando System

Brainy dosing elements
The Exchange and Dosing Units set new standards with regard to reliability. Increased
reliability not only saves you money, but also means few problems. Intelligence «en
miniature» in the form of an inconspicuous Data Chip makes this possible. This chip
is present in every new Exchange and Dosing Unit. The Titrando automatically reads
from it all the data that it needs to carry out the titration properly, i.e. type of reagent,
titer, last titer determination, shelf-life data and much more. In addition, the Titrando
compares the data it has obtained with the selected method and carries out a
plausibility test. If the result is negative then a clear error message appears.
In addition, the newly developed Exchange and Dosing Units offer the following                  Intelligence «en miniature»: This small Data Chip con-
                                                                                                tains all the information required on the titrant and the
advantages:                                                                                     Exchange or Dosing Unit.
• Every Exchange and Dosing Unit is provided with serial and cylinder numbers and
  is supplied with a certificate of its own.
• Cylinder volume and valve position are always clearly visible, which helps avoid
• The Titrando checks the preset intervals for the titer determination of the titrant. This
  ensures that work is always carried out with the correct titer.
• Both Exchange and Dosing Units dose the titrant with the highest resolution known
  throughout the dosing world.
The 808 Titrando, the 805 Dosimat and the 800 Dosino have a simple but cleverly
devised display consisting of two LEDs that keep you up to date about the condition of
the dosing system.

The 806 Exchange Unit – a time-proven concept with added
Since 1973 Metrohm has produced Exchange Units with automatic valve switching.
The Exchange Unit has been continuously developed. The latest version is the intelli-
gent 806 Exchange Unit. Its integral Data Chip provides the Titrando with all important
titrant data. The new Exchange Unit dispenses reagents with the unique resolution of
20’000 steps per cylinder volume and unequaled precision. In addition, it offers all the
advantages that you already know from previous models. Changing the titrant is a
matter of seconds. Thread adapters allow all commercial reagents to be used directly
without liquid transfer being necessary.
The Titrando and its components are compatible with all Exchange Units introduced
since 1973. That’s how Metrohm protects your investments.

                                                                                                The new intelligent 806 Exchange Unit.

Metrohm Information Issue 1/2002                                                                                                                       7
Titrando System

                                                             The 800 Dosino – space-saving modernity
                                                             Laboratory space is expensive. The 800 Dosino takes this into account: Together with
                                                             its Dosing Unit it can be mounted directly onto the reagent bottle. This means that
                                                             dosing requires no additional bench space. Thanks to adapters, any reagent bottle can
                                                             be used directly.
                                                             The 800 Dosino houses the latest state-of-the-art electronics and micromechanics.
                                                             The Dosing Unit can be exchanged within seconds. Thanks to its transparent housing
                                                             any bubbles that may be present in the dosing cylinder can be seen immediately and
                                                             the valve position is always shown. Rinsing and preparation of the Dosing Unit can be
                                                             carried out automatically; manual dismantling and rinsing are not necessary.

                                                             Modular means extendable, upgradable, adaptable – isn’t it
                                                             The possibilities for upgrading the Titrando System are nothing short of amazing. First
                                                             the bare figures: The basic unit consists of the 808 or 809 Titrando with one measuring
                                                             interface. This basic unit can be extended to form a super-titrator that controls 12
                                                             burets and boasts 6 galvanically separated measuring interfaces. Between these two
                                                             extremes lies the whole spectrum of Titrando possibilities. Among them you will
                                                             certainly find a Titrando System that can solve your particular application problem in
Intelligent, aesthetic and space-saving: the new 800         an optimal way. At the same time you have the certainty that your Titrando System will
Dosino with 807 Dosing Unit.                                 master all your future applications as it is fully upgradable. As a result you can view
                                                             the future with confidence.

                                                             Find additional information on the new Titrando System under:


Fully automated system for water analysis, consisting of the 809 Titrando with PC Control, two 800 Dosinos and one 805 Dosimat, a 730 Sample Changer with two
workstations, a 776 Dosimat as well as a 712 Conductometer.

 8                                                                                                                Metrohm Information         Issue 1/2002
                                                                                                                           2002 Titrino range

Metrohm’s new Titrino family

The novel Titrando System extends our existing range of titrators. However, the Titrino
family, for many years the bestseller on the titration market, has also undergone                    NEW: PC software included!
several changes.                                                                                     With each new Titrino you will also re-
The new Titrinos have a more rounded and modern design. The 2002 Titrino range as                    ceive the VESUV 3.0 Light Metrodata soft-
such is also well-rounded. In accordance with the slogan «less is more» we have                      ware. This is an easy-to-use program for
revised and considerably reduced our range of titrators. This means that you can now                 data acquisition, storage and reprocess-
choose the Titrino that is optimally suited to your particular application and budget                ing. The measured values and results sup-
from a well-assorted range of instruments.                                                           plied by the Titrino are transferred to a
A brief introduction to the members of our new Titrino family is given below:                        flexible database and shown clearly to-
                                                                                                     gether with the corresponding titration
                                                                                                     curve and report. Recalculation of indi-
                                                                                                     vidual data or data series is possible; for
Potentiometric titrators                     Karl Fischer titrators                                  statistical evaluation a variety of math-
                                                                                                     ematical functions are available. Several
719 SET Titrino                              787 KF Titrino                                          curves can also be superimposed on one
• Economical endpoint titrator for acid-     • Successor to the 701 KF Titrino, the                  another for comparison purposes.
  base, redox and precipitation titrations     first Metrohm Titrino
                                                                                                     In addition, VESUV 3.0 offers you the pos-
                                             • Favorably-priced KF all-rounder with                  sibility of transferring methods from the
794 Basic Titrino
                                               extremely simple operation                            Titrino to the PC, storing them there and
• Successor to the legendary 716 DMS
                                                                                                     reloading them, if necessary. In this way
  Titrino                                    795 KFT Titrino
                                                                                                     you can easily perform a backup of your
• Masters all important titration meth-      • Successor to the 784 KFP Titrino                      methods.
  ods                                        • Karl Fischer titrator with graphics dis-
• Ideal for training in schools, technical     play for real-time titration curve
  colleges and universities as well as       • Extremely simple routine operation
  for routine analysis                         combined with the highest degree of
                                               operating comfort
798 MPT Titrino
                                             • Comprehensive GLP and ISO 9000
• Successor to the 785 DMP Titrino
• Routine titrator with graphics display
• Comprehensive GLP and ISO 9000             758 KFD Titrino
  functions                                  • Karl Fischer and endpoint titrator with
• Memory card for user methods                 graphics display
                                             • Real-time display of the volume/time
799 GPT Titrino                                curve allows visual evaluation of the
• Successor to the 751 GPD Titrino –           titration and rapid detection of side re-
  the high-end instrument in the new           actions
  Titrino family                             • Can control up to three titration
• Top-class titrator with LCD screen for       burets
  real-time curve representation             • Comprehensive GLP and
• In addition to endpoint titrations and       ISO 9000 functions
  monotonic and dynamic equivalence-         • Memory card for user
  point titrations, it can also perform pH     methods
  stat applications as well as Karl
  Fischer titrations
• Solves dosing tasks while monitoring
  the measured value and temperature
  in synthesis
• Can control up to three titration burets
• Comprehensive GLP and ISO 9000
• Memory card for user methods
                                                                               The flagship of the new Titrino family: the 799 GPT Titrino, shown here with
                                                                               727 Titration Stand, 685 titration Dosimat (left) and 776 auxiliary Dosimat

Metrohm Information Issue 1/2002                                                                                                                         9
2002 Titrino range

The new Metrohm Titrino family – common features and differences

                                                          719 SET 794 Basic 798 MPT 799 GPT    787 KF    795 KFT 758 KFD
                                                           Titrino  Titrino  Titrino Titrino   Titrino    Titrino Titrino
Real-time curve display with graphics LCD
DET – Dynamic Equivalence-point Titration
MET – Monotonic Equivalence-point Titration
SET – titration to preset endpoints
KFT – Karl Fischer titration
STAT – pH/mV stat titration
DOC – controlled dispensing; running a gradient of
the measured value
DOS – dispensing with monitoring
MEAS – measurement of pH, U/mV, T/°C
CAL – pH calibration
TIP – method linking
Determination of pK values
Minimum-maximum evaluation
Ipol & Upol – integrated programmable polarizer
Number of high-impedance measuring inputs                   2        2        2        2                              2
Differential potentiometry
Silo memory for methods and sample data
Results memory
Memory cards for user methods (compatible with
each other)
Ready-to-use titration methods (stored on a read-only
memory card or in the Titrino)
User name list
Monitoring of validation interval
Monitoring of service interval
Monitoring of calibration interval
Monitoring of sample size limits
Monitoring of result limits
System test report
Two additional dispensing units (765/776) for auxiliary
Two additional dispensing units (685/700) for titrants
Sample changer connection
KF oven connection
Oven parameters in the result report
Stirrer connection
Stirrer control
Number of RS 232C interfaces for printer, PC, balance       1        1        2        2         1          2         2
Connection of PC keyboard and barcode reader
Compatible with TiNet 2.5
Compatible with VESUV 3.0
Number of dialog languages                                  7        7        7        7         4          7         7

10                                                                                         Metrohm Information   Issue 1/2002
                                                                                                                   Metrodata TiNet 2.5

Our new TiNet 2.5 titration software – naturally compliant with
FDA Regulation 21 CFR Part 11

Metrodata TiNet 2.5, the sixth version of the most successful titration software on the
market, is on its way. It goes without saying that the new Metrohm Titrinos as well as
the new 831 KF Coulometer are fully integrated into the program. However, the
decisive innovation is that TiNet 2.5 fulfills all the requirements of FDA Regulation
«Electronic Records; Electronic Signatures», better known as 21 CFR Part 11. To
come straight to the point: Users who do not work in a GxP-regulated industry and for
whom the above-mentioned FDA regulation is not binding do not have to make any
changes. They will find a titration software with familiar structure and user interface.
However, with respect to 21 CFR Part 11 TiNet has been thoroughly revised and
extended. Numerous new functions have been implemented, which can be activated
by the user when installing the software. An overview of the new program parts is
given below.

