Western Civilization II(3)

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Western Civilization II
     The World At War (1939-1945)
•19th c. Imperialism
–France and Napoleonic Wars
•Balance of Power Diplomacy
–Congress of Vienna
–German Unification/Italian Unification
•The Great War (WWI)
–Versailles Treaty
–Economic Depression
•Ferocious IdeologiesWorld War II
•Appeasement                                   Franklin Delano Roosevelt
•Nazi-Soviet Nonaggression Pact                Winston Churchill
•Axis                                          Adolf Hitler
•Final Solution
Ascendancy of Dictatorships
•1933—Hitler implements foreign policy objectives
       –Violation of Versailles Treaty
•Same goals as WWI
       –Hitler adds Racial Supremacy
•Success of the Nazi Propaganda Machine
       –Exports anti-Seminitism
       –Europe’s best defense against Stalin
•British Position
       –Guilt over Versailles Treaty
       –U.S. isolated from European conflicts
       –France protects borders at all costs
•Brits introduce policy of appeasement
      –Make concessions to avoid war
Germany Re-Arms
•1935—Hitler negates Versailles Treaty
      –Begins draft and builds up air force
             •Anglo-French response weak
             •March 7, 1936—Hitler occupies Rhineland
      –Again, no action by Britain, France
Why France Didn’t Act
•Didn’t want to act alone

       –Britain offered no help
•French general staff overestimated German military strength
•French public opinion showed no enthusiasm for a confrontation with Hitler
•Refuse to contemplate an offensive war
Spanish Civil War
•1936-1937: Fascism spreads to Spain
        –Hitler, Mussolini support fascist bid to control Spain
        –Hitler tests new weapons, new aircraft here
•Decisive event for Hitler
Hitler Invades Austria
•Austrian chancellor forced to accept Nazis into his cabinet
•Hitler sends troops into Austria on the pretext of preventing violence
       –Nonintervention paves the way for Hitler
•March 13, 1936: Austria declared a province of the Third Reich
On to the Sudetenland
•Part of Hitler’s vision of Greater Germany
       –>3/4 of population ethnic Germans
•Sudetenland Czechs denounce Czechoslovakian govt.
•Britain intervenes
       –Hitler agrees to a conference
Munich Conference
•Sept. 1938: Britain, Germany, France, Italy attend
•Munich Agreement
       –Britain sacrifices Czechoslovakia
               •Czech troops in Sudetenland to be replaced by German troops
•March 1939: Hitler annexes Czechoslovakia
From Appeasement to War
•Hitler turns to Poland
       –Demands Danzig
       –Vital to German economy
•Anglo-French warning to Hitler
       –Britain, France, Russia negotiate mutual aid
•May 1939: Pact of Steel
       –Mutual aid agreement between Hitler and Mussolini

Nazi-Soviet Pact of Nonaggression
•August 1939: Stalin makes pact w/ Hitler
       –Soviets won’t intervene in exchange for part of Poland
•Hitler’s motive:
       –Neutralize Soviets

•Sept. 1 1939: Hitler marches troops into Poland
       –Anglo-French response
•Sept. 27, 1939: Poland rolled over by German Blitzkrieg (lightning war)
       –Britain, France declare war on Germany
“The Phony War”
•Spring 1940: Hitler strikes Denmark, Norway
       –Naval bases/submarine pens; hydroelectric plants (heavy water)
•Hitler attacks Belgium, Holland, Luxembourg
Why Does Europe Fall So Fast?
•French troops try to stop German breakthrough in Belgium
•Germans move to cut off and encircle Anglo-French forces at Dunkirk
•Evacuation of 338,000 troops to Britain
       –German Luftwaffe creates Hell
       –The saving grace of fog and rain
       –King George VI radio broadcast
Fall of France
•French troops cut off, in retreat
•French civilians flee south
•June 10, 1940: Mussolini declares war on France
•June 1940: France signs armistice w/ Germany
       –German army occupies northern France, coast
       –French govt. in the south collaborates w/ Nazis
Why Did France Fall?
•Equal numbers of planes, tanks, and men, but…
       –French commanders badly outgeneraled
       –Unable to cope with Nazi lightning warfare
       –Loss of will among French people
The Battle of Britain
•Hitler assumes Britain will make peace
       –Britain rejects
•August 1940: Hitler orders massive airstrikes against Britain
       –Britain shelled for 5 months
•Sept. 15, 1941: RAF shoots down 60 German aircraft
       –Hitler forced to postpone invasion of Britain
Operation Barbarossa