Security policies
Under the menu item «Security policies» the login procedure, password settings, audit
trail and electronic signatures are defined. In order to facilitate your work, you can
select the function «Settings according to 21 CFR Part 11» and with a single mouse-
click activate the settings required by this regulation. It couldn’t be easier! You can, of
course, also make each setting separately according to your individual requirements;
this allows an exact adaptation to your company’s own security policy.

User login
You can define that login requires the entry of a valid user name and/or a password.
This reliably prevents unauthorized access to the TiNet system. You also have the
possibility of defining a maximum permitted number of login attempts. In order to
protect the unattended system, automatic logoff can be activated after a certain time
has elapsed. Finally it is also possible to define whether, after a manual logoff has
occurred, a renewed login can only be made by the same user or also by other users.
The password properties can also be specified in detail. It is possible to stipulate the
use of special characters and define the minimum length of the password as well as
its period of validity. TiNet 2.5 can also prevent the user from using the same
password several times.

                                                                                              Specifying the login procedure and password settings
                                                                                              under the menu item «Security policies».

Metrohm Information Issue 1/2002                                                                                                              11
Metrodata TiNet 2.5

Audit trail
In the audit trail all events concerning the TiNet
system are recorded. If necessary, these pro-
tocols can be viewed, filtered or sorted. In
addition, the user can be required to enter com-
ments whenever he modifies methods, results
or sample data.

Electronic signatures
TiNet 2.5 allows the use of electronic signa-
tures. You thus have the possibility of providing
methods or results with a user name, pass-
word and comments, of protecting them against
manipulation (write protection) or of releasing
them. Predefined texts are available for many
different categories of signatures.

User management                                      The audit trail settings are made on this page.

In this program part all users of the TiNet
system are defined together with their name,
status, individual rights of access and addi-
tional options. It is possible to create as many
different user profiles as necessary. In order to
make the administrators’ work easier, all TiNet
systems operated in a network can be admin-
istered centrally from one server. This means
that the time-consuming multiple definition of
the same user in different TiNet systems is no
longer necessary.
Individual program parts or menu items can be
made accessible to the user or can be blocked.
The authorization for electronically signing and
releasing methods or results is assigned; in
addition, the methods and database directories
are defined.

                                                     TiNet 2.5 allows comfortable and efficient user management.

                                                     Result report
                                                     Using the raw data files, TiNet 2.5 automatically creates PDF reports that are stored.
                                                     This means that the result reports are directly available for being viewed, printed out
                                                     or transferred in electronic form. In addition, they are protected against accidental or
                                                     intentional alterations.

                                                     Long-term archiving
                                                     We also support you with respect to the secure and professional long-term storage of
                                                     your analytical data. TiNet 2.5 provides drivers for the most frequently used archiving
                                                     programs such as CyberLab, eRecordManager, etc. as standard – without any
                                                     additional costs for you.

     Our new TiNet 2.5 titration software will be
     released on 15 June 2002 and will be avail-
     able soon afterwards together with com-
     prehensive documentation and validation

12                                                                                                         Metrohm Information   Issue 1/2002
                                                                                                                           831 KF Coulometer

Economical determination of trace amounts of water – with the new
831 KF Coulometer

Precise and favorably priced – no contradiction in terms!
With the 831 KF Coulometer Metrohm defines new standards in price-performance
ratio. Despite its extremely favorable price, the latest member of our
Karl Fischer range leaves no wishes unfulfilled. The instru-
ment guarantees accurate and precise results, even for
water contents in the lower microgram range. Its com-
pact design, flexibility and user-friendliness are also

Precision that can be achieved with the 831 KF
Coulometer when Karl Fischer standards of
different concentrations are analyzed.

  Water content                    Precision
  10 ... 1000 µg H2O               ±3 µg
  >1000 µg H2O                     0.3% or better

The user can follow the course of the Karl Fischer water
determination graphically on the backlit LCD screen of
the 831 KF Coulometer (µg water as a function of time).
In addition, at the end of the titration the curves «potential
versus time» and «drift versus time» can be printed out
or viewed on the PC. These features facilitate the as-
sessment of the analysis and are a great help in method
development and validation.
The 831 KF Coulometer has two RS 232C interfaces,
which allow a balance, printer and PC to be connected. The
«Remote» interface provides further possibilities. In combina-
tion with the 774 Oven Sample Processor, the coulometer can be
extended to a completely automated analysis system. It goes without
saying that the new 831 KF Coulometer is fully compatible with the current
TiNet 2.5 and VESUV 3.0 Metrodata software programs.
                                                                                                    The new 831 KF Coulometer – shown here with 703
                                                                                                    Titration Stand and diaphragm-less cell – offers high-
                                                                                                    est precision at a favorable price.

LCD screen of the 831 KF Coulometer with curve showing the titrated water as m(H2O) in micrograms
versus the time in seconds.

Metrohm Information Issue 1/2002                                                                                                                       13
831 KF Coulometer

                                                            NEW: PC software included!
                                                            With the 831 KF Coulometer you will also receive the VESUV 3.0 Light Metrodata
                                                            software. This is an easy-to-use program for data acquisition, storage and reprocess-
                                                            ing. The measured values and results supplied by the coulometer are transferred to a
                                                            flexible database and shown clearly together with the corresponding titration curve
                                                            and report. Recalculation of individual data or data series is possible; for statistical
                                                            evaluation a variety of mathematical functions are available. Several curves can also
                                                            be superimposed on one another for comparison purposes.
                                                            In addition, VESUV 3.0 offers the possibility of transferring methods from the KF
                                                            Coulometer to the PC, storing them there and reloading them, if necessary. This is a
                                                            comfortable way for users to perform a backup of their methods.

VESUV database including the titration curve as well as
the list of variables and calculation formulae associated
with the marked data record.

                                                            Quality management with Metrohm
                                                            The 831 KF Coulometer allows full and clearly organized documentation of all determi-
                                                            nations carried out. The results are presented in a GLP-compliant manner with
                                                            designation and serial number of the instrument, software version, date, user and
                                                            method names.
                                                            GLP and ISO 9000 monitoring functions such as service or validation intervals alert
                                                            the user in time to the necessary tests. Moreover, the KF reagent can be monitored
                                                            with regard to the number of determinations carried out, its useful life span, drift value
                                                            or capacity. Whenever the reagent has to be exchanged the corresponding request is
                                                            issued automatically. To avoid mishaps of any kind there is the additional possibility of
             There is an art                                setting limits for the sample size and for the result. If one of these quantities lies
                                                            outside the defined limits, the corresponding warning message appears in the display
               of reading,                                  and report and the «Remote» interface emits a signal.
            as well as an art                               The KF coulometer has a special GLP mode that greatly facilitates the periodic
              of thinking,                                  checking of the instrument. Just call up this mode and carry out the validation
                                                            according to Metrohm Application Bulletin No. 273.
               and an art
               of writing.

                  Isaac Disraeli

14                                                                                                            Metrohm Information       Issue 1/2002
                                                                                                                   831 KF Coulometer

Automatic reagent change
If a 700 Dosino is connected to the 831 KF Coulometer the spent KF solution can be
siphoned off automatically. By pressing a key, or when the respective monitoring
function has responded, the Dosino transfers the titration vessel contents into the
waste bottle and then adds fresh Karl Fischer reagent to the titration cell. As the cell
does not need to be opened during this operation, no humidity enters the coulometric
cell, which therefore is ready for the next determination in a very short time.

                                                                                           831 KF Coulometer with 700 Dosino for automatically
                                                                                           aspirating the titration vessel contents and adding fresh

The 831 KF Coulometer in routine work
Often it is felt that an instrument offering extensive capabilities cannot be easy to
operate. The 831 KF Coulometer solves this problem by placing at your disposal an
expert and a standard mode. In the standard mode only those functions are accessible
that are needed in routine work. Operation in this mode is therefore extremely easy.

Cell with or without diaphragm – the choice is yours!
The 831 KF Coulometer is available with two generator cell types. The cell without
diaphragm requires just one reagent and is virtually maintenance-free. It can be used
for a wide range of applications. The cell with diaphragm is especially recommended
for determining water in aldehydes and ketones, for extremely low water contents and
for samples whose conductivity is very low, for example oils.

Method memory for many applications
Different applications demand different and suitably optimized instrument settings. If
the endpoint has to be adjusted to a different reagent or if an extraction time has to
elapse prior to the start of the determination, the parameters can be adapted and
stored as a separate method. The KF coulometer’s internal memory holds about 100           Generator cells for the 831 KF Coulometer: left without
methods.                                                                                   diaphragm, right with diaphragm.

Metrohm Information Issue 1/2002                                                                                                                15
831 KF Coulometer

                                                           Results management
                                                           If no PC or printer is connected to your 831 KF Coulometer you can still work with the
                                                           instrument’s internal results memory. For each method you can calculate up to nine
                                                           results and store them separately. It is also possible to recalculate results, which are
                                                           then marked accordingly as a matter of course. In addition, the instrument software
                                                           offers various statistical evaluation functions.

                                                           Thermal sample preparation
                                                           For samples that cannot be introduced directly into the titration cell we recommend the
                                                           use of a KF oven. Metrohm offers several different versions. The 768 KF Drying Oven
                                                           is particularly suitable for small numbers of samples. If, on the other hand, large
                                                           sample series are to be analyzed, the 774 Oven Sample Processor is the ideal
                                                           solution. In combination with the 831 KF Coulometer, this sample changer allows the
                                                           fully automatic determination of water in up to 35 samples. The analysis system can
                                                           be operated either as a stand-alone setup, or it can be fully controlled by the Metrodata
                                                           TiNet 2.5 software.

The 831 KF Coulometer with the 774 Oven Sample
Processor: fully automated, rapid and extremely precise
Karl Fischer water determination right down to the trace

                                                           Convincing arguments
                                                           The advantages of our new 831 KF Coulometer will completely convince you:
                                                           • Favorable price
                                                           • Highest precision
                                                           • Graphics display for real-time titration curve
                                                           • Fully compatible with the current Metrodata software programs
                                                           • Can be extended to a completely automated analysis system

16                                                                                                          Metrohm Information       Issue 1/2002
                                                                                                   Aquatrode plus

Aquatrode plus – the optimized water electrode
Aquatrode plus is the name of our new combined pH glass electrode with fixed ground
sleeve diaphragm and double-junction reference system. Its new type of membrane
glass has been specially developed for pH measurements and acid-base titrations in
ion-deficient, poorly conducting samples – e.g. natural surface water or deionized
water – and in weakly buffered media. The range of applications covers on-site
measurements, automated laboratory analysis as well as research and training.
With this new pH electrode particular emphasis has been given to sample changer
applications. The Aquatrode plus is outstandingly suitable for pH measurement and
titration of the carbonate hardness (p and m values) in completely automated water
analysis systems.
The 6.0253.100 Aquatrode plus replaces its predecessor, the 6.0252.100 Aquatrode.
An electrode version with a Pt 1000 temperature sensor is in preparation.

                                                                                          Never mistake
                                                                                      knowledge for wisdom.
                                                                                       One helps you make
                                                                                             a living;
                                                                                          the other helps
                                                                                         you make a life.

                                                                                           Sandara Carey

The 6.0253.100 Aquatrode plus – the new water electrode from Metrohm.

Metrohm Information Issue 1/2002                                                                               17
Aquatrode plus

Response times of different membrane glasses in
c(NaHCO3) = 0.05 mmol/L (air-equilibrated, pH = 7.0).

                                                        A new type of membrane glass
                                                        The pH glass membrane of the Aquatrode plus is made of a newly developed special
                                                        glass that is characterized by short response times and excellent long-term stability
                                                        (see Figure shown above).
  Technical specifications                              Comparative studies have shown that several thousand titrations of the carbonate
                                                        hardness can be carried out with the Aquatrode plus without the response time being
  Shaft length               178 mm                     affected. This is an essential prerequisite for using the electrode in automated titration
  Useful length              133 mm                     systems.
  Shaft diameter             12 mm                      The new membrane glass has not only a positive effect on the response time, but also
                                                        on the working life of the Aquatrode plus – ideal for routine work with sample
  Shaft material             Glass
  Minimum immersion
  depth             20 mm
                                                        Optimized reference system
  Electrode head             Metrohm plug-in
                             head G                     In order to avoid electrostatic interferences when carrying out pH measurements in
                                                        ion-deficient media, the overall resistance of the measuring system should be kept as
  Glass membrane             Bulb made of               low as possible. The Aquatrode plus meets this requirement to a great degree owing
                             newly developed            to its optimized reference system.
                             special glass
                                                        Our new water electrode has a specially designed fixed ground sleeve diaphragm. In
  Membrane resist-                                      poorly conducting solutions this type of diaphragm shows a markedly lower resis-
  ance                       80 … 200 MΩ                tance than the ceramic pin diaphragm and therefore permits rapid and accurate pH
     Electrode zero point    0 ± 15 mV                  measurements.
                             (pH = 7)                   The Aquatrode plus is equipped with a double-junction reference system whose inner
     Electrode slope         >0.97                      chamber contains a special potassium chloride gel. This reference electrolyte does
                                                        not need refilling, which greatly simplifies handling and maintenance in comparison
     Diaphragm               Fixed ground
                                                        with conventional double-junction pH electrodes. The standard bridge electrolyte is
                             sleeve diaphragm
                                                        c(KCl) = 3 mol/L, but in principle you can use any electrolyte that does not form a
     Reference electrolyte KCl gel,                     precipitate with KCl. The Aquatrode plus is therefore predestined for use in water
                           corresponding to             analysis systems in which the chloride concentration is to be determined in addition
                           a(KCl) = 3 mol/L             to the carbonate hardness. In this case saturated KNO3 solution is chosen as bridge
                           (a = activity)               electrolyte. You thus ensure that the chloride content of the water sample to be
     Bridge electrolyte      Selectable                 analyzed is not falsified by the outflowing electrolyte.
                             [c(KCl) = 3 mol/L
                             as standard]               Innovative shielding
     Electrolyte outflow     5 ... 20 µL/h /10 cm       The inner chamber of the Aquatrode plus is electrically shielded with a special metal
                             water column               coating. pH measurements in low-conductivity samples benefit as this shielding
     pH range                0 ... 13                   prevents interferences by static electricity, which would otherwise lead to very noisy
     Temperature range       0 ... +60 °C               signals and drifting pH values.

18                                                                                                        Metrohm Information       Issue 1/2002
                                                                                                    817 Bioscan in practical use

Carbohydrate analysis with the 817 Bioscan

The 817 Bioscan is an electrochemical detector that can be operated in three different
modes depending on the analytical requirements. In the DC mode a constant potential
is applied to the working electrode. The analytes are then oxidized or reduced and the
resulting current is measured. The scan mode allows current/potential curves to be
recorded. The operator can use the recorded voltammograms to determine the
optimal working potential for the pulse mode. This operating mode utilizes three
different potentials that are applied in a cyclic manner. A suitable working potential
(e.g. E1 = +50 mV for 400 ms) is followed by two cleaning steps (e.g. E2 =
+750 mV for 200 ms; E3 = –50 mV for 400 ms), which ensure that after each cycle
an active, newly conditioned electrode surface is available. Current measurement
takes place during the last 100 ms of the working potential period. Pulsed amperometric
detection is particularly suitable for the determination of carbohydrates.

A wide range of applications
On the market for just about one year, the 817 Bioscan is used today for a variety of
applications all over the world. One example is the determination of the artificial
sweetener sucralose in cola drinks. Another customer analyzes enzymatic reaction
products with the help of the Bioscan. Special enzymes convert glucose and maltose
into trehalose or gentiobiose. The enzymatic degradation of starch or cellulose to        The 817 Bioscan opens up numerous applications – be
oligomers with up to seven glucose units can also be monitored (see Figure below).        it as a stand-alone sugar analyzer or as a component of
                                                                                          a modular IC system.

                                                                                          Glucose-1-phosphate G-1-P (2 mol/L) in a mixture of
                                                                                          G1 to G7 oligomers.
                                                                                          Separation column:    Metrosep Carb 1 – 250
                                                                                          Eluent:               100 mmol/L sodium hydroxide,
                                                                                                                170 mmol/L sodium acetate
                                                                                          Flow rate:            1 mL/min
                                                                                          Temperature:          35 °C

817 Bioscan in the sugar industry
Sugar refineries and sugar mills are one of the main application areas of the 817
Bioscan. Ion chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection is ideal for moni-
toring the individual steps involved in processing sugar beet or sugar cane. For
example, the degree of inversion of the raw sugar can be checked using the Bioscan.
Apart from the main component, sucrose, the glucose and fructose contents are also
determined. The following figure shows the chromatogram of a raw sugar sample
taken from the crystallization stage of a sugar beet refinery. Its sucrose content is
93.6% referred to the dry substance.