•Invasion of Soviet Union
       –Obliterate communism, conquer and exterminate
       –Wheat, oil, manganese, other raw materials
•June 22, 1941: Operation Barbarossa begins
       –Logistical nightmare
            •4 million men, 3300 tanks, 5000 planes
            •Offensive launched over a wide front
            •A two-front war
The New Order
•Early 1942: Germany rules Europe
       –Some territories annexed
       –Some collaborated w/ Nazis
•Germans exploit and steal from every country they conquered
       –Gold, art, machinery, food
       –Includes people: 7 million people enslaved, transported to German labor camps
Symbols of the New Order
•The Prison Cell
•The Torture Chamber
•The Firing Squad
•Concentration/Forced Labor camps
Exploitation and Terror
•Nuremberg Laws established August 1935
       –The Reich Citizenship Law
       –Law for the Protection of German Blood and German Honor
       –Law for the Protection of Hereditary Health
•The Ghettos
•The “Final Solution of the Jewish Problem”
       –Jan. 1942: Wannsee Protocol
               •Extermination of European Jews
               •Himmler’s SS
The Killing Squads
•Special Squads of SS (Einsatzgruppen)
       –Round up Jewish men, women, children
       –En masse shootings
       –2 million Russian Jews perished

Concentration Camps
•Expedite the Final Solution
•Jews rounded up
       –Why did they go?

•Resistance movements in every country
       –Strengthened as Nazi atrocities increased
       –Rescued downed pilots, etc.
•Jewish Resistance
       –200 Jews killed for every 1 Nazi killed
The Japanese Offensive
•December 7, 1941: “A date that will live in infamy, Japan strikes Pearl Harbor
•Quick Strike goal
      –American Pacific Fleet
Turning the Tide
•U.S. declares war on Japan
       –Germany declares war on U.S.
•American industrial capacity enters war
•Spring 1942: Axis has upper hand
       –Japan must strike fast, hard
              •Already short of raw materials
•End of 1942: Allies seem assured of win
       –Due to 3 major battles:
                •Midway, Stalingrad, El Alamein
Defeat of Axis Powers
•June 1942: Battle of Midway
        –Japan loses initiative
•June 1942-Feb. 1943: Battle of Stalingrad
        –Germany loses initiative on eastern front
        –Diverts resources
        –Boosts Allied morale
•Oct. 1942-May 1943: Battle of El Alamein
        –Anglo-American invasion of N. Africa
        –Germans, Italians defeated
•July 1943: Allies invade Sicily
        –Control Mediterranean
Operation Overlord
•June 6, 1944: Allied forces land on beaches of Normandy in D-Day invasion
        –2 million men, 5,000 ships
        –Paratroopers dropped in to sabotage German communications
        –Success depended on securing the beaches and marching inland
•Stiff German resistance
•By end of July: Allied strength in France built up to 1.5 million men
        –Paris liberated by mid-August
Strategic Air War
•Allies had complete air superiority by 1944
       –Striking German factories, cities in air raids

•Air war eroded Germany’s industrial potential, caused morale to fall
       –German fuel and men had to be diverted to defend the homeland
•Mid-Dec. 1944: Hitler launches one last desperate offensive
      –Objective—regain the vital port of Antwerp
The Battle of the Bulge
•Hitler’s last desperate offensive
•Allies surprised at Bastogne
       –Outran supply line
               •Waiting for winter supplies
•Allies encircled by Germans
       –Perimeter defenses
       –Hold crossroads at all cost
Fall of Berlin
•While U.S. & British troops advancing in West, Soviet troops continue drive from east
        –Feb 7, 1945—Soviets w/in 100 miles
        –March 7, 1945—U.S. soldiers cross Rhine into Germany
        –April, 1945—U.S. & Soviet troops penetrating Germany from east, west
•April 30, 1945—Hitler commits suicide
•May 7, 1945—Germany surrenders
Fall of Japan
•After Midway, U.S. attacks strategic islands held by Japan
        –U.S. soldiers battle their way up beaches, through jungles
        –Japanese fight to last man, last round
•Aug. 6, 1945—U.S. drops atomic bomb on Hiroshima
        –Three days later 2 bomb dropped on Nagasaki
Legacy of WWII
•The most destructive war in history
        –Estimates of the number of dead range as high as 50 million
•Produced vast migration of peoples unparalleled in modern European history
•Produced shift in power arrangement
        –U.S. and Soviet Union emerge as the 2 most powerful countries in the world
•With Germany defeated, U.S.-Soviet cooperation collapsed
•Western Europeans progressed toward unity
•WWII accelerated the disintegration of Europe’s overseas empires
•The consciousness of Europe grievously wounded
–Nazi assault on reason and freedom demonstrated anew the precariousness of Western
ew the precariousness of Western

Lingjuan Ma Lingjuan Ma MS
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