Metrohm Information Issue 1/2002                                                                                                             19
817 Bioscan in practical use

                                                           Analysis of a raw sugar melt (diluted 1 : 1000 with ultrapure water).
                                                           Separation column:     Metrosep Carb 1 – 250 (6.1013.000)
                                                           Eluent:                100 mmol/L sodium hydroxide
                                                           Flow rate:             1 mL/min
                                                           Temperature:           32 °C
                                                           Results:               550 ppm inositol; 380 ppm mannitol; 60 ppm glucose; 64.58% sucrose;
                                                                                  0.81% raffinose

                                                           Interesting combinations with Metrohm IC modules
                                                           The combination with other modules from the Metrohm IC range opens up numerous
                                                           additional applications for the 817 Bioscan. One interesting example is the use of the
                                                           754 Dialysis Unit for inline sample preparation. With the modular IC system shown at
                                                           left, dairy products such as whole milk, yogurt, powdered milk, protein concentrates
                                                           or baby food can be analyzed fully automatically. In this way galactose and lactose
                                                           were determined in the intermediate products of a milk processing plant. As an
                                                           example, the figure below shows the chromatogram of a soluble, spray-dried whey
                                                           protein concentrate that has been prepared from casein whey. The sample contains
                                                           approx. 80% protein, 4.8% fat and 4.1% water. Care must be taken that the system is
                                                           working optimally during inline dialysis using the 754 Dialysis Unit and the 812 Valve
                                                           Unit as injection and control valve. In particular, the counterpressure must be equal on
                                                           both sides of the semipermeable dialysis membrane in order to avoid any filtering
Modular IC system consisting of 762 IC Interface, 817
Bioscan, 812 Valve Unit with two injectors, 754 Dialysis
                                                           effects and to ensure that the separation of the analytes from the matrix only takes
Unit, metal-free 709 IC Pump and 766 IC Sample Pro-        place by diffusion owing to the difference in concentration. In addition, both the dialysis
cessor.                                                    time and the transfer time must be optimized. The chromatogram shown here was
                                                           recorded after a dialysis time of 14 min; the transfer time was 0.55 min.

Determination of galactose and lactose in a soluble,
spray-dried whey protein concentrate [2g dry sub-
stance (DS) dissolved in 1 L ultrapure water and then
diluted 1 : 10].
Separation column:     Metrosep Carb 1 – 250
Eluent:                100 mmol/L sodium hydroxide
Flow rate:             1 mL/min
Temperature:           32 °C
Results:               30.1 mg galactose / 100 g DS;
                       3815.6 mg lactose / 100 g DS

20                                                                                                                  Metrohm Information     Issue 1/2002
                                                                                                   817 Bioscan in practical use

Demanding applications in the paper industry
The separation of arabinose, galactose, glucose, mannose and xylose plays a deci-
sive role in many of the applications using the 817 Bioscan. In samples from the paper
industry, large differences in the concentrations of these analytes are to be expected.
In the sulfuric acid digestion of wood chips the glucose content may be between 70
and 99%. In contrast, the mass fractions of arabinose, galactose and mannose are
very low and lie between 0 and 5%. If the standard eluent 100 mmol/L sodium
hydroxide were used at a flow rate of 1 mL/min then all five monosaccharides would
be eluted between 13 and 16 min on the Metrosep Carb 1 – 250. In order to achieve a
clear separation of the analytes, a mixture of sodium hydroxide and sodium acetate at
a much lower concentration is therefore used as the eluent (see Figure below). Helium
must be passed through this solution to prevent the uptake of carbon dioxide from the
surrounding atmosphere. As a result of the weak eluent the background current in the
flow-through measuring cell of the Bioscan drops below 20 nA, whereas the optimal
working range lies between 150 and 1000 nA. In comparison with the standard eluent
the detection sensitivity is also considerably lower and diminishes even further
during the analysis. It is therefore necessary to work with an internal standard. In
principle the problem can be solved by the post-column addition of sodium hydroxide.
For this the 752 IC Pump Unit is used, its pulsation being suppressed by a combination
of various capillaries. The eluent with the separated analytes and the post-column
reagent (300 mmol/L sodium hydroxide) are combined directly after the separation
column in a T piece and mixed in a special capillary; the liquid flow then reaches the
amperometric detector cell (order number for T piece + mixing capillary: 6.2758.000).
The chromatogram shown below was obtained with the system described above. The
background current in the flow-through measuring cell of the Bioscan was now 192
nA. Fucose was used as internal standard for the analysis and showed an excellent
recovery of 101.7%.

                                                                                          Determination of monosaccharides in a digestion solu-
                                                                                          tion of wood chips (diluted 1 : 10 with ultrapure water).
                                                                                          Separation column:   Metrosep Carb 1 – 250
                                                                                          Eluent:              2.5 mmol/L sodium hydroxide,
                                                                                                               0.5 mmol/L sodium acetate
                                                                                          Flow rate:           1.25 mL/min
                                                                                          Post-column reagent: 300 mmol/L sodium hydroxide
                                                                                          Flow rate:           0.43 mL/min
                                                                                          Temperature:         32 °C
                                                                                          Results:             10.0 ppm fucose;
                                                                                                               7.6 ppm arabinose;
                                                                                                               20.8 ppm galactose;
                                                                                                               653.5 ppm glucose;
                                                                                                               197.7 ppm xylose;
                                                                                                               11.9 ppm mannose

Metrohm IC separation columns for carbohydrates
All the applications described here were carried out on the Metrosep Carb 1 – 250
column (250 mm x 4.6 mm; order no. 6.1013.000). This IC separation column is
outstandingly suitable for the determination of carbohydrates using alkaline eluents
and pulsed amperometric detection. A shorter version of the sugar column is also
available – the Metrosep Carb 1 – 150 (150 mm x 4.0 mm; order no. 6.1013.010). Its
ion exchange capacity is about half that of its «tall sister»; the retention times are
correspondingly shorter. The short Metrosep Carb 1 thus guarantees rapid ion chro-
matographic determinations and is particularly suitable for the separation of larger
sugar molecules.

Metrohm Information Issue 1/2002                                                                                                               21
IC News

Ion chromatography news

                          Highly topical: IC Newsletter
                          Starting February 2002 Metrohm Ltd. will send an E-Mail newsletter every month to
                          interested customers and users. This newsletter will inform you about our IC instru-
                          ments, columns and software, describe interesting applications and provide you with
                          information on events and literature concerned with ion chromatography. In short: You
                          will learn everything worth knowing from the world of IC – free of charge and up to
                          Take advantage of this new Metrohm service! The IC Newsletter is freely accessible
                          to anyone who is interested. The only prerequisite is that you fill out the corresponding
                          form. Should you later want to stop receiving the Newsletter then this can be done
                          quickly and without any red tape – one mouse-click is enough.
                          Registering for this new service is easy: You can either order the Metrohm IC
                          Newsletter on our Website or you can visit our stand at the
                          Analytica in Munich (23 to 26 April 2002, Hall C2, Stand 449/546).

                          Metrohm Ion Chromatography Software IC Net and Title 21 of
                          the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 11
                          Under this heading, to be found on the Metrohm Website, you can
                          call up an official statement from the management of Metrohm Ltd. that informs about
                          the development of the IC Net software with respect to FDA Regulation 21 CFR Part 11.
                          This is of particular importance for users of Metrohm ion chromatography instru-
                          ments in the pharmaceutical industry. Before the end of November 2002 a completely
                          revised version of Metrodata IC Net will be available that will fulfill all the require-
                          ments of «21 CFR Part 11» – independent of the chosen operating system and without
                          using its security system.
                          You can download this document from our Website as a PDF file and print it out, or you
                          can ask your local Metrohm distributor for a copy.

22                                                                         Metrohm Information       Issue 1/2002
                                   Literature references

Metrohm Information Issue 1/2002                     23
Metrohm Application Notes

Metrohm Application Notes – your direct access to the know-how of
our Application Laboratories

                                                  Ion chromatography
  Our Application Notes (ANs) present ap-
  plications in a concise form. They give
                                                  Anion chromatography with chemical suppression – index S
  you rapid and direct access to the know-
  how of our Application Laboratories and         Appl.   Title
  demonstrate the wide range of applica-          Note
  tions that are possible with the different      S-117   Chloride, nitrate and sulfate in sodium thiocyanate
  analytical methods. The ANs are written         S-118   Formate, acetate, chloride, benzoate and oxalate in phenolic extracts
  by our Product Managers and are pub-            S-119   Acetate, chloride, sulfate and citrate in a pharmaceutical product
  lished in English. Practice-oriented and to     S-120   Fluoride, chloride, phosphate, monofluorophosphate and sulfate in tooth-
  the point, they inform you about the most               paste
  important aspects of the particular deter-      S-121   Fluoride, glycolate, monochloroacetate and chloride in a surfactant solution
  mination method in the following sectors:       S-122   Fluoride, glycolate, chloride and oxalate in a latex dispersion
  ion chromatography, voltammetry, poten-         S-123   Five anions in meat extracts
  tiometric and photometric titration, Karl       S-124   Chlorite, chloride, sulfite and oxalate in beer
  Fischer titration, direct potentiometry (ion-   S-125   Determination of complexing agents
  selective electrodes) and stability mea-        S-126   Five anions in NaOH after inline neutralization
  surements.                                      S-127   Five anions in human urine
                                                  S-128   Chlorate, nitrate and perchlorate in firecracker powder
  Since the last edition of Metrohm Informa-
                                                  S-129   Total phosphate in waste water after digestion with peroxodisulfate
  tion a further 49 new Application Notes
                                                  S-130   Six anions in PVC
  have been published, 40 of which deal
                                                  S-131   Determination of lactate, acetate, chloride, methylsulfate, bromide and sul-
  with the ion chromatographic determina-
  tion of anions, cations, organic acids and
                                                  S-132   Citrate, pyrophosphate, maltol, IMP and GMP in a mixture of sodium and
  carbohydrates in a wide range of matri-
                                                          potassium chloride with conductivity and UV detection
  ces. This means that for the ion chroma-
                                                  S-133   Four anions in waste water after inline removal of excess chloride
  tography sector there are already about
                                                  S-134   Determination of trace anions in the presence of 1 g/L chloride
  260 different ANs. Under the new category
                                                  S-135   Eight anions in river water
  «R» we have also published the first 9
  Application Notes for the 743 Rancimat          Anion chromatography without chemical suppression – index N
  and 763 PVC Thermomat. The following
  tables give an overview of the new titles.      N-42    Silicate and borate in ethylene glycol
  The complete Application Notes can be           N-43    Sulfate in citric acid
  found on the Internet under                     N-44    Silicate in tap water                                Cation chromatography – index C
  There the corresponding method files are        C-43    Potassium and magnesium in potato juice
  also provided for downloading, which en-        C-44    Five cations in tap water
  ables you to carry out the respective ion       C-45    Magnesium in ammonium sulfate
  chromatographic determination on your           C-46    Five cations in foodstuffs after sulfuric acid digestion
  own 761 Compact IC straight away.               C-47    Calcium and magnesium in filtration extracts from wine making process
  Take advantage of this comprehensive ap-        C-48    Five cations in alcohol-free beer with strawberry flavor
  plication know-how!                             C-49    Trace cations in power plant feed water stabilized with 7 ppm mono-
                                                  C-50    Zinc, sodium, potassium, manganese and magnesium in a nutritional trace
                                                          element mixture
                                                  C-51    Determination of aluminum using post-column reaction and UV detection
                                                  C-52    Determination of cations and ethanolamines
                                                  C-53    Determination of magnesium and barium besides large amounts of calcium

                                                  Ion exclusion and ion pair chromatography – index O
                                                  O-15    C1 ... C6 carboxylic acids in aqueous absorption solutions
                                                  O-16    Separation of eight carboxylic acids

24                                                                                                 Metrohm Information   Issue 1/2002
                                                                                                                        Book corner

Ion chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection – index P
P-8       Galactose, lactose and sucrose in dairy products
P-9       Sorbitol and mannitol in maltitol syrup                                           Metrohm Information now has a web ad-
P-10      Determination of the purity of a sugar concentrate                                dress of its own. Under
P-11      Six carbohydrates in a sugar solution
P-12      Glucose, fructose, maltose, maltotriose and maltotetraose in a sugar con-
          centrate                                                                          you will find all issues of our customer
                                                                                            magazine published since 1998 in elec-
Stability measurements using the Rancimat and PVC                                           tronic form. The individual articles are
Thermomat                                                                                   available in English and German as PDF
                                                                                            files. Using the respective tables of con-
Appl.     Title                                                                             tents, just select, download and print out
Note                                                                                        the articles that are of interest to you.
R-1       Oxidative stability of olive oil
R-3       Oxidative stability of rape oil
R-4       Oxidative stability of corn oil
R-5       Oxidative stability of thistle oil
R-6       Oxidative stability of sunflower oil
R-7       Oxidative stability of peanut oil
R-8       Thermal stability of pure, blended and processed PVC
R-9       Oxidative stability of fatty acid methyl esters (biodiesel)
R-10      Oxidative stability of biologically degradable lubricating oil

Book corner

Miguel Valcárcel

Principles of Analytical Chemistry
Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York, 2000, 371 pages
ISBN 3-540-64007-X
«Principles of Analytical Chemistry» aims to ease the first contact of students
pursuing different scientific and technical studies by providing them with a simple,
general overview of the discipline. The objective of this innovative textbook is to teach
rather than to inform. Using keywords of modern analytical chemistry, it constructs a
teaching message accessible to the beginner, with emphasis on relations between
these keywords to ensure consistency in the teaching contents of the book. Practical
exercises, 450 questions for students and 27 interactive seminars are used as
vehicles for expounding a large number of examples in order to clarify and consolidate
the text and facilitate its comprehension.

•   Introduction to analytical chemistry
•   Analytical properties
•   Traceability: reference materials
•   The measurement process in chemistry
•   Qualitative aspects of analytical chemistry
•   Quantitative aspects of analytical chemistry
•   The analytical problem
•   Analytical chemistry and quality
•   Glossary of terms
•   List of symbols and abbreviations

Metrohm Information Issue 1/2002                                                                                                     25
Literature references

Literature references

     While we are pleased to be able to offer you this literature service, we are not in a position to provide you with photocopies of the original
     references simply for copyright reasons. Normally, you can have copies made of any reference that interests you at your nearest
     university library and usually at a favorable price. Thank you for your understanding in this matter.

Literature references                                      • Benzoate ion determination in beverages using a potentiometric sensor immobi-
potentiometric titration                                     lized in a graphite matrix
                                                              L. Pezza, A. O. Santini, H. R. Pezza, C. B. Melios, V. J. F. Ferreira, A. L. M. Nasser
                                                              The characteristics, performance and application of an electrode, namely Pt l Hg l
                                                              Hg2(Bzt)2 l graphite – where Bzt stands for the benzoate ion – are described. This
                                                              electrode responds to Bzt with a sensitivity of 57.7 ± 1.0 mV/decade over the range
                                                              5 x 10–4 … 1 x 10–1 mol/L at pH 6.0 … 8.0, the detection limit being 1.6 x 10–4 mol/L. The
                                                              electrode is characterized by its easy construction, fast response (10 to 30 s), low
                                                              cost and excellent response stability (lifetime >6 months, in continuous use). The
                                                              proposed sensor showed good selectivity for benzoate in the presence of several
                                                              carboxylate and inorganic anions. It was used to determine benzoate in various
                                                              beverages by means of the standard addition method. The electrode yielded results
                                                              that compared very favorably with those of the official AOAC spectrophotometric
                                                              method as well as with those obtained using an HPLC procedure.
                                                              Anal. Chim. Acta 433 (2001) 281–288
                                                           • Overcoming interference from hydrolyzable cations during the determination of
                                                             sulfuric acid by titration
                                                              P Pillay, D. E. Barnes, J. F. van Staden
                                                              During the neutralization of mineral acids, hydrolyzable cations precipitate and
                                                              consume the titrant. Depending on the concentration and type of cation, this con-
                                                              sumption leads to erroneously high titration results. The following cations were
                                                              tested: iron(III), iron(II), nickel, cobalt, copper and manganese. Various methods
                                                              have been suggested to overcome this interference, but all suffer from certain
                                                              limitations – especially at high cation to free acid ratios. A simple and practical
                                                              method is suggested to overcome the effect at high cation concentrations. It is
                                                              based on the addition of alkaline salt (80% m/v) in methanol to the sample. This
                                                              addition enhances the activity of the protons, which coincides with a shift in the
                                                              inflection of the titration curve. This results in a shift of the titration endpoint to a
                                                              lower pH and a better resolution of the free acid and coinciding cation curve. This
                                                              effect, combined with performing the titration in a methanolic environment, de-
                                                              creases the hydrolyzation of the cations and improves the inflection of the titration
                                                              curve. The previous method could tolerate a ferric ion to sulfuric acid ratio of 2 : 1.
                                                              The suggested method improves on this ratio so that a more than 10-fold excess of
                                                              ferric cation concentration (the most serious interference) could safely be tolerated
                                                              during the free acid titration. The method was statistically evaluated. It proved to be
                                                              accurate and precise and a percentage relative standard deviation between 2.6 and
                                                              0.7 was obtained for various cation-containing, sulfuric acid solutions.
                We may                                        Anal. Chim. Acta 440 (2001) 45–52
              give advice,                                 • Application of modified Gran functions and derivative methods to potentiometric
            but not the sense                                acid titration studies of the distribution of inorganic carbon species in cultivation
                                                             medium of marine microalgae
                to use it.
                                                              Marilda Rigobello-Masini, Jorge C. Masini

                La Rochefoucauld                              This paper presents an evaluation of the modified Gran functions (MGF) and deriva-
                                                              tive methods for assessing the concentrations of inorganic carbon species – CO2,
                                                              HCO3– and CO32– – in the cultivation medium of the marine microalgae Tetraselmis
                                                              gracilis. Both methods were applied to simulated and experimental potentiometric
                                                              titration data and were able to detect small variations of inorganic carbon species
                                                              during 10 days of batch cultivation. The MGF method was able to determine the

26                                                                                                             Metrohm Information       Issue 1/2002
                                                                                                              Literature references

  concentration of an additional titratable species with pKB values between 9.5 and 9.9
  that appears in the medium after the 4th day of cultivation. This species may be
  assigned to carboxylate groups of organic carbon compounds excreted by the algae.
  Treatment of the titration data with the derivative method did not permit the quantitative
  determination of the concentration of the additional titratable species, but no interfer-
  ence was observed in the results obtained for the inorganic carbon species.
  Anal. Chim. Acta 448 (2001) 239–250

• Hyphenation of gas diffusion separation and ion chromatography                                  Literature references
  Part 1: Determination of free sulfite in wines                                                  ion chromatography
  Sara Fäldt, Bo Karlberg, Wolfgang Frenzel
  The hyphenation of gas diffusion separation and ion chromatography (IC) is de-
  scribed as a convenient, reliable, robust and economic method for inline sample
  pretreatment. The high selectivity associated with this method permits direct analysis
  of samples containing microparticles, colloidal matter and/or high molecular weight
  compounds. The determination of sulfite serves as a first example of its applica-
  tion. The method is based on the diffusional separation of SO2 following inline
  oxidation with hydrogen peroxide to sulfate and final determination of the sulfate
  formed using IC. The influence of operational parameters has been thoroughly
  investigated and gas diffusion cells of different geometries have been compared
  with respect to the gas transfer rates obtained. Application to the analysis of wines
  demonstrates the utility of the method.
  Fresenius J. Anal. Chem. 371 (2001) 425–430
• Determination of iodide in urine by ion pair chromatography with electrochemical
  H. Below, H. Kahlert
  A variety of parameters affecting the determination of iodide in biological materials by
  ion pair chromatography and electrochemical detection were examined in detail. It
  became apparent that the pH value, the ion pair concentration, the proportion of organic
  solvent and of organic bases as components of the buffer solution as well as the salt
  concentration in the eluent system could effectively influence the retention character-
  istics of iodide in the chromatographic system, resulting in the separation of potential
  interfering substances. The presence of other anions in the sample matrix has to be
  taken into consideration. This is particularly true of thiocyanate due to its long retention
  time. Investigations of the electrochemical detection mechanism revealed that the
  reaction hitherto assumed to be responsible for detector signal generation (formation
  of AgI) is incorrect. In addition, a much more sensitive detection of iodide than that cited
  in the literature to date is possible if the detector potential is optimally selected and any
  interfering substances are removed by chromatography. Use of a gold electrode rather
  than a silver electrode also considerably enhances the reliability of the procedure.
  Fresenius J. Anal. Chem. 371 (2001) 431–436
• Simultaneous determination of catecholamines by ion chromatography with di-
  rect conductivity detection
                                                                                                          Do not wait for
  C. L. Guan, J. Ouyang, Q. L. Li, B. H. Liu, W. R. G. Baeyens
  A simple method for the simultaneous determination of three catecholamines using
  ion chromatography (IC) with direct conductivity detection based on the ionization of                   circumstances
  catecholamines in acidic medium without chemical suppression is developed in the                      to do good action;
  present paper. The method can be used to determine these catecholamines in pharma-
  ceutical preparations for the purpose of drug quality control. The recovery of catechol-
                                                                                                        try to use ordinary
  amines was better than 97% (n = 3) and the relative standard deviation (RSD, n = 11)                       situations.
  was less than 2.1%. In a single chromatographic run, norepinephrine (NE), epineph-
  rine (E) and dopamine (DA) can be determined in less than 10 min. The detection limits                   Jean Paul Richter
  were found to be 0.001 mg/L for NE and 0.01 mg/L for E and DA, respectively. The linear
  ranges were 0.01 … 50 mg/L for NE (r2 = 0.9998) and 0.1 … 50 mg/L for E (r2 =
  0.9995) and DA (r2 = 0.9999), respectively.
  Talanta 50 (2000) 1197–1203

Metrohm Information Issue 1/2002                                                                                                27
Metrohm distributors from A to Z

Metrohm down under: MEP Instruments Pty Ltd in Australia and New

                                                    The early days
                                                    Since the first introduction of a Metrohm instrument down under more than 40 years
                                                    ago, Australia’s and New Zealand’s industries have gone through great changes,
                                                    developing into modern high-tech companies and institutions. Over the past decades
                                                    different scientific instrumentation distributors have represented Metrohm on the fifth
                                                    In order to support the Australian and New Zealand customers even better and to fulfill
                                                    the ever increasing demand for quick and comprehensive assistance, Metrohm
                                                    decided some years ago to set up its own organization down under. A joint venture
                                                    partner was found in Anton Paar GmbH, Austria, the leading manufacturer of density
                                                    measurement equipment. Anton Paar ideally complements Metrohm’s range of prod-
                                                    ucts and services, sharing the same high standards in quality and efficiency through-
                                                    out the world.
                                                    After a thorough preparation process MEP Instruments Pty Ltd (Metrohm-Paar) opened
                                                    its doors for trading on 1 April 1999.

The company sign at the entrance of the MEP head-
quarters in Sydney.

                                                    Australia is the world’s largest island and its smallest continent. With a total of
                                                    7’682’300 square kilometers it is almost as big as the United States and 22 times
                                                    bigger than Germany. However, the 19 million inhabitants make this one of the world’s
                                                    least populated areas. The population density of Australia is only 2.5/km2 compared to
                                                    the USA with 28.4/km2 and Germany with 230.1/km2.
                                                    Australia’s century-long isolation has had a profound effect on the evolution of animals
                                                    and plants. The continent became the cradle for some unique species that cannot be
                                                    found anywhere else on this planet, for examples kangaroos, koalas, possums,
                                                    platypuses and echidnas. Australia is aware of its exceptional natural heritage and
                                                    more and more measures are implemented to keep it thriving and healthy.

28                                                                                                   Metrohm Information      Issue 1/2002
                                                                                             Metrohm distributors from A to Z

Impressive: Uluru, also known as Ayers Rock, which is the largest monolith in the world.

                                                                                           The koala – just one example of Australia’s unique

On Australian roads you will often come across this sign.

MEP’s infrastructure
To optimally service the huge Australian continent, MEP set up offices in all main
industrial centers: Sydney (headquarters), Melbourne, Perth and Brisbane. In New
Zealand the MEP offices are located in Auckland and Christchurch. In total 19 people
ensure that our customers are provided with the same top-quality support and service
that Metrohm and Anton Paar users are accustomed to throughout the world.
The Sydney premises host a modern, well-equipped application laboratory, in which
specialized chemists competently deal with our customers’ analytical problems and
work out new applications for all fields of ion analysis. Service and maintenance of the
Metrohm products are carried out by trained subcontractors under the close supervi-
sion of our Service Manager in Sydney.
Uptime on analytical equipment is crucial to our customers and we have therefore
invested heavily in stockkeeping. This ensures that most orders are delivered ex-
stock within a day or two.

Metrohm Information Issue 1/2002                                                                                                          29
Metrohm distributors from A to Z

View of MEP’s application laboratory in Sydney.                     MEP’s Service Engineer Basil Smith at his workplace.

                                                  The MEP team
                                                  All sales and marketing people at MEP possess a degree in analytical chemistry and
                                                  are proficient in their respective field of chemistry. We are thus able to understand our
                                                  customers’ requirements first-hand and to provide competent advice and application
                                                  support. All MEP employees take part in training courses at regular intervals to further
                                                  strengthen their skills and expertise. Our Product Managers have also undergone
                                                  comprehensive training at Metrohm Switzerland. These efforts have been well re-
                                                  ceived in the marketplace with MEP gaining the trust of even the most discerning
                                                  users and growing substantially every year.

                                                  Knowledge transfer
                                                  One of the key issues when setting up MEP was to ensure direct and rapid transfer of
                                                  all important information and product-specific knowledge to our customers. This is
                                                  achieved by offering technical user seminars at regular intervals. These seminars are
                                                  organized on a regional or national basis. Sometimes they are dedicated to a particu-
                                                  lar analytical method or aimed at certain branches of industry, e.g. pharmaceutical or
                                                  food industry.
                                                  Application know-how is available free of charge to our customers in the form of
                                                  Metrohm Application Bulletins and Application Notes.

                                                  The right chemistry
                                                  Our slogan is to bring «the right chemistry» to all our customers. MEP is able to
                                                  provide this with its team of highly motivated and skilled employees and world class
                                                  products. The start-up phase of the new company has been characterized by great
                                                  changes. Thanks to our experience we have managed to adjust to the evolving market
              In the end                          in a flexible way and thus achieve rapid growth. We will now concentrate on develop-
                                                  ing and extending the relationships formed with our customers during the last three
            we retain from                        years.
              our studies
            only that which
             we practically

       Johann Wolfgang von Goethe

30                                                                                                    Metrohm Information    Issue 1/2002
                                                                                                     Looking back on ELACH 5

Looking back on ELACH 5

ELACH 5, the fifth conference of the working group «Electrochemical Analysis Meth-
ods» of the GDCh’s* «Analytical Chemistry» section, was held from 30 September to
4 October 2001 in Freiburg im Breisgau, Germany. The event takes place every two
years at different venues and has established itself in the last decade as an important
forum for electrochemists from Germany, Austria and Switzerland. Traditionally many
scientists from Eastern Europe also participate in the conference. The latest research
results from all fields of electrochemistry are presented in the form of lectures and
posters. The conference also offers plenty of room for intensive discussions – be it
during the plenary meeting or in small groups.
On this occasion, ELACH was organized by the Albert Ludwig University Freiburg.
Under the guidance of Prof. Dr. Jürgen Heinze the following university institutes
cooperated in organizing the conference and the supporting program: Institute for
Physical Chemistry, Institute for Microsystem Technology and the Freiburg Materials
Research Center (FMF).
During the plenary meeting 47 lectures were given to about 140 participants and 53
posters were presented in the poster session. There were several main topics. Sensor
research was strongly represented, with developments in the field of classical
analytical chemistry as well as novel sensors for biological and environmental
applications being presented. Another focal point was new applications using scan-
ning electrochemical microscopy (SECM). The conference was again accompanied
by a small instrument exhibition in which Deutsche Metrohm, Filderstadt (Germany),
presented our comprehensive range of products for electrochemistry. In order to
provide evening entertainment in the beautiful countryside around Freiburg, the           * GDCh = Gesellschaft Deutscher Chemiker (Ger-
organizers had drawn up an attractive supporting program. Among the events on offer         man Chemical Society)

The exhibition stand of Deutsche Metrohm at the ELACH 5.

Metrohm Information Issue 1/2002                                                                                                     31
Looking back on ELACH 5

                                                          were a guided tour of the city, a visit to a brewery, a visit to the Institute for
  History of the Metrohm Prize                            Microsystem Technology of the University of Freiburg and the highlight – the confer-
                                                          ence dinner with wine tasting in the close-by Jesuit Castle of Merzhausen.
  ELACH 2, 1995, Clausthal-Zellerfeld
                                                          The competition for the Metrohm Prize – endowed with 3000 Swiss Francs – has
  Dr. Sylvia Sander, working group Prof. Henze,
  Institute for Analytical and Inorganic Chemistry,       already become a tradition of ELACH. With this prize, which is awarded to up-and-
  University of Trier, «AC voltammetric investiga-        coming scientists under 35 years of age, Metrohm wishes to support the work of
  tions of adsorption processes at the dropping           young electrochemists. 13 papers were entered in the competition from which the
  mercury electrode»
                                                          international jury had to select a winner. We would like to thank the members of the
  Dr. Alexandre Shulga and Benedikt Ahlers, Institute     jury for carrying out their difficult task: Prof. Dr. Klára Tóth (Institute for General and
  for Chemosensors and Biosensors, Westphalian
  Wilhelm University Münster, «Ion-selective con-
                                                          Analytical Chemistry, University of Budapest), Prof. Dr. Daniel Mandler (Department
  ductometric microsensors»                               of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, University of Jerusalem), Dr. Frank-Michael
  Dipl.-Chem. Birgit Meyer, working group Prof.           Matysik (Institute for Analytical Chemistry, University of Leipzig; one of the winners of
  Scholz, Humboldt University Berlin, «In-situ x-ray      the Metrohm Prize in 1997) and Dr. Herbert Kiesele (Drägerwerk AG, Lübeck).
  diffractometry and in-situ microscopy of solid-
  state electrochemical reactions»
                                                          Despite the many excellent contributions the jury had reached a unanimous decision
                                                          by the end of the conference: The Metrohm Prize 2001 was awarded to Frank-Mario
  ELACH 3, 1997, Zeuthen (Berlin)                         Boldt from Prof. Heinze’s working group at the Freiburg Materials Research Center of
  Dr. Frank-Michael Matysik, Institute for Analytical     the Albert Ludwig University Freiburg. He gave a paper on the subject of «Scanning
  Chemistry, University of Leipzig, «Applications of      electrochemical microscopy (SECM) studies on SAM-modified surfaces». Mr. Boldt
  sonovoltammetry in analysis»                            convinced the jury not only with his knowledge and innovative ideas, but also with the
  Dr. Gunther Wittstock, Institute for Physical and       professional way of presenting his research work. The prize presentation by the
  Theoretical Chemistry, University of Leipzig, «Modi-    competition organizer, Dr. Sylvia Sander (Product Manager with Eco Chemie, Utrecht,
  fication of laterally structured gold-alkane thiolate
  layers with enzymes. Structuring and imaging with
                                                          Netherlands), and Uwe Loyall (Marketing Manager Voltammetry with Metrohm Ltd.)
  the scanning electrochemical microscope (SECM)»         concluded the ELACH 5.
  Dipl.-Chem. Hans-Jochen Diederich, working group        We would like to congratulate the winner and wish him all the best and much success
  Prof. Scholz, Institute for Applied Analysis and        in his scientific work.
  Environmental Chemistry, Humboldt University
  Berlin, «Thin mercury films on platinum chip array

  ELACH 4, 1999, Rostock-Warnemünde
  Dr. Uwe Schröder, working group Prof. Scholz,
  Institute for Chemistry and Biochemistry, Ernst
  Moritz Arndt University Greifswald, «The solid state
  electrochemistry of silver octacyanomolybdate and
  silver hexacyanoferrate explained on the basis of
  dissolution and reprecipitation reactions and the
  crystallinity of the starting material»
  Dr. Kai Borgwarth, working group Prof. Urban,
  Freiburg Materials Research Center, Albert Ludwig
  University Freiburg, «Characterization and modifi-
  cation of microstructures on self-assembled mono-
  layers by scanning electrochemical microscopy»
  Dr. Torsten Voss, working group Prof. Gründler,
  Department of Analytical, Technical and Environ-
  mental Chemistry, University of Rostock, «Tem-
  perature pulse voltammetry (TPV)»

  ELACH 5, 2001, Freiburg/Br.
  Dipl.-Chem. Frank-Mario Boldt, working group Prof.
  Heinze, Freiburg Materials Research Center, Albert
  Ludwig University Freiburg, «Scanning electro-
  chemical microscopy (SECM) studies on SAM-
  modified surfaces»

                                                          Presentation of the Metrohm Prize 2001 to Frank-Mario Boldt (right) by Dr. Sylvia Sander and Uwe

32                                                                                                             Metrohm Information         Issue 1/2002
                                                                                                    6th Asian Pacific Sales Meeting

6th Asian Pacific Sales Meeting in Tokyo

From a technological point of view the differences between the
remaining manufacturers of ion analysis instruments are getting
smaller every year. In order to stand out among the competitors
and win new customers, it is often no longer sufficient to offer
«only» powerful, top-quality analytical instruments. Today’s de-
manding customers require complete problem solutions. These
range from providing competent advice to instrument installation,
instruction of the user and quality assurance up to application
support, service and regular training courses. To be able to provide
this, the sales team must have the necessary specialized knowl-
24 Metrohm Marketing and Product Managers from 10 countries in
Southeast Asia and Australia met in the middle of November 2001
in the Japanese capital Tokyo. The 6th Asian Pacific Sales Meeting
                                                                       Mr. Adrian Déteindre (President of Metrohm Ltd.) at the opening of the 6th Asian
was held for one week in the Yayoi Kaikan Hotel. The event, which      Pacific Sales Meeting.
was meticulously organized by our Japanese distributor Metrohm-
Sibata, left nothing to be desired. Six specialists from the Metrohm
headquarters in Switzerland and Ms. Helga Hoffmann from Messrs.
Sigma-Aldrich in Seelze, Germany, were the speakers. The aim of
the meeting, apart from marketing discussions, was to improve
the participants’ theoretical and practical knowledge of potentio-
metric and Karl Fischer titration, ion chromatography and
The importance of such international meetings lies not only in the
further training of the participants. Becoming better acquainted
with one another and exchanging experiences is just as important.
This is the basis for valuable synergies from which all participants
can profit.
Innovations are a decisive competitive factor in an ever-changing
world. But new developments do not just happen; they require
                                                                       View of the conference room in the Yayoi Kaikan Hotel in Tokyo from the left-
external information and impulses. The 6th Asian Pacific Sales         hand ...
Meeting also did justice to this aspect. The wishes of our custom-
ers concerning the Metrohm range of products were discussed
and we are not going too far when we reveal that some sugges-
tions will be realized very shortly.
Despite intensive work with the instruments and communication
in English, which proved quite strenuous to many participants,
there was nevertheless enough energy left over for the evenings,
which went on and on ... The social component in such meetings
must also be given due attention. Evening meals taken together
intensify the valuable contacts across cultures. Just when one had
become familiar with the daily procedures, the week was over
again. Individual participants utilized the following weekend for
visiting the culturally interesting sights of Japan.
The excellent business year 2001 in Asia and Australia as well as
the positive feedback during the meeting led to the decision to hold   ... and right-hand side.
the next Asian Pacific Sales Meeting already in 2002 – this time in
the Chinese city of Shanghai.

Metrohm Information Issue 1/2002                                                                                                                   33
Service training in Singapore

Service training in Singapore

At the end of September 2001 a one-week
service training course was held in Singapore.
The event was organized by our local distribu-
tor Metrohm Singapore (then still known under
the name of Metrohm-Schmidt Singapore) in
cooperation with Thomas Fellmann and Bruno
Schällebaum (both from Metrohm Ltd.). 18 ser-
vice technicians from Metrohm distributors in
Southeast Asia (China, Taiwan, Thailand, Ko-
rea, Malaysia, Singapore and Indonesia) took
part in the training.
In order to provide the participants with the
necessary theoretical and, above all, practical
know-how, six different workplaces were avail-
able. These covered the whole range of
Metrohm instruments, from potentiometric and
Karl Fischer titrators to IC and VA instruments
up to pH meters and conductometers. The ser-
vice technicians worked through the respec-
tive testing and adjustment instructions, took      View of the training room at Metrohm Singapore.
the instruments apart and learned how to prop-
erly use the different service tools, for example
the 773 pH/mV Simulator, the spindle measur-
ing device or the Cell Simulator. Other topics
covered during the training course were the
certification of Exchange Units and the use of
the Metrodata VESUV 3.0 software for service
Apart from all the work there was also enter-
tainment, such as the birthday celebration for
Carol Tong (Metrohm Singapore) and Bruno
Schällebaum. All the participants shared an
evening meal at the City Harbour Restaurant in
Singapore to round off the one-week service
training course.

                                                    Studying the service instructions at the IC workplace: from left to right Ling Teck Chai [Metrohm
                                                    Malaysia (East)], Vinai Sompakdee (Metrohm Siam) and Teng Neng Chun [Metrohm Malaysia

34                                                                                                        Metrohm Information         Issue 1/2002
                                                                                                         Metrohm worldwide

                                                                                  Birthday celebration during the service training course:
                                                                                  from left to right Gerhard Schönstein (Managing Direc-
                                                                                  tor of Metrohm Singapore and Area Sales Manager
                                                                                  Asia), Francis Ong, Selina Schönstein, Carol Tong,
                                                                                  Fabian Lee and Bruno Schällebaum.

Metrohm worldwide

Trade fairs and conferences with the latest Metrohm products

 Date                Trade fair                                                Location            Metrohm distributor
 23.04.–26.04.2002   Analytica                                                 Munich             Deutsche Metrohm, Germany
 13.05.–15.05.2002   Electrochemical Society Spring Meeting (ECS)              Philadelphia       Brinkmann, USA
 11.06.–13.06.2002   Kemi Forum                                                Stockholm          Metrohm Nordic, Sweden
 26.06.–27.06.2002   American Society of Enology & Viticulture (ASEV)          Portland           Brinkmann, USA
 10.07.–12.07.2002   INTERPHEX Japan                                           Tokyo              Metrohm-Sibata, Japan
 18.08.–22.08.2002   American Chemical Society Autumn National Meeting (ACS)   Boston             Brinkmann, USA
 02.09.–05.09.2002   Scan Lab                                                  Copenhagen         Metrohm Nordic, Denmark
 04.09.–06.09.2002   Japan Analytical Instruments Show (JAIMA)                 Tokyo              Metrohm-Sibata, Japan
 29.09.–02.10.2002   International Ion Chromatography Symposium (IICS)         Baltimore          Metrohm-Peak, USA
 13.10.–17.10.2002   5th World Conference on Detergents                        Montreux           Metrohm Ltd., Switzerland
 15.10.–18.10.2002   r+d in Life Sciences                                      Basel              Metrohm Ltd., Switzerland
 04.11.–08.11.2002   Het Instrument                                            Utrecht            Applikon, Netherlands
 19.11.–22.11.2002   Scientific Instruments Show (SIS)                         Tokyo              Metrohm-Sibata, Japan
 26.11.–30.11.2002   Expoquimia                                                Barcelona          Massó Analítica, Spain
                                                                                                  Gomensoro, Spain
 17.02.–19.02.2003   2nd Conference on Ion Analysis (CIA)                      Berlin             Deutsche Metrohm, Germany

Metrohm Information Issue 1/2002                                                                                                      35
Metrohm worldwide

Come and see us in Munich!

      23 to 26 April 2002

     Hall C2, Stand 449/546

                                2nd Conference on Ion Analysis (CIA)
                                                   17 to 19 February 2003

      The 2nd Conference on Ion Analysis is directed at all interested scientists from universities, research institutions, industry and
      private enterprise as well as manufacturers of instruments for ion analysis and related products.
      The aim of the conference is to present the latest developments in ion analysis, to illustrate the possibilities of existing
      methods in different application areas and to inform about the newest analytical instruments available on the market. In
      contrast to other symposia that focus only on certain aspects, the whole spectrum of ion analysis shall be dealt with.
      The 2nd Conference on Ion Analysis is jointly organized by Prof. Dr. Andreas Zemann (University of Innsbruck), Priv.-Doz. Dr.
      Wolfgang Frenzel (Technical University Berlin) and Prof. Dr. Andreas Seubert (University of Marburg). The symposium takes
      place at the Technical University Berlin.
      The official language at the conference will be German. However, participants are of course also invited to give lectures or
      poster presentations in English.
      Contact address:
      Prof. Dr. Andreas Zemann, Chairman CIA 2003, Institute for Analytical Chemistry and Radiochemistry, University of
      Innsbruck, Innrain 52a, A-6020 Innsbruck
      Phone: +43 512 507 5180             E-Mail:
      Fax:   +43 512 507 2767             Internet:

36                                                                                                      Metrohm Information       Issue 1/2002
                                                                                                         Metrohm worldwide

Trade fair and seminar activities of our agencies

Metrohm seminar in Brazil
On 2 October 2001 our Brazilian distributor Pensalab Equipamentos Industriais –
supported by Edward Kujawa, Area Sales Manager Central and South America – held
a customer seminar that aroused great interest. 35 participants mainly from the
chemical, pharmaceutical and petrochemical industries attended the event at the
Copene Training Center in Camaçari (Bahia).

                                                                                  View of the seminar room during Rogério Telles’ lecture.

                                                                                  These three gentlemen were the speakers at the Metrohm
                                                                                  seminar: from left to right Rogério Telles, André Paneque
                                                                                  and Edward Kujawa.

Metrohm Information Issue 1/2002                                                                                                       37
Metrohm worldwide

                                                        Metrohm China at the BCEIA in Beijing
                                                        The ninth International Beijing Conference and Exhibition on Instrumental Analysis
                                                        (BCEIA) took place from 17 to 20 October 2001 with Metrohm China also participating.
                                                        This was the first trade fair appearance for our Chinese subsidiary founded in April

The exhibition stand of Metrohm China at the BCEIA in

Chen Hailong (Metrohm China, right) demonstrates the
756 KF Coulometer to a customer.

38                                                                                                     Metrohm Information     Issue 1/2002
                                                                                                                Metrohm worldwide

CIA in Singapore
ChemAsia – InstrumentAsia – AnaLabAsia (CIA) was held in Singapore from 30
October to 2 November 2001. This very important chemistry trade fair for the Asian
Pacific region attracted over 10’000 visitors. Almost 900 companies from 39 countries
participated as exhibitors, including, of course, our local distributor Metrohm-Schmidt
Singapore (now known as Metrohm Singapore).

                                                                                          On their imposing trade fair stand Metrohm-Schmidt
                                                                                          Singapore presented the complete range of products of
                                                                                          the Metrohm group.

                                                                                          Apparently very happy with their trade fair appearance:
                                                                                          from left to right Messrs. Francis Ong (Senior Sales
                                                                                          Manager with Metrohm-Schmidt Singapore), Fabian
                                                                                          Lee (Service Manager with Metrohm-Schmidt Singapore)
                                                                                          and Jan Volker Geil (Vice President and Division Man-
                                                                                          ager Sales & Marketing of Metrohm Ltd.).

Metrohm Information Issue 1/2002                                                                                                             39
40   Metrohm Information   Issue 1/2002

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